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Location of Barmens in the city of Wuppertal, which was created in 1929 (outlined in red)
Until its unification in 1929, Barmen was a major city in the eastern Rhineland with four other cities to form what is now Wuppertal . Today Barmen extends as the north-eastern part of Wuppertal to the districts of Barmen , Heckinghausen and Oberbarmen . The Westphalian Langerfeld , formerly a municipality in the Schwelm district , today the eastern part of the Wuppertal district of Langerfeld-Beyenburg , also belonged to the city of Barmen from 1922, as did the Westphalian neighboring Breck with isolated incorporations from the city of Sprockhövel .
Settlement, early Middle Ages
From the 7th century, the relatively late and sparse settlement of the predominantly wooded Wupper area by old Germanic tribes (possibly Borchter or Westphalia ) took place. This settlement is evidenced by the typical place names ending in -inghausen : Wichlinghausen (formerly Wichmaringhausen = house of the Wichmar family ) and Heckinghausen ( house of the Hecko family ). From the 8th or 9th century at the latest, Rhineland-Franconian clearings and settlements followed, which can also be identified using components of place names. According to recent research, this Franconian settlement may have originated from the Werden Fronhof in Schwelm , which was the center of a parish and an almost congruent Gogergericht district from the 11th century at the latest . For a long time the region was the border area between the Franconian Empire and the area of influence of the Saxons , which, in addition to the inhospitable agricultural conditions compared to the Rhine plain, prevented larger settlement structures.
Early ownership in Barmen, first mentions in documents
From the 10th century the area is part of the district between the Rhine, Ruhr and Wupper, called Duisburg-Kaiserswerther Grafschaft by recent research , which was owned by the descendants of the Ezzone . This had the Barmer field in all probability already at that time, therefore, there also Allode . The name Barmen was probably mentioned for the first time in 1070 as a barmon in a tax list of the Werden Abbey , whereby the Hof Einern , which was later incorporated into the city of Barmen, has been documented since 1050. According to recent research, the bar on this document could possibly also refer to a farm near Hiddinghausen .
The Bruoke ( Bruch ) and Horehuson ( Haarhausen ) farms , which had to pay taxes to the Oberhof Schöpplenberg in Werden, were first mentioned around 1150 . 1220 found six farms in and Braken ( Bracken ) mention.
Count Ludwig von Ravensberg , one of the above-mentioned descendants of the Ezzonen, was the owner of an association of farms in the Barmer area in the 13th century , whereby in addition to the Ravensberg property there were also farms and farms with other owners (including Werden Abbey) or free farms. In 1244 these Ravensberger Höfe were transferred from the allodial possession of the Ravensbergs to the Count von Berg under Count Heinrich IV . In the corresponding contract document, which is the second documentary mention of Barmen (or the first, if the document from 1070 does not mean Barmen), this property is referred to as Bona de Barme ("goods in Barmen"). The upper court of this villication was probably the Sehlhof . In the same year, documents in monasteries in Brabant mention a Ridderhoff to Kimnah ( Kemna ) and Ridderhoff to Ruwendael ( Rauental ).
Barmen was initially the collective name for an area that consisted of a loose association of farm associations, individual farms and settlement areas , which, however, was not subject to territorial rule, but, depending on the farm or farm association, was secular or spiritual allodial property , or belonged to free farmers. The Wichlinghausen farm was z. B. the Oberhof of a Wichlinghauser Höfeverband, which was acquired in 1384 by the Counts von der Mark from the von Kappeln family, who in turn must have acquired ownership from the Counts of Ravensberg before 1245.
The Barmer Landwehr as a dividing line
In the middle of Barmen, on the Leimbach / Fischertaler Bach line, ran the border of the parish of Schwelm in the Electorate of Cologne and the parish of Hilden in the Electorate of Cologne (from 1300 the parish of Elberfeld, which was split off from it ). At the same time, this limit was different from the 9th / 10th. Century the deanery Lüdenscheid from the deanery Neuss as well as the two Gogerichtsbezirke Schwelm and Elberfeld. This border still exists today indirectly in the dividing line between upper bar and lower bar (also called lower bar). This border was secured in the late Middle Ages by a Landwehr , which ran from Horath via Hatzfeld , along the Leimbach and Fischertaler Bach brooks and over the Scharpenacker Berg past Laaken to Beyenburg Castle , is still described in parts in the 16th century and the few remains of it are now under protection as a ground monument . The time of origin and the purpose of this Landwehr is controversial in research. Justus Bockemühl takes z. B. on an origin in the 10th century as a safeguard of the dean's border, other researchers rather see a late medieval origin as a result of the Bergisch / Märkischen territorial formation.
