Concentration camp (historical term)

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The American Senator Alben W. Barkley visits Buchenwald concentration camp , April 24, 1945

So far, different places of detention in different countries at different times have been referred to as concentration camps . The Latin word origin means collect, contract or merge. The National Socialist German Reich used the name for a network of places of detention. The concentration camps of the German Reich became the best known after the Second World War ; through them, the word became a catchphrase worldwide, as it was in them that the extermination of Jews aimed at by the National Socialists took place. The letters KZ are often used as an abbreviation , while the official German abbreviation during the Nazi regime was KL (also spelled KL ).

Concept history

The word concentration camp denoted several types of assembly, internment and labor camps in different epochs in different countries . Collective camps for prisoners of war, prisoner-of-war camps and penal labor camps had been widespread for a long time, and from the 19th century the form of internment or reception camps developed in the context of displacement , emigration and colonial conquest.

As early as 1838, by order of the then US President Andrew Jackson to enforce the Indian Removal Act, Cherokee members were detained in camps before they were forcibly relocated by the US Army . The Cherokee still remember the " Trail of Tears " of their resettlement today . Even in the aftermath of the US -scale Indian reservations for numerous indigenous groups are to be regarded as a concentration camp: people were arrested for racist motives in inhumane circumstances in areas that made their own livelihood impossible, and this led to children, women and men starved . Escape or resistance were punished with death.

The real history of the term “concentration camp” does not begin until the Cuban struggle for independence against Spain 1868–1898 , when the Spanish General Valmaseda and later, in 1896, the Spanish Governor Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau , to a much greater extent, ordered all those residents who do not want to be treated as insurgents , have to stay in fortified camps, the so-called campos de reconcentración . These were explicitly civilians: "old people, women and children".

In 1900 the USA also set up concentration camps on the island of Mindanao , which they had taken from the Spanish, where they interned Filipino guerrillas.

The British General Horatio Herbert Kitchener was during the Boer War in (1899-1902) South Africa concentration camps ( concentration camps , set up) around there about 120,000 Boer to intern farm dwellers, especially women and children, of which more than 26,000 due to catastrophic living conditions of starvation and disease died.

In the German Empire, Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow officially used the term concentration camp for the first time on December 11, 1904 in connection with the internment of captured Herero.

When Robert Koch received his Nobel Prize in 1905 , he left his research station on Lake Victoria in Great Britain and recommended in a travelogue about his investigations into sleeping sickness that medical “concentration camps” be set up to separate parasite carriers. He was the first to use the term for the quarantine case .

After the outbreak of the First World War, citizens of the Central Powers were interned in concentration camps for the duration of the war, a practice that was common in all states involved in the First World War. In Great Britain, concentration camps for internees were set up on the Isle of Man (Cunningham, Douglas, Knockaloe). There were also two warehouses in London (Stratford, Alexandra Palace) and smaller warehouses in Islington, Frith Hill, Newbury, Handforth and Shrewsbury.


Concentration camp in German South West Africa

After the uprising of the Herero and Nama in what was then the colony of German South West Africa in 1904, the German colonial troops used the genocide of the Herero and Nama ordered by Lothar von Trotha to intern refugee Herero concentration camps in German South West Africa . Kaiser Wilhelm II , who initially supported the extermination, later revoked this order. However, Trotha continued to implement his strategy of destruction. In October 1904 the Nama rose and were also suppressed. According to the German military administration, a total of 7,682 prisoners died between October 1904 and March 1907. The mortality rate was between 30 and 50% of all prisoners, depending on the camp. According to modern estimates, around 65,000 to 85,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died between 1904 and 1908 as a result of the actions of the German colonial troops, which historians consider to be the first genocide of the 20th century. In 2015, the German Foreign Office referred to the events as "genocide" for the first time.

World War I and early post-war camps

As of March 1915, internment camps belonging to the Krupp concern Friedrich-Albrecht-Hütte for Polish workers in Barmen and Elberfeld were designated as concentration camps . This was followed by numerous internment camps and provisional prisons for deported forced laborers, prisoners of war and political " protective prisoners " during the First World War and in the early post-war period.

In the spring of 1919, during the term of office of the Prussian Prime Minister Paul Hirsch , the German Reich President Friedrich Ebert and the Reich Defense Minister Gustav Noske , based on an imperial decree from the war, the last updated in the "Law on arrest and residence restrictions due to the state of war and the State of siege of December 4, 1916 ”, interned thousands (mostly communist) political opponents within a very short time in connection with the civil war-like communist Spartacus uprising .

