Hallein


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Borough
Hallein
coat of arms Austria map
Hallein coat of arms
Hallein (Austria)
Hallein
Basic data
Country: Austria
State : Salzburg
Political District : Hallein
License plate : HA
Surface: 26.99 km²
Coordinates : 47 ° 41 '  N , 13 ° 6'  E Coordinates: 47 ° 40 '59 "  N , 13 ° 5' 49"  E
Height : 447  m above sea level A.
Residents : 21,314 (January 1, 2020)
Postal code : 5400
Area code : 06245
Community code : 5 02 05
Address of the
municipal administration:
Schöndorferplatz 14
5400 Hallein
Website: www.hallein.gv.at
politics
Mayor : Alexander Stangassinger ( SPÖ )
Municipal Council : (2019)
(25 members)
9
3
1
8th
3
8th 
A total of 24 seats
Location of Hallein in the Hallein district
Abtenau Adnet Annaberg-Lungötz Bad Vigaun Golling an der Salzach Hallein Krispl Kuchl Oberalm Puch bei Hallein Rußbach am Paß Gschütt Sankt Koloman Scheffau am TennengebirgeLocation of the municipality of Hallein in the Hallein district (clickable map)
About this picture
Template: Infobox municipality in Austria / maintenance / site plan image map
Hallein Town Hall
Hallein Town Hall
Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria
Hallein, with the Untersberg in the background
Hallein seen from the small " Barmstoa "

Hallein is an Austrian city with 21,314 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) in Tennengau in the state of Salzburg . It is the district capital of the Tennengau and at the same time, as the second largest city in the state, an important industrial location. The local population makes a point of emphasizing the first syllable when pronouncing it. So there are always debates about how the correct pronunciation should take place, as for example with announcements from the railway.

geography

Hallein is located on the Salzach in the Hallein Basin , around 15 kilometers south of the state capital Salzburg . The Salzach flows through the urban area from south to north, right-hand tributaries are the Taugl in the south , the Almbach in the old town area, left-hand tributaries are the Kotbach in the old town and the Königsseeache in the north . In the west is the Göll massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps , in the east the Adneter Riedl , a foothill of the Schlenkens of the Osterhorn group .

climate

The region around Hallein is characterized by a subalpine climate with a short, rather cool summer and a long, cold winter. Precipitation is favored by frequent north and north-west storage locations in westerly weather. The precipitation is evenly distributed over the year and the annual amount of precipitation is around 1500 millimeters. In addition to prevailing westerly and north winds, there is also foehn in the case of south and south-east winds .

Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Hallein
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 2.0 4.5 8.6 12.9 18.8 20.9 23.2 23.1 19.3 14.5 6.5 2.3 O 13.1
Min. Temperature (° C) -6.5 -5.4 -1.7 1.7 6.4 9.5 11.6 11.4 8.2 3.9 -1.6 -5.3 O 2.7
Temperature (° C) -3.1 -1.5 2.3 6.4 11.9 14.6 16.6 16.3 12.6 7.9 1.6 -2.2 O 7th
Precipitation ( mm ) 104.3 81.2 112.1 99.7 121.6 183.4 216.2 185.6 133.5 94.0 107.7 118.1 Σ 1,557.4
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
2.0
-6.5
4.5
-5.4
8.6
-1.7
12.9
1.7
18.8
6.4
20.9
9.5
23.2
11.6
23.1
11.4
19.3
8.2
14.5
3.9
6.5
-1.6
2.3
-5.3
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
104.3
81.2
112.1
99.7
121.6
183.4
216.2
185.6
133.5
94.0
107.7
118.1
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Community structure

Cadastral communities are Adnet II, Au, Burgfried, Dürnberg, Gamp, Gries, Hallein, Oberalm II and Taxach.

The municipality includes the following nine districts (population in brackets as of January 1, 2020):

Neighboring communities

Anif ( District Sbg.-Environment )
Berchtesgaden
( Lkr.Bgd.Ld. , BYDE )
Neighboring communities Adnet
Eck ( Gemfr. Geb. , BYDE ) Kuchl Bad Vigaun
State forest

history

Origin of name

The place can be documented for the first time in 1198, the salt mining already in 1191. The city elevation took place between 1218 and 1232.