Etymological interpretation of the name Barmen
According to some researchers, the name Barmen is etymologically related to this Landwehr. The name is interpreted as a wall / pile of earth. The old Saxon root, Berm , Barm can also be found in the term hay arms (haystack), so that “ Bona de Barme ” could refer to the farms on the earth wall. Bockemühl interprets the etymology differently: Ahd. brama ; mhd . brame = thorn bush (cf. blackberry; engl. broom) after a sound change to Barme (cf. also analogously Bronnen (fountain) to Born). A thorn hedge is also an integral part of a Landwehr and the later Bergische Oberhof Dörner Hof was also named because of its location on this Landwehr and its thorn hedge. The old Saxon word stem Berm or Barm also allows other interpretations. The word berm is a flat piece or a route in the embankment of a dam or a wall or on a slope. It can divide the embankment into various sections. Since time immemorial, the Wupper valley has been an arduous passage from the Rhine to the east and vice versa. The slopes above the Wupper between Unter- and Oberbarmen were not easy to walk on because they were often sloping. This required the establishment of a network of paths that took this into account. The word stems also stand for a ditch edge or a dike step that was used by vehicles. The place name Barmstedt goes back to a formation from the Lower Franconian or Low German barm for elevation, hill or (earth) accumulation and barm also means town or settlement in an older form. Early settlement centers were preferably located on hills and interpretations of the elevated place Barum say "settlement on the hill". Old names for Barum are also: 1290 Berne, 1304 Barem, 1305 Barme, 1319 Barme, 1339 Barme, 1344 Barem, 1344 barme, 1348 Barum, 1354 Barem, 1366 Barum Barme, 1384 Barem. In lignite opencast mining or in forestry and agriculture, the term "Berme" is still used today, which refers to a slope path with a counter slope for the purpose of draining water and which reduces the earth pressure at the foot of the embankment and thus makes the slope stable to the right and left of the Wupper should. You could have said something like: "Follow the path along the Barmen next to the Wupper and you will reach the settlement on the hill."
Barmen with its two parts Ober- and Unterbarmen belonged in the late Middle Ages to the area of the free county of Volmarstein , whose free chairs were not subject to the jurisdiction of the Bergisch or Brandenburg allodial and territorial owners until the 15th century. This also underlines the inhomogeneity of Barmen, which only gradually became a territorial unit from the 14th century. The outer border of the Free County of Volmarstein, which was roughly congruent with the two Gogerichten Schwelm and Hagen, can be found today, according to a copy of the border description from the 16th century, exactly in the district boundary between Barmen and Elberfeld and was also used by a Landwehr ( Elberfelder Landwehr called) secured. The simultaneous, competing existence of the Free County and Gogericht resulted from the border location to the Franconian and Saxon cultural areas, in which the traditional old Germanic legal system developed differently and led to competing formal structures in the High and Late Middle Ages.
Territorial formation, transition to Bergisch possession
From the 13th century onwards, the Bergisch and Brandenburg counts emancipated themselves from the status of the nobility and the bailiffs of the Archbishop of Cologne and began to build up their own territories.
Between 1300 and 1324 the Counts of the Mark annexed the parish of Schwelm and thus the east of Barmen with the areas near Wichlinghausen, Heckinghausen and Nachbarebreck von Kurköln. Since the acquisition of the goods in Barmen in 1245, the majority of the manor over individual farms in the area annexed by Mark belonged to the Counts of Berg - other farms in Unterbarmen, which belonged to the Wichlinghausen farm association, were later, in return, despite their territorial affiliation to the County of Berg, to the Counts of Mark obliged, which led to different tax claims and jurisdictions within the Bergisch and Märkisch spheres of influence. The Bergische Höfe in Oberbarmen were also ecclesiastically committed to the Brandenburg parish in Schwelm, not to the Bergische in Hilden (later that in Elberfeld ), which of course also applied to the Märkische Höfe in Unterbarmen with the opposite sign.