The first facilities, also known as “concentration camps”, emerged in Germany around 1920. For example, the Prussian Interior Minister Carl Severing ( SPD ) and his successor Alexander Dominicus ( DDP ) left in 1921 in the course of the mass expulsion of “ Eastern Jews ”, but also Sinti , Yeniche and Roma set up two concentration camps in Cottbus- Sielow and in Stargard in Pomerania , to which all those previously named who did not voluntarily leave Germany immediately were sent. Due to the inhumane conditions, however, these camps were closed again after protests in 1923.

The long-term establishment of concentration camps for political prisoners, initially in former prisoner-of-war camps and military training areas, came about from the end of 1923 as a result of the Reich execution by Reich President Friedrich Ebert (SPD) against the coalition governments formed by the SPD and KPD in Saxony and Thuringia .

In the German-speaking world, however, the term “concentration camp” has been associated with the abbreviation “KZ” (the origin of which is unclear) since the time of National Socialism , primarily for the labor and extermination camps of the Nazi regime. Originally, the Nazi functionaries also used the much closer abbreviation "KL" (for "concentration camp") - after Eugen Kogon ( The SS State ), however, SS guards later preferred the abbreviation "KZ" because of its harder sound .

time of the nationalsocialism

Watchtower of the
Majdanek extermination camp

The concentration camps established between 1933 and 1945 during the Nazi era are the best known in the world. Seven of these camps were exclusively extermination camps . There were a total of 24 independent concentration camp main camps, to which a network of well over 1000 satellite or subsidiary camps were organizationally subordinate. The structure of these main camps was modeled on the Dachau concentration camp . The satellite camps were sometimes referred to as the external command and were of very different sizes. In some cases, the prisoners were exploited as workers without adequate nutrition in the context of " extermination through work ". Some of the concentration camps were preceded by transit camps and assembly camps (Jewish residential district, ghetto) .

A special feature of the concentration and extermination camps built at the instigation of the German National Socialist leadership was the rationalized, bureaucratic and almost industrially organized murder and extermination of thousands of people per day. The main goal of the Nazi camps was the extermination of all citizens of Jewish faith or origin from around 1939: the Shoah .

It is estimated that around two thirds of the six million Jews who fell victim to the Holocaust were murdered directly in the camps of the Third Reich or died there as a result of abuse and illness. The remaining third died in what the SS called ghettos , in mass shootings, especially by the " Einsatzgruppen ", and on the so-called death marches . Many other people were also murdered in the concentration camps, e. B. Homosexuals, the mentally handicapped and so-called anti - social . The number of deaths is still unclear to this day, as files were far from being kept on all victims, no more murders were recorded at the end of the war and many documents such as the witnesses were destroyed or irretrievably lost.

Different camps from history

According to the above definition or the origin of the word, there were internment or concentration camps not only under National Socialism:

South Africa

Burian women and children in a British concentration camp during the Second Boer War
Lizzie van Zyl was a young Boer girl in South Africa who died of
typhoid at the age of seven in a British concentration camp during the Second Boer War .

The term "concentration camp" (dt. Concentration camp ) was first by the military of Britain in South Africa used to in the Second Boer War to describe scale (1899-1902) prison camp for civilians. The aim of the British was to force the fighting men of the Boers to give up. Old Boers, women and children as well as Africans who cooperated with the Boers were rounded up in large camps. The deliberately induced poor diet and the poor hygienic conditions caused a high mortality rate. About 26,000 women and children died here. The disclosure of the situation in South Africa by Emily Hobhouse led to the situation there easing.


In Austria, the Thalerhof internment camp near Graz was operated during the First World War from 1914 to 1917 , in which 30,000 Ruthenians from eastern Galicia were interned.

United States

At the beginning of World War II , the USA set up concentration camps for citizens of Japanese, Italian or German descent who were viewed as potentially dangerous (see internment of Americans of Japanese descent ).

People from other backgrounds were also forcibly interned ( Jehovah's Witnesses ). The California camps became particularly well-known because most of the Japanese families were imprisoned there. The forced admissions took place without a court order. Almost 120,000 men, women and children from the four US states of Washington , Oregon , California and Nevada were arrested in this way. They spent most of the war under arrest; many families had to live in rooms of 7 to 8 square meters , which were covered with tar paper . However, in contrast to other concentration and internment camps, no one was deliberately tortured or murdered here.

