As a municipality, one is administrative community structure indicated that since the beginning of the 19th century and outside of France , especially in Switzerland and in the under Napoleon Bonaparte French-ruled areas of Germany was introduced.
The municipalities, also called Mairien , in the Grand Duchy of Berg were subordinate to the Provincial Council. According to a decree by Napoléon of October 13, 1807, the parishes in the Grand Duchy of that time were merged into municipalities under the direction of a municipal director. This was assisted by two councilors and 15 municipal councilors. The municipal councils were chosen from the landowners, farmers, manufacturers and traders who were respected for their concern for the welfare of the citizens. The size of the municipality was supposed to be between 2500 and 5000 inhabitants, but was not strictly adhered to due to the increased spatial structures or too great a distance in the country. The municipalities or mairies were after the French period to mayors .
With the Helvetic Republic in 1798, the modern, all-resident community was introduced, which gradually developed into the current form of the political community or community of residents . Before this time there were predominantly user cooperatives and civil parishes that were based on personal membership and in which long-established residents had privileges. The residents who are entitled to vote and vote elect a local authority in the modern community, which is called, for example , the local council and is responsible for local administration. The municipal authorities are controlled by the cantonal government of the respective canton .
In Georgia, administrative units at the district level are also referred to as municipalities ( Georgian მუნიციპალიტეტი ).
Munizipalität ( English municipality ) is also a legal term of Chapter 9 of US bankruptcy law. It is defined as a "political subdivision or public body or instrument of a state " (11 USC § 101 (40)). This definition is very general, so that cities , counties , townships , special-purpose districts (and their sub-form school districts ) as well as public construction projects can be included here.
- Karl Schröder : Between the French Revolution and Prussia's Gloria . Heimatverein Eitorf, Eitorf 1989.