From the beginning of the 14th century, after their military successes against the Archbishop of Cologne in the Battle of Worringen in 1288 and a further dispute in 1306 , the Bergische Counts, who were appointed dukes in 1380, increasingly made territorial claims on the central Wupper at the expense of Kurköln valid, which manifested themselves through the establishment of the Beyenburg office between 1363 and 1399 and the assignment of Unterbarmens to the office. In 1397 Wilhelm II von Berg tried to assert claims against his nephews Adolf von Kleve and Dietrich II von der Mark . He was defeated by his nephews at the Battle of Kleverhamm and taken prisoner. In order to raise the enormous sum of 3,000 gold shields for release, he pledged large parts of his property to the victors in 1399, including Elberfeld Castle and the Beyenburg office with Barmen. The pledge of 1399 also shows for the first time that the Bergische Höfe Barmens belong to the Bergische Amt Beyenburg .
The three sons of Wilhelm II von Berg, Adolf , Gerhard and Wilhelm, did not accept the loss, occupied their father's palace in Düsseldorf , temporarily deposed their father and began a military dispute with their Brandenburg cousins. After the death of Dietrich II von der Mark, presumably during the siege of Elberfeld Castle, the Bergische were able to assert themselves, presumably received their Unterbarmer possessions back shortly after 1399 (at the latest in 1420 the Amt Beyenburg with Barmen was again Bergisch) and extended their territorial possessions beyond that also on the part of Barmens (Oberbarmen) that was previously in the Mark region. It is not known whether this gain occurred at Mark's expense through military force or through a contractual agreement. From 1420 the border of the Bergisch dominated territory shifted in any case to the east to the brook Schellenbeck , where some researchers like Gerd Helbeck also assume traces of a Landwehr that is now securing the territory. This completed the territorial formation in Barmen, which became part of the Beyenburg office and remained until the office was dissolved in 1806.
The two Barmer farm associations (the Bergische under the Sehlhof and the Brandenburg under the Wichlinghauser Hof), as well as the spiritual goods, have now been combined to form the Bergische Farmers Barmen . The main courtyard is now the Dörner Hof (or Haus Barmen) in the Wupper valley at the old Landwehr (compare the current street names Ober- and Unterdörnen). The surrounding courtyards, including the old Sehlhof and the Wichlinghauser Hof, were now its feudal courtyards. The peasantry was set up to administer the taxes to the Bergisch rulers and included all Barmer farms, regardless of their respective owners. Only free saddles such as B. Kemna or Rauental .
Two undated wisdoms have come down to us from the old court associations . The wisdoms probably arose after the establishment of territorial rule, when the peasants were forced to write down their traditional, orally handed down court rights in order to defend themselves against sovereign legal claims. For good reason, the wisdoms were not dated so that these court rights “ as valid from ancient times ” would not be called into question. Since there are only copies of the 17th century (which are constantly adapted to current conditions), no statement can be made about the exact age of the wisdom.
The Beyenburger official bill of 1466: The first overview of the Barmer Höfe
According to the Beyenburger official invoice (Rentmeistereirechnung) from 1466, the first comprehensive dated list of Barmer living spaces, 19 residential spaces subject to payment are occupied in Barmen at that time, again divided into 40 full courtyards and 22 Kotten .
The full farms with a high tax burden include Werther Hof (undivided courtyard), two of the three Loher Höfe , Riddershof (undivided courtyard), the two Carnaper courtyards , one of the two Auer Höfe , two of the three Leimbacher Höfe , the two Lichtenscheider Höfe , one of the two Wuppermannshöfe , the three Clauhausener Höfe , one of the two Riescheider Höfe , Wülfinger Hof (undivided courtyard), one of the two Brucher Höfe and the three Brügeler Höfe .