In 1198 a salt pan was first mentioned in "muelpach", a place in the area of ​​the abandoned Celtic valley settlement. The place name that refers to a mill stream is documented until 1246. This name was replaced in the course of the 13th century by the names Salina and finally Hallein (= small brewing pan). The districts of Gamp (from "campus" for field) and Rif ("ripa", shore) are Roman names.

The name Hallein has been documented since the first half of the 13th century, a typical Hall name for salt production: Hallein is best known for its historical salt production ( see salt works contract ) and historical finds from the time of the Celts . In contrast to other Hall locations, the continuity of settlement from the Celtic and Roman times to the Bavarian conquest is assured.

Hallein is emphasized more on the first syllable, at least in terms of linguistic history and by locals.

Hallein Castle
City view with Reckturm
The Reckturm photographed from Georgsberg

The Veste Sulzeneck can be described as the castle of Hallein. The inner border fortifications in the Middle Ages were the Vesten Schoßrisen (Thürndl), Sulzeneck (Reckturm, Fuchsturm) and the Hallburg (Georgsberg 1262). The buildings were located in the area of ​​the Riesengut directly above the city, west of the former "Eisinger's Gasthaus zur Gemse". The Reckturm, in the 14th century. known as the citizen's tower, and the fox tower, known as the “large iron gate”, were part of the medieval fortifications, which fell into disrepair at the beginning of the 19th century. The Reckturm (or Röckturm) was rebuilt and can be seen from the city.

Salt mining

Due to special geological conditions, the salty rock on the Dürrnberg near Hallein sometimes extends up to the surface. Occasionally salty springs come to light, which were already used by Stone Age hunters around 2500 to 2000 BC. Were used.

Around 600 BC The mining of core salt in underground mining began . The salt trade provided the Celts with considerable prosperity, which can still be proven today in the extremely rich burial equipment. In prehistoric times he made the Dürrnberg, together with the valley settlement on the left bank of the Salzach, a first-rate center of economic policy.

With the incorporation of the Celtic Kingdom of Norikum around 15 BC. In the Roman Empire, salt production on the Dürrnberg was probably stopped as a result of the importation of sea salt.

The manorial rule in the area of ​​the later city of Hallein was from Duke Tassilo III. Donated to the Church of Salzburg in the middle of the 8th century and has been in the possession of the St. Peter Monastery since 987. In a loop of the river Salzach there was settlement from the 7th century BC to the 5th century AD. The emergence of the medieval town of Hallein represents a new approach. There was only continuity of settlement in the towns of Rif and Gamp.

In 1198 a salt pan was first mentioned in "muelpach", a place in the area of ​​the abandoned Celtic valley settlement. Replaced in the course of the 13th century by the salt-related names Salina and finally Hallein (= small brewing pan).

After around 1,000 years of downtime, salt production was resumed by the Salzburg archbishops with a sink , the process of wet mining in the salt mine . Their targeted economic and price policy soon secured the Dürrnberg and the saltworks town of Hallein a dominant position in the entire Eastern Alpine region. For centuries, the archbishops earned more than half of their total income from the salt trade, which was mainly carried out via the Salzach transport route , which also formed the basis for the wealth and beauty of the royal city of Salzburg.

By gaining a large part of the Reichenhaller sales markets, Hallein rose to become the most efficient saltworks in the Eastern Alps in the 16th century . The miners and saltworkers felt just as little of this salt yield as the city of Hallein as a whole.

With the loss of the sales markets in the Bohemian lands to Habsburg Austria and a lost salt war against Bavaria, there were severe economic losses and consequently the impoverishment of the miners and saltworkers. In the course of the evictions of Protestants in 1731/32, 780 miners from Dürrnberg left the country with their families.

The Archbishopric of Salzburg lost its independence to several sovereigns during the Napoleonic Wars in the early 19th century and was finally assigned to the Habsburg Empire in 1816 . In association with the Austrian saltworks, the Hallein saltworks were henceforth of subordinate importance.