More recently, however, the Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro spoke again of a "concentration camp on the illegal Guantánamo military base" in relation to the US prison camp in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base .


After the coup on September 11, 1973 , the junta locked its opponents in football stadiums. In the open air they were exposed to the blazing sun, thirst and hunger, but also tortured and murdered. In the Colonia Dignidad founded by Paul Schäfer and other German colonists, many people died after the coup or have disappeared to this day. After Schäfer's arrest in 2005, extensive weapons depots were found on the premises.

Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand, Switzerland

During both world wars, nationals of opposing parties were locked up in internment camps almost everywhere, including people who had previously escaped the fate of a German concentration camp.

These camps were called concentration camps because the word did not have the later connotation at the time. However, the living conditions there could not be compared with those in a German concentration camp, and the objective was different. In Great Britain, opponents of National Socialism and Jewish refugees were also affected.


Map of 15 Italian concentration camps in Libya 1930–1933

In 1930, during the Second Italian-Libyan War, the subjugated and deported parts of the population from Marmarica and the Djebel al-Akhdar were interned in the Italian concentration camps in Libya . Fascist Italy wanted to deprive the rebellious Sanūsīya of Cyrenaica under their leader Umar al-Muchtar with a genocidal warfare of the base. About a quarter (approx. 40,000 people) of the total population of Cyrenaica died as a result of deportation and imprisonment. The camps were closed in 1933.

In the course of the development of Italian East Africa , the Danane concentration camp was established in Italian Somaliland near Mogadishu from 1935 and the Nocra concentration camp on an Eritrean island in the Red Sea from 1936 . Both camps had high death rates and were liberated by the British in 1941 after the Italian defeats in East Africa.

After the partial occupation and annexation of Yugoslavia by Italy in 1941, the same strategy of scorched earth, ethnic cleansing, hostage-taking and Italian colonization was used to repression against the Yugoslav underground movement as in Africa. An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 Yugoslavs were interned in an unknown number of concentration camps ( campi per slavi ) and, due to the increasing overcrowding, deported to converted barracks, prisoner of war camps ( campi per ex-yugoslavi ) and concentration camps of the Ministry of the Interior on Italian territory.

Italian concentration camps were also set up for repression in Albania, Greece and France.

The largest Italian concentration camps
designation from to Estimated number of prisoners Estimated death toll
El-Agheila concentration camp , Libya January 1930 October 1932 34,500 15,600
Soluch concentration camp , Libya October 1930 May 1933 20.123 5,500
Marsa al Brega concentration camp , Libya March 1931 June 1933 20,072
Rab concentration camp on Rab July 29, 1942 September 11, 1943 15,000 1,500
Chiesanuova concentration camp near Padua July 20, 1942 September 10, 1943    
Sidi Ahmed el-Magrun concentration camp , Libya September 1930 October 1933 13,050 4,500
Agedabia concentration camp , Libya March 1930 September 1933 9,000 1,500
Gonars concentration camp near Palmanova March 1942 September 8, 1943 7,000 453; > 500
Molat concentration camp June 29, 1942 September 8, 1943    
Danane concentration camp , Somalia 1935 March 18, 1941 6,500 3,175
Monigo concentration camp near Treviso July 1942 September 1943    
Renicci concentration camp near Arezzo October 1942 October 1943    
Visco concentration camp near Palmanova Winter 1942 September 1943    

On November 30, 1943, after the German occupation of Italy, the Minister of the Interior, Guido Buffarini-Guidi of the Italian Social Republic, ordered the arrest and delivery of all Jews to Italian concentration camps. Friedrich Boßhammer organized the final solution to the Jewish question at the BdS Italy in Verona. German transit and transit camp for deportations to Italy were the police detention center Borgo San Dalmazzo , the Fossoli di Carpi who Risiera di San Sabba and the Bolzano Transit Camp .

Independent state of Croatia

The satellite state, established during the Second World War as the Independent State of Croatia , built concentration camps based on the model of the German Reich for its Croatian opponents of the regime, but mainly for the Serbs , Jews and Roma . The Jewish population was willingly handed over to the German murderers. According to current research, around 100,000 Serbs, Jews, Sinti and Roma and Croats were murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp . The information varies widely and is the subject of political and historiographical controversy.


At the time of the German and Italian occupation of Yugoslavia during the Second World War, concentration camps were set up by the fascist Ustasha and the Italian occupying power in the occupied part of Croatia and by collaborators in Serbia . These were among others in: Banjica , Belgrade , Jasenovac , Molat , Rab , Šabac and Topovske Supe .