The full farms with a lower tax burden (and thus size) include one of the two Auer Höfe, one of the three Loher Höfe, one of the three Leimbacher Höfe, one of the two Riescheider Höfe, one of the two Wuppermannshöfe and one of the two Brucherhöfe, as well as the Hof zur Furt , two Westkotter Höfe , four Heckinghauser Höfe , five Clever Höfe , Fettehenne and four Wichlinghauser Höfe .
These courts, as full courts, also provided the lay judges of the court court . In addition to the Vollhöfe there were the Kotten Bockmoelen , two Höfe am Cleff , two Heidter Kotten , the Sehlhof , Oberster Bruch, Im Springen , Fingscheid , Zum Kotten , Barendahl , Kapellen , Gockelsheid , Schwaffers Kotten , In der Marpen , Im Dickten , der Kotten in the Leimbach, Dahl , Hatzfeld , Klinkholt , Bredde and Scheuren , who also had to make cash payments.
The official account does not include the Dörner Hof or Haus Barmen, which, as the Oberhof, collected the taxes from the Höfe and Kotten and therefore does not appear in the list of taxes. Other Barmer Höfe and Kotten only encumbered with taxes in kind were Westen , Schönebeck , Kemna , Bredde , Norrenberg , Scheuermannshof , Krühbusch , Eckbrock and Winkelmannshof .
There were also other farms and cottages in the Barmer area, which do not appear in the official accounts because they were not allodes of the Bergisch dukes or had to pay them taxes. These include Allenkotten and Nickhorn , who belonged to the farm association Einern of the Werden monastery , and Rauental , which belonged to the gentlemen of Rauenthal.
Reformation, Thirty Years War
In 1519 the Lutheran faith found its way into Barmen.
During the Thirty Years' War was Barmen in 1634 for the purpose of equitable distribution of quartered Swedish troops on the farms in Rotten divided, which until the Napoleonic after time had inventory. A rotting master presided over the ranks. The Rotten were: Clauser Rotte (later called Wester Rotte), Loher Rotter, Leimbach Rotte (later the Hatzfelder Rotte split off), Westkotter Rotte, Wichelhauser Rotte, Wülfinger Rotten (with Rittershaus), Clever Rotte (in Ober- and Unterclever Rotte divided), Brucher Rotte, Auer Rotte (later the Haspeler Rotte split off), Höchst Rotte and Gemarker Rotte (which split into Scheurer Rotte, Werther Rotte and two smaller Gemarker Rotte). Later the Dörner Rotte from the Dörner Hof was added.
Densification of settlements in the district
Near the Dörner Hof there was a water mill on a branch of the Wupper, which had to be used by the Barmer Höfe as a ducal ban mill . The side arm still exists today as an almost completely rotten mill moat . For centuries there was no urban settlement worth mentioning in Barmen, the number of farms increased to 51 by 1706. In that year, the now ruling elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz divided up the area and auctioned the individual properties. The community he left the " Gemarke " around the old manor, who later core of the urban center of Barmen, just Barmen-Gemarke (now about in the quarters Barmen-Mitte and Friedrich Engels Allee ) was. Small settlements had also formed around other farms, such as Heckinghausen or Rittershausen .
Founding of your own parish
In 1702 a separate Reformed church was founded in the area. The first Gemarker church was built from 1710 to 1714. After many hundred years, going to church no longer had to lead to Schwelm.
In 1709, 476 families lived in Barmen, i.e. a good 2,000 inhabitants. The population increased considerably in the 18th century due to the emerging bleaching and yarn weaving trade. The district gradually became a village, which, in contrast to the neighboring Elberfeld, was never secured by a fortification and until the 19th century had no freedom or city rights. This may be one reason why the geographical generic term "barmen" could hold for the conglomerate of individual farms and villages over the centuries.
There was already extensive proto- industrial production of yarns and textiles in the early modern period , which in 1527 led to a location-specific ducal production privilege ( yarn food ), but industrialization began rapidly in the neighboring Wupper cities of Elberfeld and Barmen from the end of the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century, Elberfeld and Barmen were the most highly industrialized cities in Germany, whose economic importance put later economic centers such as Cologne , Düsseldorf or the Ruhr area in the shade. Barmen articles , as the numerous textile haberdashery such as ribbons, cords and trimmings were called, dominated the world market and made Barmen known in numerous countries around the world.