View of Hallein from the 1880s

A long overdue rationalization was initiated in 1854/62 with the construction of a powerful salt works on the Pernerinsel . In the second half of the 19th century, attempts were increasingly made to counteract the economy of the city of Hallein, which was one-sidedly geared towards salt, with new business establishments. There were z. B. a cement plant, a cigar and a paper mill.

In 1954/55, the Hallein saltworks site received a last innovation boost with the construction of a modern thermocompression system.

In 1989, with the closure of the salt works and the cessation of brine production on the Dürrnberg, an economic tradition that was over 2,500 years old died out. Art and culture now fill the abandoned industrial sites with life. The Pernerinsel in particular, as a location for extraordinary productions at the Salzburg Festival, has established itself as an important factor for economy, tourism and culture.

Jewish history of the city

Due to its salt mine , Hallein grew into an important and important trading center, beginning in the pre-Roman times, which was slowly replaced as such by the city of Salzburg in the Middle Ages. The Jewish community living in Hallein was larger and more important than the one in Salzburg until its first extinction in 1349. When Archbishop Pilgrim again encouraged Jewish traders to settle in the archbishopric in the second half of the 14th century, a Jewish community was re-established, whose members (including women and children), however, as early as 1404 - just like those in Salzburg were burned at the stake. This cremation was preceded by a burglary in the Müllner church, which was wrongly accused of Jews. After that, in the 15th century, another Jewish community was founded in the saltworks town, but this came to an end with the expulsion of the now very few Jews from the Archdiocese of Salzburg by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach in 1498.

Armaments and concentration camps in the Nazi era

The Eugen Grill works in Hallein became the largest arms company in the country. Under the code name "Kiesel", parts of the plant were relocated underground to protect against air raids nearby. Production started there at the end of February 1945, and the underground factory was officially opened in mid-March. The successor in 1948 was the Halleiner Motorenwerke , the object of production was initially mopeds.

In 1943 the NSDAP (SS) protection squad set up a barrack camp as a concentration camp for 1,500 to 2,000 people. It was formally a satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp . Most of the people deported there were political prisoners and had to do forced labor in a quarry / tunnel near Hallein , as a result of which many of the prisoners were killed as a result of the hard physical labor and the resulting malnutrition or when they were shot (in Nazi ideology: Destruction through labor ).

The resistance fighter Agnes Primocic (1905–2007) succeeded towards the end of the Second World War , when the American army was already close to Salzburg, in saving 17 concentration camp prisoners from the execution that had already been ordered.

After the Second World War

After the Second World War, the city of Hallein became part of the American zone of occupation in occupied post-war Austria . In Hallein- Puch the American military administration set up a reception center for displaced persons , as refugees and survivors of the Holocaust were called in the post-war period. The Hallein DP camp was given the name Beth Israel (also: Bejt Israel, Bejß Jissroel ) by the predominantly Jewish camp inmates and remained in existence until the mid-1950s.

From 1950 to 1954 there was the Hakoah Hallein soccer club , whose team consisted exclusively of Jewish players from the Beth Israel camp . The team was trained by Heinrich Schönfeld , a former first division kicker from Hakoah Vienna , who emigrated to the United States in 1926 and returned to Austria for a few years after the war.

In 2001, Gerhard Cirlea , as a member of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) at the time , accused the honorary citizen of Agnes Primocic of falsifying history with his statement “There was no concentration camp in Hallein ” . In the narrow sense of the word, he was right when it was a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp in Hallein . What is common, however, is the short description of the Hallein satellite camp.

Brewery history

In 1475 the Salzburg mayor and city judge Hans Elsenheimer (also: Johann Elsenhaimer ) built the so-called Kalte Bräuhaus near Hallein , which after his death in 1498 passed into the possession of the prince-archbishop's court chamber . About 300 years later, the Bavarian Electress and Austrian Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este (1776–1848) acquired the brewery in Kaltenhausen. She had an innate business acumen and economic sensitivity and, as part of her economic activity, focused among other things on modernizing breweries, which turned out to be profitable investments. The Kaltenhausen brewery was transformed into a large brewery.

