|Seat||Leverkusen , Germany|
|Number of employees||103,824|
|sales||43.55 billion euros (2019)|
Medicinal plant protection products
|As of December 31, 2019|
The Bayer Aktiengesellschaft (short Bayer AG ) is a divisional structured company, which consists of 420 companies with a total of 103,824 employees (as of year-end 2019). The focus of the group is the chemical and pharmaceutical industry . The business is managed by the three divisions Pharmaceuticals, Consumer Health and Crop Science as well as the Animal Health business unit. Bayer shares are listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in the DAX , DivDAX and Euro Stoxx . In 2019, the Bayer generated consolidated with a consolidated sales a of around 43.5 billion euro consolidated net income of 4.1 billion euros. The name Bayer is also known because Bayer AG and its subsidiary Bayer 04 Leverkusen are active in the soccer field.
The headquarters of the company, which was founded in the then independent town of Barmen (now part of Wuppertal ) in 1863 , was first moved to the first large parent plant in 1866, where most of the most important drugs and chemical processes ( aspirin, etc.) were invented in Elberfeld (today also Wuppertal) relocated. Due to a lack of space and environmental and disposal problems in Wuppertal, the construction of a plant in Wiesdorf (now part of Leverkusen ) began in 1900 . In 1912, the company's headquarters were relocated to where the new plant had a major impact on urban development. In 1925 Bayer was incorporated into IG Farben and until 1950 it can only be viewed individually as the “Leverkusen plant”. During the National Socialist era , forced laborers were also used in this factory. In 2000 Bayer AG was one of the founding members of the “Foundation Initiative of German Business Remembrance, Responsibility, Future” , whose main concern was the compensation of forced laborers. After IG Farben was dissolved by the Allied High Commission in 1950, the company was rebuilt and quickly returned to the international markets. In 1961 Bayer was again employing around 80,000 people.
Between 2002 and 2005, in one of the greatest phases of upheaval in the company's history, the original pharmaceutical, crop protection, chemical and plastics divisions were spun off and reorganized as subgroups.
Start-up phase and growth
The company was on August 1, 1863 in Barmen, in today's Wuppertal District Heckinghausen , by Friedrich Bayer (1825-1880) and Johann Friedrich Weskott under the company " Friedr. Bayer et comp. “Founded. In line with his training, Friedrich Bayer performed the commercial tasks in the still small company. Weskott had completed a dyeing apprenticeship and acquired chemical knowledge, which he brought into production. Fuchsine and aniline became important products for the company .
In 1866 the headquarters and most of the production facilities were relocated to a larger site in Elberfeld .
In 1881, after Bayer's death, under the leadership of his son Friedrich Bayer (1851–1920), who had joined the company as a chemist in 1873, the company was incorporated into the stock corporation “ Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. ”, the company also known as Elberfelder Farbenfabriken was created. In 1882 Henry Theodore Böttinger was appointed to the company's board of directors. The chemist Carl Duisberg came to Bayer in 1883 and, after his successes, expanded chemical research from 1888 onwards. Together, Bayer, Böttinger and Duisberg steadily expanded the company's business activities; After Bayer's death, his son Richard Bayer was on the company's supervisory board from 1920 to 1960. A modern scientific laboratory was built in Wuppertal-Elberfeld.
The number of employees had risen to over 300. In Elberfeld, the effects of diacetylmorphine , acetylsalicylic acid and sulfonamides were researched and discovered in the following decades, which were brought onto the market in the new century under the brand names Heroin , Aspirin and Prontosil and which became important for the company's later popularity. The company had acquired the patent for the existing research on heroin on June 26, 1896. With the sulfonamide Prontosil , Bayer introduced the world's first chemotherapeutic agent that could be used as a broad spectrum antibiotic . Gerhard Domagk received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for this in 1939 .
Relocation to the Rhine
In 1895, Duisberg planned the new company headquarters on behalf of Bayer, as an expansion of the company premises was hardly possible due to the restricted location in Wuppertal due to the slopes and the Wupper . At that time Elberfeld / Barmen were one of the largest industrial centers in Germany and by 1880 already had well over 300,000 inhabitants and, along with Berlin, temporarily formed the second largest conurbation in the country.