Other branches were yarn and button production, mechanical weaving mills, dyeing works and the chemical industry: The Bayer company was founded here on August 1, 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and Johann Friedrich Weskott . The history of the Vorwerk company began in Barmen as the “Barmer carpet factory Vorwerk & Co” . The Ibach piano factory was also of international importance .
The growth of the economy was followed by a considerable increase in the population, the growth of which consisted primarily of the immigrant workforce. Between 1830 and 1885 the population quadrupled and Barmen grew, like the neighboring Elberfeld, which developed in a similar way, into a large city. Due to the rapid industrialization in "German Manchester ", as Barmen and Elberfeld were also called in relation to the British industrial city, the social problems of pauperism appeared first. The resulting civic engagement against these social upheavals also comes from the Barmer textile manufacturer's son Friedrich Engels , who, knowing the problems firsthand, developed the social and economic theory known as Marxism with his companion Karl Marx .
Founding of the city of Barmen
The beginning of the 19th century brought extensive changes. On March 15, 1806, King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria ceded the Duchy of Berg, which belonged to him, to Napoleon on the basis of the Treaty of Schönbrunn . Together with neighboring territories and French possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, it was elevated to the status of the Grand Duchy of Berg , a French satellite state under Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat as the new duke. The duchy became a member of the Rhine Confederation and left the territory of the Reich . As in the areas on the left bank of the Rhine, the French abolished all legal bases and administrative structures, some of which were still from the Middle Ages, and quickly introduced a new administrative structure. Barmen became a canton in the Elberfeld arrondissement in the Rhine department . The canton consisted of the village of Gemarke and all places of the parishes Oberbarmen and Unterbarmen with a total of 14,304 inhabitants.
On February 3, 1808, Barmen was finally granted city rights under French rule, wealthy merchants and manufacturers formed the first municipal councilor on a voluntary basis . The first Maire under French supervision was Carl Bredt until July 1808, followed by Peter Keuchen until April 1810, Carl Wilhelm Eller until October 1810 and Johann Wilhelm Wilkhaus until February 1814. On January 1, 1810, the Civil Code set all previous laws and ordinances that still partially based on traditional local customary laws from the Middle Ages, no longer in force.
In 1813 the French withdrew from the Grand Duchy after the defeat in the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig and from the end of 1813 it fell under the provisional administration of Prussia in the Generalgouvernement of Berg . With the formation of the Prussian province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Barmen also became Prussian two hundred years after the neighboring Schwelm through the regulations in the Congress of Vienna .
Barmen around 1821
According to a local description had Barmen 1821 a peace court , a receiving station for direct taxes, two post offices guards, 1,610 houses, 221 factory buildings , mills and magazines , 575 stalls , barns and sheds . 794 thalers in direct income and fees ( stall and market money, rental income) contrasted with 7861 thalers in municipal expenses. A further 30,951 thalers came into the city coffers as direct taxes.
In 1821 the economy was divided into the following branches: 38 factories for linen, half-wool, wool, cotton ribbons , cords and belts, 26 factories for cloths and cloths made of linen , cotton , and half-cotton , 11 factories for twisted lace and lobes, 17 factories for sewing thread, 1 factory for twilies, 7 factories for silk scarves and ribbons, 2 factories for riding crops, 1 factory for metal clad goods and buttons, 4 factories for chemical products, 3 soap factories , 50 bleaching factories , 50 dyeing factories , 42 master butchers , 80 master bakers , 31 brewers , 27 distiller , 122 Krämer , 68 innkeepers , 6 saddler , 139 shoemaker , 4 Zimmerermeister , 135 Tischler - and carpenter , 15 turner , 25 cooper , 3 Rademacher , 2 Seiler Meister , 17 locksmith , 7 Hufschmiedemeister , 4 copper Forgemaster , 3 yellow and Rotgießmeister, 6 Klempnermeister , 22 glazier , 58 Maurer - and Slater master , 2 Hutmachermeister , 2 Rie master craftsmen, 145 master tailors , 9 watchmakers , 8 gold and silver workers, 2 book and 1 stone printing shops , 6 master bookbinders , 12 house painters and varnishers, 19 coachmen and horse lenders, 2 inns for people from the educated classes, 7 inns with relaxation for Carters , 6 jugs in the country for travelers of all kinds.