In 1898 the Deutsche Bank became the owner of the prosperous brewery, and in 1901 the "Aktiengesellschaft Brauerei Kaltenhausen" was established at the instigation of the bank. In 1921 the Hofbräu Kaltenhausen was one of the founding companies of the former Österreichische Brau AG , from which the Brau Union Österreich AG emerged after 1945 . Today Kaltenhausen belongs to the Dutch Heineken Group. In 2011, the large-scale brewery was discontinued.

coat of arms

Hallein (Austria) Coat of Arms CoA.svg

Blazon :

“In red within a silver shelf, a black-haired, striding, looking silver man with long-sleeved doublet, breeches, belt and shoes, holding a salt stick in a wooden hollow on his left shoulder with his left hand, in his right a slanting silver stick, accompanied on both sides by each a silver conical wooden vessel (percussion). "

The current coat of arms has a three- mountain-shaped shield edge on top , on top of which a silver building flanked by two tent-roofed towers with red windows one above the other, bent in the middle with seven red arched openings, the middle one higher. Older illustrations show the perkids in natural colors.

Declaration of the coat of arms: The man represents a salt carrier, which symbolizes the millennia-old salt mining of the city, after which it takes its name, as do the two wooden vessels. This Perkufen were open at the bottom, provided above with a drain hole, truncated cone-shaped timber vessels of straight wood staves and iron bands , the cooper is manufactured like a funnel with the moist salt paste filled through the now top located large opening on the Perstatt, after the brine and Drying the contents were overturned and lifted off. The salt content remained as a truncated cone for further processing.

For centuries, these salt cones (salt domes ) were the common transport container of largely standardized size and were transported on the Salzach by carts and rafts .

Population development

The population of Hallein increased from 1961 to 2001 from 13,329 to 18,399 inhabitants. This puts Hallein above the growing average for the district. One reason for this was the immigration of workers from Turkey and Yugoslavia in the 1970s, who were mainly needed for industry. Due to this strong influx, Hallein has increasingly developed into a multicultural small town in recent decades.

politics

The community council has a total of 25 members.

mayor

economy

With 53% organic farms, Hallein ranks first in the distribution of organic farms by political district (2011).

Established businesses
Sponsored roundabout with the Erdal frog

traffic

Hallein train station in 2009

media

  • Bezirksblatt Tennengau, free newspaper (weekly), small format.
  • Tennengauer Nachrichten, small format, 3 × monthly weekly supplement in the Salzburger Nachrichten , 1 × monthly free
  • Halleiner Stadtzeitung 1999–2019, free newspaper (5 times a year), broadsheet format.
  • Halleiner Zeitung 1952–1996, Kauf- und Abo-Zeitung (weekly), Berlin format, monthly with 5th edition as free newspaper in small format, 3 to 4 times a year with HZ color magazine on art paper (DIN A4 format).
  • Regional newspaper Hello, free newspaper, small format (monthly).
  • HSZ radio magazine for Hallein. Weekly radio broadcast of the Halleiner city newspaper as part of the Salzburg radio factory every Thursday afternoon.
  • Culture and festival magazine Hallein 1999 to 2009 (annually), color magazine on art paper, A4 format.
  • Salzachtaler, free newspaper (10 times a year), small format.
  • Salzschreiber, online magazine, motto: The city of Hallein in sight .
  • Publication by the municipality of Hallein, free medium, 4 times a year, DIN A4 format.

education

With 18 schools and more than 6,000 students, Hallein in Salzburg is generally regarded as a school town.

Culture and sights

Hallein, street with church tower
Franz Xaver Gruber grave and museum
Hallein Celtic Museum
Churches
Others
Culture
Museums

Sports

Soccer

Football at club level has been played in the Celtic city since the 1920s. It all started with AC Hallein (Salzburg national champion and national cup winner in the 1930s) and SK Vorwärts Hallein . This tradition was continued by the 1st Hallein Sports Club (national champions and regional cup winners) and the SK Olympia 1948 Hallein . Today's figureheads in Hallein football are FC Hallein 04, founded in 2004, and Union Hallein .