Bayer's new headquarters were to be the premises of the Alizarin manufacturer Leverkus und Sons near the small town of Wiesdorf am Rhein , which at that time had just 2,000 inhabitants. On the banks of the Rhine there were already basic facilities for a chemical factory. The factory also included a workers' settlement in the largely uninhabited area, which formally belonged to Wiesdorf , which the company founder Carl Leverkus had unofficially named "Leverkusen" after his family headquarters near Remscheid - Lennep , the Leverkus farm . When a name was sought for the newly founded city in 1930, the name of this settlement was used.
During the construction of the new company headquarters in 1895, Duisberg made sure that 30 meter wide main streets and 15 meter wide side streets were built between the buildings, which he justified in his memorandum, which he wrote as the basis for his planning:
"All company buildings must be built in such a way that they can easily be enlarged in one direction, but ideally in two directions."
In his planning, he also took care of supposed little things, such as procurement lists for tools and individual parts. Not all of his plans were precisely implemented, but changes were only permitted with his express permission. One of his ideas was a recreation facility for employees. To this end, he bought a leisure and seminar location in Großeledder near Dabringhausen in 1908 .
In the period from 1895 to 1900, production was gradually relocated to Wiesdorf . At first there were problems finding enough workers. The area around the plant was relatively underdeveloped compared to other towns and villages; it was largely unpopulated wasteland. At an academic Kommers Duisberg was recited a "lament":
“If he can't crumple you,
he 'll send you to Leverkusen.
There, at this end of the world
, you are forever frozen. "
So Duisberg planned that a city should gradually emerge around the factory from the unsightly workers' settlement . He had houses, the so-called " Bayer Colony ", built. Over the years the Bayer department store came into being , and cultural institutions such as the Bayer Erholungshaus, which closely linked the factory and the city, developed. Since April 2005, a museum on the history of the factory estate has existed in a building belonging to the Bayer colony .
When the colony was first established, Elberfeld remained the headquarters of research, while production took place in Wiesdorf. The administration was also still housed in Elberfeld until it was finally relocated to Wiesdorf in 1912 as the first official act of Duisberg as the new chairman of the board. However, the relocation of the company's headquarters had been planned as early as 1902. Duisberg also organized this relocation in a strict and detailed manner. In 1909 the management stipulated "that the extension buildings planned here will be handed over completely and ready by spring 1912".
In addition to the functionality of the building , value was placed on a representative appearance that appeared appropriate to the headquarters of a global corporation. In this way, the entrepreneurial villas and, for example, the casino ( canteen for academics and managers) were created in a splendid style. All directors lived near the company, which shaped the corporate culture and the city of Leverkusen.
The interest group (IG) made up of BASF , Agfa and Bayer, which later became important, was founded in 1904 after the failure of Duisberg's idea of the "United German Paint Factory" made up of Bayer, BASF and Hoechst . The merger plans were abandoned, among other things, because of the unfavorable timing of the merger for Hoechst AG given its own economic strength. So BASF and Bayer formed an interest group, which Agfa joined on January 1, 1905. The IG was able to start some projects together that each individual member company would not have succeeded in alone. Carl Duisberg brought the idea for the merger and the resulting community of interests back with him from his travels in the USA.
In 1913 the company had 10,600 employees, 7,900 of them in Wiesdorf and almost 1,000 abroad. Subsidiaries were established in France , Great Britain , Belgium , Russia and the USA . In 1913, exports accounted for 60–80 percent of the company's turnover.
The First World War
The First World War met Bayer as the rest of German industry off guard. In the first year of the war, Bayer supported war victims by providing them with medical supplies and basic needs (sleeping quarters, warm meals). An emergency hospital was set up in the main laboratory, as it was initially assumed that the war would not last long and that production could therefore be suspended during this time.
As a result of conscription for military service, there was a shortage of workers, which meant that production had to be reduced by half. Inquiries from the War Ministry about materials that were important to the war effort, such as rubber or explosives , were rejected by Duisberg in the first few months of the war for reasons of production technology and safety. Apart from the labor shortage, the factories at the time also prevented the production of explosives. The rejection was given up due to a drop in sales at the end of 1914, especially since technical advances had meanwhile been achieved. A plant was built in Cologne-Flittard for the production of explosives . During the gas war , tens of thousands of tons of chlorine gas and phosgene from Bayer AG's paint production facility were used as war gas . In June 1916, the company began supplying chloropicrin (6,000 tons in total) and a year later mustard gas (also known as "lost"; 45,000 tons in total). To compensate for losses in sales due to the war and better coordination of their productions with BASF , Agfa , Cassella , Kalle & Co. , Weiler-ter Meer , the chemical factory Griesheim-Elektron and the Hoechst paintworks , an interest group was founded in 1916, which shared the profits divided, but left the individual companies their independence.