The city of Barmen (the district of Barmen ) was divided into eleven sections in 1834:
Bollwerk, Keuchensfeld, Kotzheid, Loh and Wupperfeld also belonged to the city district. Outside the city district, the localities and residential areas were combined in the external citizenship of Barmen .
Development into a big city
On June 1, 1861, the city of Barmen left the Elberfeld district and formed its own urban district . In 1863 the population had grown to almost 50,000. At that time, the urban area was divided into Unter-, Mittel- (or Gemarke) and Oberbarmen, the latter also including the old villages of Wichlinghausen, Rittershausen and Heckinghausen, as well as the rural district with the districts of Aue , Bendahl , Kothen , Springen , Lichtenplatz , Heydt , Heckinghausen , Wichlinghausen , Schwarzbach , Dickerstraße , Westkotten , Hatzfeld , Leimbach , Karnap , Loh and Westen . With the industrial revolution , these areas grew together to form a large city that had over 180,000 inhabitants when Wuppertal was founded.
In 1922 Langerfeld with 16,100 inhabitants and Next Breck with 3,500 inhabitants were incorporated into the urban district of Barmen. From 1926 to 1945 there was the Langerfeld airfield owned by aviation pioneer Gottlob Espenlaub .
Merger to form Wuppertal
By the law on the municipal reorganization of the Rhenish-Westphalian industrial area of July 29, 1929, Barmen was initially united with the cities of Cronenberg , Elberfeld , Ronsdorf and Vohwinkel to "Barmen-Elberfeld". In the same year the city council of the newly founded municipality decided to propose to the Prussian State Ministry that the city be renamed "Wuppertal". The proposal was approved in January 1930.
Barmer Confession Synod
In 1934, with the first Barmen Confessing Synod from May 29 to 31, 1934, the Barmen Theological Declaration was adopted as the theological foundation of the Confessing Church in order to oppose the influence of the National Socialists on the Church.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1810 these are mostly estimates, then census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself. From 1871 onwards, the information relates to the "local population" and 1925 to the resident population . Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
- 1855–1879: Wilhelm August Bredt
- 1879–1898: Friedrich Wilhelm Wegner
- 1898–1899: Johannes Gustav Brodzina
- 1899–1906: August Lentze , later DVP
- 1906–1912: Georg Voigt , NLP
- 1912–1929: Paul Hartmann , DDP , then Lord Mayor of Barmen-Elberfeld or Wuppertal
Sons and daughters of the former city
- see also the detailed list of sons and daughters of the city of Wuppertal
- 1814, January 30th - Julius Erbslöh I .; † December 2, 1880 in Barmen; Merchant, manufacturer and company founder
- 1814, February 13th - Karl Otto Jakob Ewich ; † August 29, 1894 in Cologne; Doctor, balneologist
- 1820, November 28th - Friedrich Engels ; † August 5, 1895 in London; Politician, economist, philosopher
- 1836, January 13 - Abraham Peter Carl Siebel ; † May 9, 1868 in Barmen; poet
- 1837, December 8 - Julius Kemna ; † June 8, 1898 in Breslau; Industrialist
- 1842, December 22nd - Julius Erbslöh II ; † March 31, 1929 in Barmen; Factory owner, wholesaler, patron and member of the state parliament
- 1848, January 6th - Albert Erbslöh ; † March 2, 1912 in Eisenach; Kommerzienrat, brewery founder
- 1852 May 31 - Julius Richard Petri ; † December 20, 1921 in Zeitz; Bacteriologist, inventor of the petri dish
- 1859, May 1st - Wilhelm Hammerschmidt ; † July 28, 1924 in Münster, politician, Lord Mayor of Krefeld
- 1861, September 29th - Friedrich Carl Duisberg ; † March 19, 1935 in Leverkusen; Chemist and industrialist
- 1861, October 21 - Fritz Klingholz ; † January 23, 1921 in Berlin; architect
- 1862 Adolf Flöring ; † 1924 in Wermelskirchen, entrepreneur in the shoe industry