After the war, a camp for political prisoners was set up on the island of Goli otok (Croatian: naked island ). These prisoners were used for forced labor in the quarries. It existed from 1949 to 1988. After a few years it became a Yugoslav high-security prison, initially for political prisoners and later for criminals and juvenile offenders. The prison was closed in 1988 and abandoned in 1989. The island is now uninhabited, but can be visited by tourists.


During the Second World War, the Japanese occupiers also set up numerous concentration camps in the defeated countries; the circumstances were similar to the German models. The fate of the many Korean slave laborers and even more of the many thousands of young Chinese and Korean women who were made available as comfort women ( forced prostitutes ) to the Japanese soldiers at the front was particularly tragic .

In addition, medical experiments were carried out on Soviet, Chinese and other prisoners, in which, for example, pathogens were experimented with. In this context, the unit 731 stands out in particular . Official Japan has so far not taken a position on this war guilt and has never paid compensation to the victims.

North Korea

The North Korean penal system with its penal camps and prisons is divided into two parts: the internment camps for political prisoners (Korean Kwan-li-so ) and the re-education camps (Korean Kyo-hwa-so ).

Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

A camp system already existed in Tsarist Russia. From the late summer of 1918 this system was continued by the Soviet government under Lenin for the purpose of red terrorism . In the summer of 1918, for example, Lenin had prison camps set up that were officially called concentration camps. In the Oblast Pensa political opponents were interned. From May 1921 the number of prisoners rose from around 16,000 to more than 70,000 a few months later. Concentration camps were also set up to break the resistance during the Tambov peasant uprising in 1921.

The camp system of the Soviet Union , which was developed at the time of Stalinism , is now often referred to as the " Gulag ". Gulag is the abbreviation of the main department of the Soviet Interior Ministry, which was largely responsible for the administration of the camps. The Gulag camps served as prison camps for both "common" criminals and political opponents and were primarily labor camps.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn has disclosed the conditions of imprisonment in literary form in his works “ A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich ” and “ Archipel Gulag ”. Many construction projects, for example the White Sea-Baltic Canal , the city of Norilsk or Moscow University, were built by camp inmates. " The first circle of hell " describes the camps called " Sharashka ", in which scientists and engineers were forced to work for the state. From 1930 to 1959 a total of around 18 million people passed through the camp system, and at least 1.5 million people perished in the camp. Estimates of the victims of the decades of Leninist and Stalinist terror are difficult, however, some run into the millions.

Prisoners in a Soviet labor camp between 1936 and 1937

Under the rule of Lenin and, above all, of Stalin , it could happen that someone was denounced and arrested for making a critical statement in a family circle or for stealing an apple. During the Great Terror (1937–1938), the state and party leadership set arrest quotas, which resulted in a large number of innocent people being imprisoned and sentenced, many of them to camp detention. Similar methods were already used in some cases during the construction period of the White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal. Such judgments were mostly based on "evidence" fabricated by the secret service or on confessions extracted under torture. In particular, the infamous Article 58 of the Soviet Criminal Code , which concerned “ counter-revolutionary crimes”, was very vague and unclear . Even “bowing to the West”, “expressing hopes for the end of communism” and the alleged “intended attempt at espionage” were punishable.

Time after 1945

After the Second World War , people in Eastern Europe who had actually or allegedly worked with German war criminals or were Germans themselves were interned in camps, for example in Czechoslovakia , where many Hungarians and Poles were also interned. Ten special camps were set up on the territory of the Soviet occupation zone . The conditions for the German prisoners of war also did not meet the requirements of the Third Geneva Convention , and many people died or only survived with consequential damage. A large number of the soldiers of the Red Army returning from German captivity were also assigned to camp detention.

Even after the democratization of the federal states, the concentration camps were only legally dealt with in a few cases. Even existing power structures from the time of state oppression, which are not interested in a critical examination of the past, are held responsible for this.


In contemporary historical research in the country, the Belene labor and re-education camp run by the Bulgarian state, 1944–1962, is represented as a concentration camp. Thousands of people are said to have died in prison during this period.

People's Republic of China

The prison camps called Laogai劳改 or Laojiao ( re-education camp , literally re-education through work ) in the People's Republic of China are also regarded as a type of forced labor or internment camp. They were set up after the Communist Party came to power.