After the end of the war in 1918, British troops occupied a bridgehead on the right bank of the Rhine around Cologne, which also affected the Bayer factory in Wiesdorf. The company lost a large part of its sales markets after the war. The US subsidiary was expropriated and the individual parts sold, the Russian part of the company was expropriated in the course of the Russian Revolution .
Since the Wiesdorf plant remained undamaged, research and production could quickly be resumed. In 1923 Bayer brought suramin (Germanin), a drug against sleeping sickness , discovered by chemists Oskar Dressel and Richard Kothe in 1916 , onto the market.
→ Main article: IG Farben
As part of the community of interests that had existed since 1904 and expanded in 1916, a future expansion of cooperation was discussed in November 1924 - the German chemical industry was far worse off after the war than before because all foreign property was lost. Once again, Carl Duisberg prepared a memorandum in which he discussed the possibilities of continued existence. A merger , a holding company or a closer bond between the members came into question. Duisberg personally preferred the holding company, while most of the CEOs of the other companies wanted to merge as quickly as possible. In a bitter dispute, two parties formed - one, smaller party, which, like Duisberg, advocated a holding organization, and the larger party - led by Carl Bosch from BASF - which voted in favor of a merger. Finally, the community council of the community of interests voted for a merger.
Carl Duisberg then resigned all offices that he held in the paint factories. Friedr. Bayer et comp. (Farbenfabriken formerly Friedrich Bayer et Companion) and the community of interests, which affected Carl Bosch deeply, who had valued Duisberg as a colleague. After a conciliatory gesture from Bosch, Duisberg finally became chairman of the supervisory board of the new IG Farbenindustrie AG. The new company was created by changing the name of BASF. The other companies involved were then taken over from this. BASF, Bayer and Farbwerke Hoechst (with Cassella and Kalle) each contributed 27.4 percent of the share capital to the joint venture, Agfa 9 percent, Griesheim-Elektron 6.9 percent and Weiler ter-Meer 1.9 percent.
IG Farben was based in Frankfurt am Main . The Wiesdorf, Dormagen and Uerdingen (Weiler-ter Meer) plants belonged to the Niederrhein operating group . From the oversized supervisory board of 50 members, on which all members of the supervisory board of the original companies sat, Carl Duisberg formed a board of directors ; from the executive board, which comprised 83 people, from Carl Bosch a working committee. At this point in time, Bayer no longer existed in the commercial register . Nevertheless, from 1934 onwards , all IG Farben pharmaceuticals were sold under the Bayer brand because the name had gained a good reputation at home and abroad. In Leverkusen, the number of workers fell to 5,400 through rationalization .
From 1926 onwards, copper silk was produced in the plant , and in 1927 crop protection research was centralized in Leverkusen so that more targeted research was possible.
The effects of the global economic crisis also made themselves felt in the IG from 1929 onwards: Over 45 percent of the workers were laid off, and sales fell rapidly. In Leverkusen, 2,650 of the 12,450 employees were laid off between 1929 and 1932, and the working week and day was increased.
In 1930 the communities of Wiesdorf, Schlebusch and Rheindorf merged to form an independent town under the name Leverkusen , in which Bayer's Leverkusen plant was not insignificant. The high number of jobs created by the establishment of the plant in the Leverkusen area suggested an administrative association of the affected communities. On the one hand, this made it easier to distribute the tax revenue between the previous communities, and on the other hand, there was not enough settlement space available in Wiesdorf with the large Bayer site for the inflowing workers, but there was in the neighboring communities. The name Leverkusen was borrowed from the Bayer workers' settlement on the Rhine, which was unofficially named after Leverkus and until then was part of the city of Wiesdorf.
In 1931, a subsidiary of Bayer AG, Miles Inc. , invented Alka-Seltzer . The product was developed by a chemist working at Miles from a mixture of acetylsalicylic acid , baking powder and citric acid , which an editor regularly supplied his employees with as a result of a flu outbreak in the USA that caused many lost workdays. The initially strong increase in sales figures stagnated for a long time and eventually even declined. The radio advertising eventually helped the counter-counter medication for breakthrough.