- 1864, August 30th - Hermann Josephson ; † December 2, 1949 in Detmold; Protestant pastor, editor and writer
- 1866, February 8 - Henry Janssen ; † January 28, 1948 in Wyomissing, USA; Textile machine entrepreneur
- 1866, February 14th - Ferdinand Thun ; † March 25, 1949 in Wyomissing, USA, textile machine entrepreneur
- 1866, March 18 - Wilhelm Langewiesche ; † January 9, 1934 in Ebenhausen near Munich; Publisher and writer
- 1867, March 4th - Julius R. Haarhaus ; † August 19, 1947 in Leipzig; writer
- 1867, June 29th - Gustav Adolf Uthmann ; † June 22, 1920 in Barmen; Composer and choirmaster
- 1868, December 6th - Johannes Janssen ; † March 1, 1951 in Wuppertal, businessman, politician and member of the Prussian state parliament
- 1869, December 6th - Rudolf Herzog ; † February 3, 1943 in Rheinbreitbach; Writer, journalist, poet and storyteller
- 1871, April 25 - August Mittelsten Scheid ; † February 25, 1955 in Wuppertal; Entrepreneur
- 1875, July 3rd - Ferdinand Sauerbruch ; † July 2, 1951 in Berlin; surgeon
- 1876, May 29 - Wilhelm Kleinmann ; † August 16, 1945; State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Transport and SA group leader
- 1876, July 29 - Adeline Rittershaus-Bjarnason ; † September 6, 1924 in Berlin; Philologist
- 1879, March 2nd - Johann Viktor Bredt ; † December 12, 1940 in Marburg, constitutional lawyer, politician, member of the Reichstag
- 1882, September 2nd - Max Bockmühl ; † January 5, 1949, chemist
- 1887, October 3rd - Rudolf Hermann ; † June 10, 1962 in Berlin, Protestant theologian, religious philosopher and university professor
- 1888, February 6th - Werner Möller ; † January 11, 1919 in Berlin, poet, murder victim of the November Revolution of 1919
- 1889, June 7th - Adolf Löhr , date of death not established, writer
- 1889, October 29th - Albert Hillebrand ; † March 10, 1960 in Münster, Lord Mayor of Münster
- 1890, June 25th - Else Brökelschen ; † October 22, 1976, politician (DVP, CDU), Member of the Bundestag, Member of the Bundestag (Prussia)
- 1890, December 27th - Hermann Barnikol ; † 1952, Protestant theologian, pastor in Jülich
- 1891, October 14th - Hubert Pfeiffer ; † December 25, 1932, organist, pianist and composer
- 1892, March 21st - Ernst Barnikol ; † May 4, 1968 in Halle / Saale, Protestant theologian, church historian
- 1893, March 24th - Karl Haberland ; † April 3, 1978, politician (SPD), Lord Mayor of Solingen
- 1894, July 29 - Wilhelm Philipps ; † February 13, 1971, officer, last lieutenant general in World War II
- 1895, February 11th - Erna Rüppel ; † June 28, 1970, German pediatrician and Holocaust survivor
- 1896, April 5 - Robert Tillmanns ; † November 12, 1955 in Berlin, politician (CDU), Member of the Bundestag, Federal Minister for Special Tasks
- 1896, August 12th - Otto Haußleiter ; †?, Political scientist and administrative officer
- 1897 January 2 - Alfred Dobbert ; † November 19, 1975 in Wuppertal, politician (SPD), member of the Reichstag
- 1897, February 5 - Martin Blank ; † March 11, 1972 in Bremen, politician, Member of the Bundestag 1949–1957
- 1897, August 29 - Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller ; † May 20, 1947 executed as a war criminal in Athens, general of the infantry and fortress commander of Crete
- 1899, March 27 - Otto Frowein ; † December 31, 1945, politician (NSDAP)
- 1900, December 5th - Erich Krewet ; † 1972, communist functionary and resistance fighter
- 1900, October 11th - Erich Paats ; † December 14, 1949 in Hanover, politician (KPD)
- 1901, February 22nd - Hans Schaarwächter ; † February 12, 1984 in Cologne, journalist and writer
- 1902, May 4th - Clare Quast ; † April 26, 1984 in East Berlin, resistance fighter and trade unionist
- 1902, September 9 - Arnold Strauss ; † November 6, 1965 in Norfolk (Virginia), pathologist and art collector
- 1906 - Kurt Lehmann ; † 1987 in Wuppertal, seaman, communist functionary and resistance fighter against National Socialism.