Gymnastics clubs
  • ATSV Hallein
  • TV Hallein
Other sports clubs
  • 1. KBC Hallein (kickboxing)
  • 1. Hallein Chess Club
  • 1. Hallein tennis club
  • RC ARBÖ Hallein (cycling)
  • ABC Luckypool Tennengau (pool billiards)
  • Golf Club Salzburg facility Rif
  • Archery Club Celtic Ravens Bad Dürrnberg
  • Abada Capoeira
  • 1. EV Hallein (Eisschützen)
  • Hallein Ski Club (winter sports)
  • HV-Hallein (dog club)

Hallein Fishing Association

Cross-country run

The Wyndham Grand CrossAttack , held at the University and State Sports Center Salzburg / Rif, is one of the most important cross-country runs in Austria.

Hiking trail

Within the village there is the Knappensteig

Personalities

See also

Web links

Commons : Hallein  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Mayoral elections on March 10 and 24, 2019 , salzburg.gv.at, accessed on March 24, 2019
  2. Stich-Wort on DrehPunktKultur accessed on April 12, 2018:
  3. Geography & Climate. In: www.tennengau.com. Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
  4. Tennengau Almkäse. In: www.bmlrt.gv.at. Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
  5. Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
  6. Zillner, Dr. Franz, Valentin: On the history of the Salzburg salt system. Economic reviews and local history explanations. Salzburg 1879. p. 8 ff
  7. Entry on Hallein in the Austria Forum  (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
  8. From 200 AD there are images of nobles in typical Celtic costumes. The Salzburg diocese emerged in the 5th century, shortly after the Roman citizens had left.
  9. Did you know that ... Hallein was formerly called Mühlbach? sn.at, August 13, 2018, accessed November 23, 2019.
  10. pronunciation hallein in German de.forvo.com, accessed 23 November 2019. - voice sample.
  11. ^ Wagner, H. F: Topographie von Alt-Hallein in: MGSLK 55, 1915, pp. 1-44.
  12. Picture of the tunnel system in spon October 20, 2015 from Solveig Grotto; or in St. Georgen an der Gusen : rock crystal
  13. ^ Exhibition 2011/12: Armaments factory under the highest secrecy
  14. ^ Grill works in Salzburgwiki
  15. Commemorative plaque in memory of the Hallein satellite camp remembrance.at, January 18, 2012, accessed November 23, 2019. - Placement of privately financed memorial plaques.
  16. ^ Concentration camp Dachau satellite camp in Hallein secretprojekte.at, May 4, 2015 or later, accessed November 23, 2019.
  17. https: //www.Gedenkfeier KZ satellite camp Hallein mein district.at, May 2, 2016, accessed November 23, 2019.
  18. Privately erected memorial plaque for the Hallein concentration camp derstandard.at, January 18, 2012, accessed November 23, 2019.
  19. Austrian Brewing Union: The Home of Edelweiss ( Memento from October 18, 2007 in the web archive archive.today )
  20. Rainer Lidauer, Malvine Stentel: The population of the town of Hallein. A structural investigation based on the civil status record from October 1970. In: Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde. (MGSLK), Vol. 114, 1974, pp. 311-340.
  21. Mayor of the City of Hallein since 1945. City of Hallein, accessed on December 14, 2019
  22. ^ Franz Zambelli . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  23. Ernst Scheichl . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  24. ^ Christian Stoeckl . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  25. Gerhard Anzengruber . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  26. ^ Klappacher new mayor of Hallein on ORF-Salzburg from December 14, 2018, accessed on December 15, 2018.
  27. Hallein has a new mayor: Maximilian Klappacher on mein district.at from December 13, 2018, accessed on December 15, 2018.
  28. Maximilian Klappacher . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  29. Alexander Stangassinger . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
  30. ^ Hallein loses city newspaper. salzburg.orf.at, December 20, 2019, accessed on December 20, 2019 .
  31. Salzschreiber. Hallein in sight: critical, constructive, provocative, visionary. Retrieved December 23, 2012 .
  32. ^ Insights into the Hallein Sculpture School 2010 on YouTube , accessed on December 23, 2012
  33. a b c d e f g h i j Dehio Salzburg 1986
  34. SalzSpiele - cultural games in the salt region. Retrieved February 18, 2020 .