According to Kotek / Rigoulot, there are only a few official documents on the camps to this day, "the secret is ... well kept". However, at this point in time, reports and studies of the camps were increasing. The communist leadership is said to have admitted to having detained 10 million people in camps since 1949 and to have held 1.2 million prisoners in 685 camps in 1995. However, these numbers are far too low. (According to official information, more than 3.2 million internments were carried out in 800 C&R camps in 2000 for the system of Custody and Repatriation (C&R) alone .) special farm or village, there are names for it such as "The noble village of the north". Products are sold at home and abroad. There are also labor camps in agriculture, coal and uranium mines. However, the amount of economic benefit is questionable. The focus is on "re-education" of the prisoners. According to J. Pasqualini, the focus is not only on work, but on "liberation" from "bad thoughts about the government, its leaders, government policy, government allies and the communist party." The prisoners are isolated from the outside world.

Their conditions of detention are said to be similar to those of the Soviet gulag , with some differences . They are characterized by hunger, severe punishments, mistreatment and torture. According to previous knowledge, the long-term average and an assumed total number of 8 million prisoners so far results in a death rate of around 280,000 people per year. Around 200,000 prisoners are reported for the period around the year 2000.


In Spain there were around 190 concentration camps under the Franco dictatorship , in which almost half a million republican fighters of the Spanish civil war, refugees and opponents of the regime were imprisoned.


In the years 1936-1954, at the time of Salazar - dictatorship , straightened Portugal to the Cape Verde Islands , a concentration camp. The first prisoners arrived at the Tarrafal camp on October 29, 1936 . A total of around 340 prisoners were imprisoned here in the 17 years of the first phase of the camp's existence. These were mainly sailors of the Organização Revolucionário da Armada , who had participated in a revolt on September 8, 1936 , as well as members of the international brigades that had fought in the Spanish Civil War. Republicans, members of the opposition , all members of the Secretariat of the Portuguese Communist Party and other members of the opposition to the Salazar regime were also detained.

32 prisoners died during their imprisonment, including in 1940 Mário Castelhano , leader of the CGT trade union and editor-in-chief of the anarcho-syndicalist daily A Batalha , and in 1942 the Communist Party General Secretary Bento António Gonçalves . The prisoners were tortured in a number of ways. The determined and declared intention of the camp management and the camp doctor was to "let the prisoners die" through inhumane conditions, withheld medical treatment, malnutrition and torture. Untreated severe forms of malaria were the most common cause of death. The prisoners' attempts to escape failed.

Guards and prisoners alike lived with an eye on German fascism. After the Battle of Stalingrad , the brutality of the camp administration decreased somewhat, and after the end of National Socialism in Germany the situation eased to the point where two prisoners died from 1945 until the camp was closed on January 26, 1954. Most of the prisoners had also been transferred to mainland Portugal or pardoned until the closure.

From 1938 João da Silva was head of the concentration camp. Da Silva visited the German concentration camps beforehand, and officers were trained in the Dachau concentration camp . The guards consisted of 25 members of the Portuguese secret police PVDE (from 1945 PIDE ) as well as a battalion of over 75 Angolan auxiliary guards and a few Cape Verdians .

A second phase of use followed in the years 1961–1974. Members of the independence movements from Cape Verde , Guinea-Bissau and Angola were held in custody and tortured, mostly without a court judgment, “preventively” or in “protective custody” by order of the PIDE.

After the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974, the camp management refused to open the camp in the hope of a political reversal in Portugal. On May 1, 1974, the population of the island of Santiago freed the prisoners in a large demonstration.

None of the Tarrafal perpetrators was ever convicted in Portugal.


to Nazi concentration camps
  • Carlo Spartaco Capogreco: I Campi di Duce. Del duce. L'internamento civile nell'Italia fascista (1940-1943). Einaudi, Turin 2004, ISBN 88-06-16781-2 .
  • Carlo Spartaco Capogreco: I campi die concentramento fascisti per gli ebrei (1940-1943). In: Storia contemporanea. 22, 1990, ( review ).
  • Andrzej J. Kaminski : Concentration Camp 1896 to Today. An analysis. Kohlhammer, 1982, ISBN 3-17-007252-8 .
  • Jonas Kreienbaum: “A sad fiasco”: Colonial concentration camps in southern Africa 1900-1908 (studies on the history of violence in the 20th century), Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2015 ISBN 3868542906
  • Brunello Mantelli: Brief History of Italian Fascism. Wagenbach, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-8031-2300-3 .
  • Luigi Reale: Mussolini's Concentration Camps for Civilians: An Insight Into the Nature of Fascist Racism . Vallentine Mitchell, 2011, ISBN 978-0-85303-884-9 .
  • Michele Sarfatti : La persecuzione antiebraica nel periodo 1938–1943 e il suo difficile ricordo. In: Anna Lisa Carlotti (ed.): Italia 1939–1945. Storia e memoria. Milano 1996, pp. 73-85.