The Bayer Cross , at that time the largest free-floating neon sign in the world with a diameter of 72 meters , was switched on by Carl Duisberg for the first time in 1933 - 2,200 light bulbs provided the lighting; it was attached between two 126-meter-high chimneys.
time of the nationalsocialism
The number of workers initially rose during the National Socialist era due to an economic upswing. The forcibly dismissed Jewish workers and researchers were missing from the Bayer laboratory. When Carl Bosch pointed out to Hitler in a personal conversation that this would “throw you back a hundred years”, he replied: “ Then we will work 100 years without chemistry and physics ”. After Duisberg's death in 1935, Hans Kühne became plant manager.
The IG and the Leverkusener Werk were among the major war companies for the National Socialist regime in World War II . For the war economy, chemical knowledge was essential for the production of war material. The company produced substances such as oil and lubricants, rubber and various gases.
Due to the classification as a "war-important enterprise", forced and foreign workers were deployed in the works of the Bayer Betriebsgemeinschaft Bayer . In the first few years the management began to increase working hours. Because only those workers were released from military service who were released as “key workers”, this measure was not sufficient to meet the demand. The classification of Bayer as a "war-important company" resulted in preferential allocation of materials and raw materials, so that there was hardly any shortage.
The first reason given was a "work-wise [...] relatively hard-pressed situation" and an unfair exclusion of the Leverkusen plant from Polish skilled workers because the other IG Farben plants (e.g. Hoechst ) had already been promised workers. At the same time, an “application for approval to employ foreign, non-economic workers” was approved by the Opladen employment office . On the other hand, Stefanski explains that the then operations manager Ulrich Haberland confirmed in minutes that the Leverkusen paintworks played a pioneering role in the procurement of forced labor. After the first deportation of Polish forced laborers, other workers followed, mainly from the occupied countries of Belgium and the Netherlands . In March 1941, 250 Italians followed on request. When asked in January 1941 for “ 150 Polish girls with special manual dexterity ”, more Polish men first arrived, before 21 women and girls were sent in May, although they did not officially refuse to import them to Germany, whose living conditions indicated a willingness to return home to leave, but not revealed. In interviews, the respondents stated that they had made attempts by the authorities against the removal, but they were unsuccessful. They then bent down nonviolently because refusing to do so would have made their situation worse or another family member confiscated. Those affected also told of sudden disappearances, for example during a shopping spree with direct transport to the train station.
It is not clear from the documents whether voluntary workers actually worked at IG Farbenwerk Leverkusen in the beginning, or whether they were selected directly from deported residents of occupied countries or prisoners of war, and Bayer does not clearly state this. In the company's own history it is mentioned that the first workers came to Leverkusen voluntarily: "[...] they first tried to recruit volunteer workers abroad."
The process of “recruiting” the forced laborers is unclear and is presented very differently in the literature. On the one hand, reference is made to the state allocation of workers, which "gave the companies little leeway for their own dispositions". In order to be able to meet the state production requirements, it was necessary to request forced labor from the local employment offices. The labor offices in turn assigned the workers. The assignment of the jobs was done exclusively by the state, so that no influence from the economy was possible. On the other hand, Wolff explains that after an advertising campaign by the Leverkusen IG Farbenwerk, voluntary workers from Poland appeared on their own and only afterwards, when the volunteer potential was exhausted, forced laborers were recruited. In contrast to Wolff, Herbert describes the recourse to voluntary workers as less and assumes that already six months after the start of the war there were no longer any notable numbers of volunteers.
A total of around 4,500 forced laborers are said to have worked in the IG Farben works in Leverkusen, with the official historiography of Bayer AG citing 4,300 as the highest number. Weinmann compiles a number of 4,460 people, although it remains unclear whether the 1,735 forced laborers from the camps in Cologne mentioned later were included there. The majority of the workers came from Poland (56 percent), although this still varied in different departments. For example, 83 percent of the workforce in the photo department was of Polish origin.
With a few exceptions, according to the surveys, the work (especially that of the Polish women) was unpleasant, physically strenuous and in many cases also harmful to health. In order to be able to employ young workers, the protection of minors was lifted by ordinance of the Reich Minister of Labor .