- 1906, March 6th - Otto Osthoff ; † April 1, 1957 in Frankfurt am Main, actor and publisher of magazines
- 1908, April 5th - Helmut Koch ; † January 26, 1975 in Berlin, conductor and choir director
- 1908, October 27th - Liselotte Schaak , actress
- 1909, April 16 - Karlheinz Idelberger ; † May 29, 2003 in Kaarst, physician
- 1909, June 2 - Rudolf Bergmann ; † unknown, state official and SS-Obersturmbannführer in the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)
- 1909 September 5 - Martin Simon ; † August 31, 1942 near Rzhev (Soviet Union), writer
- 1909, September 28th, Joachim Erbslöh ; † June 13, 2006 in Bad Oldesloe, doctor
- 1909, October 6th - Werner Spannagel ; † 1943, boxer
- 1909, November 22 - Walter Gorrish ; † January 19, 1981 in Berlin, writer
- 1911, February 28 - Eduard Hegel ; † November 23, 2005 in Bonn, Catholic theologian and church historian
- 1914, September 22nd - Kurt Hackenberg ; † 1981 in Cologne, politician
- 1914, December 12th - Bernd Klug ; † June 15, 1976, naval officer, ship commander, flotilla admiral of the German Navy
- 1917, May 10th - Kurt Brand ; † November 8, 1991, science fiction writer
- 1919 May 17 - Else Harney ; † April 22, 1984 in Klotten, artisan
- 1923, October 6th - Heino Heiden ; † June 23, 2013, German-Canadian ballet dancer and choreographer
- 1925, August 18 - Wolfgang Hütt ; † January 14, 2019 in Halle (Saale), art historian and author
- 1927, April 25 - Siegfried Palm ; † June 6, 2005 in Frechen, cellist
- 1928, July 3rd - Winfried Pesch ; † June 17, 2006 in Wuppertal, church music director
The city as namesake of companies
- Hans Joachim de Bruyn-Ouboter : 1200 years of Barmen. The city history. Edition Köndgen, Wuppertal, 2009 ISBN 978-3-939843-10-8 .
- Walter Dietz: Barmen 500 years ago. An examination of the Beyenburger official accounts from 1466 and other sources on the early development of the place Barmen (= contributions to the history and local history of the Wuppertal. Vol. 12, ). Born-Verlag, Wuppertal 1966.
- W. Huthsteiner, C. Rocholl: Barmen in historical, topographical and statistical relationship from its creation to the year 1841. Staats, Barmen 1841, ( digitized ).
- Hermann Kießling: Farms and farm associations in Wuppertal. Bergisch-Märkischer Genealogischer Verlag, Wuppertal 1977.
- Wilhelm Langewiesche (ed.): Elberfeld and Barmen. Description and history of this twin town of the Wupperthal, together with a special presentation of its industry, an overview of the Bergisch regional history. Langewiesche, Barmen 1863 (facsimile reprint. Burchard, Wuppertal 1981).
- Vincent Paul Sonderland: The story of Barmen in Wupperthale: based on the sequence of strange events that took place in Barmen from earlier times up to 1821. Büschler, Elberfeld 1821.
- Sönke Lorenz : Kaiserswerth in the Middle Ages. Genesis, structure and organization of royal rule on the Lower Rhine . In: Studia humaniora . Volume 23. Düsseldorf 1993, p. 48 .
- Cf. Deductio historica… In terms of the Franckfurther Magistrate, Contra Die Elberfelder- and Barmer-Handels-Leuthe… In terms of the Franckfurther Leinwands-Haus . Caspar Proper Sons, Mülheim am Rhein 1726 ( Google Books ).
- Official journal for the administrative district of Düsseldorf 1861, p. 250 f.