Web links

Commons : National Socialist Concentration Camps  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Concentration camps  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Georg Pichler: Locked up and excluded. In: Zwischenwelt. Journal of the Theodor Kramer Society, vol. 27, vol. 1–2, August 2010, ISSN  1606-4321 , p. 22.
  2. The Herero War 1904. In: Lebendiges Museum Online. German Historical Museum, accessed on March 24, 2015 .
  3. ^ Robert Koch: Preliminary information on the results of a research trip to East Africa. In: German Medical Weekly. Issue 47, 1905, pp. 1485-1489.
  4. German colonial crimes: the German government calls the Herero massacre “genocide” for the first time . In: Spiegel Online . July 10, 2015.
  5. ^ Fidel to Mexico. Message to the Mexican people. ( Memento from January 27, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) at:
  6. ^ Aram Mattioli: The forgotten colonial crimes of Fascist Italy in Libya 1923-1933. In: Irmtrud Wojak, Susanne Meinl (ed.): Genocide and war crimes in the first half of the 20th century. Campus, 2004, ISBN 3-593-37282-7 , p. 216 ff.
  7. Angelo Del Boca: Fascism and Colonialism - The Myth of the Decent Italians. In: Irmtrud Wojak, Susanne Meinl (ed.): Genocide and war crimes in the first half of the 20th century. Campus, 2004, ISBN 3-593-37282-7 , pp. 195 f.
  8. Davide Rodogno: Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006, ISBN 0-521-84515-7 , pp. 335 f.
  9. a b Davide Rodogno: Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006, ISBN 0-521-84515-7 , pp. 349 f.
  10. Carlo Spartaco Capogreco: I Campi del duce . Giulio Einaudi, 2004, ISBN 88-06-16781-2 , p. 251 ff.
  11. Carlo Spartaco Capogreco: I Campi del duce . Giulio Einaudi, 2004, ISBN 88-06-16781-2 , p. 257 ff.
  12. el Agheila on I Campi Fascisti
  13. Soluch on I Campi Fascisti
  14. ^ Marsa al Brega on I Campi Fascisti
  15. Sidi Ahmed el-Magrun to I Campi Fascisti
  16. Campo di Concentramento Agedabia to I Campi Fascisti, accessed April 5 2017th
  17. ^ Danane on I Campi Fascisti
  18. Liliana Picciotto Fargion: Italy. In: Wolfgang Benz (Ed.): Dimension of the genocide. Oldenbourg, 1991, ISBN 3-486-54631-7 , p. 202 ff.
  19. ^ Nicole Münnich: Tito's taboo "Hawaii". On the status of research on the Yugoslav camp island Goli Otok and on the question of processing. ( Memento from June 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  20. The Hidden Gulag - Part Two: The Kwan-li-so Political Penal Labor Colonies (pp. 25-82). (PDF; 5.5 MB) The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, accessed on September 21, 2012 .
  21. ^ The Hidden Gulag - Part Three: The Kyo-hwa-so Long-Term Prison-Labor Facilities (pp. 82-110). (PDF; 5.5 MB) The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, accessed on September 21, 2012 .
  22. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars on the Red Terror, September 5, 1918.
  23. Joël Kotek , Pierre Rigoulot: The century of the camp. Captivity, forced labor, extermination. Propylaen-Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-549-07143-4 , p. 129.
  24. Nicolas Becquelin: Enforcing the rural-urban divide - Use of Custody and Repatriation detention triples in 10 years ( Memento of 30 April 2009 at the Internet Archive ) Human Rights in China, February 23, 2003; last accessed on February 14, 2009.
  25. Joel Kotek, Pierre Rigoulot: The century of the camp. Propylaeen-Verlag , 2001, ISBN 3-549-07143-4 , p. 589 u. 566.
  26. See for example: Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. Munich 2006, review in: Die Welt. July 15, 2006; see. z. B. also (research status 2004): Franco's concentration camp. ( Memento from July 20, 2012 in the web archive ) ( Image from a warehouse near Barcelona - Prisioneros republicanos en un campo de concentración cerca de Barcelona )