The punishment for unexcused absence or violations of discipline and order was carried out, among other things, by withdrawing the food stamps, but also, according to contemporary witnesses, by physical violence or brief locking in a very confined space. Some of the sentences were arbitrarily imposed by the social services department and some were imposed directly by the guards. In a very few cases, crimes have also been punished with police custody.
Documents have been received that the Bayer company requested and received 150 female prisoners for “170 RM each”. Another letter said: “The experiments have been carried out, all people have died. We will contact you shortly for further deliveries. "
In 1943 Ulrich Haberland succeeded Hans Kühne as plant manager in Leverkusen. On October 26, 1944, after the first bombs hit the plant in 1940, the plant in Leverkusen was badly damaged in a devastating air raid and then completely shut down because it was no longer possible to work safely.
On April 14, 1945, American troops took the Leverkusen plant. The works on the Lower Rhine were in the British zone of occupation . In 1947, the British military administration took control of Leverkusen and thus complete control of the plants in the following years.
Reconstruction in the post-war period
In the first years of the post-war period, the continued existence of IG Farbenindustrie AG was uncertain. At the end of the war, all plants were occupied and placed under Allied military administration. On July 5, 1945, the military government, in its Order No. 2 to Act No. 32, ordered the confiscation of all IG Farben assets. The dismantling of some of the plants was planned, the remaining parts were to be dismantled into small units as far as possible, because the Allies viewed the IG as an armaments factory that was important to the war effort and wanted to make Germany permanently incapable of war.
The construction of the plant in Leverkusen was unorganized and largely took place without insurance, wages or training, so that, for example, chemists had to work as glaziers or secretaries as carpenters. Since there was great demand for the products, the reconstruction had to be carried out quickly. The production of important brands could be resumed despite the IG's "limbo". The return of the workers from the war and from prisoner-of-war initially posed problems for the city and the company that often cared for the workers, as accommodation and supplies were very difficult due to the famine .
Shortly before the currency reform in 1948 and the inflation that went with it, it was also difficult to pay a decent wage. Instead, the black market flourished during this period ; therefore the company also offered barter goods as wages rather unofficially .
In Nuremberg , 23 senior employees of IG Farben had to answer for war crimes, crimes against humanity, enslavement, membership in a criminal organization and similar charges in the IG Farben trial . 10 defendants were acquitted, the others sentenced to between 18 months and 8 years in prison.
In 1950, the Allied High Commission created Law No. 35 for the separation of IG Farben into twelve “economically sound and independent” parts. Among these twelve companies was the newly founded company “Farbenfabriken Bayer Aktiengesellschaft” after long negotiations. The new CEO Ulrich Haberland fought to include the Dormagen plant in the Bayer company, as it would hardly have been viable on its own. In addition to the Dormagen, Elberfeld and Leverkusen plants that existed before 1925, the new Bayer AG also included the Krefeld - Uerdingen plant , which before IG Farben was the Weiler ter-Meer company .
Already four years after the end of the war, the first international connections were established again. A representation in France , which initially had shares in a similar chemical company, gradually increased these shares. Today this agency is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bayer AG. This approach was typical for Bayer, as it worked in this way or similar in many other cases.
In 1952, new large-scale productions, such as means to combat tuberculosis or the production of penicillin , were introduced. In the same year, Bayer-Wohngesellschaft was re-established, which again made company apartments available. A year later, Bayer AG re-entered the stock market and Bayer shares were reintroduced. In June 1953 Bayer brought the first neuroleptic ( chlorpromazine ) onto the German market as a licensed product from Rhône-Poulenc .
The group founded Vero Beach in Florida in 1954 with plants in Buenos Aires for general outsourcing of production, New Martinsville, West Virginia , where the preproduction of polyurethane plastics was to take place, to facilitate research into sub- and tropical crop protection products Chile has international production facilities for the first time after the war for synthetic tanning agents . In addition, the Brazilian subsidiary Chimica Bayer Ltda. recovered.
In 1957 the company opened up crude oil as a profitable business area. In a collaboration with the BP petrol and petroleum mbH from Hamburg was Erdölchemie GmbH founded. The so-called petrochemical industry was thus one of the most important suppliers of organic raw materials.
Bayer now again concentrated on research and development and was able to record positive business development as part of the “ economic miracle ”. The successor to Ulrich Haberland, who died in 1961, as CEO was Kurt Hansen from 1961 to 1974 . With it, mainframe computers were introduced at Bayer AG, and the construction of the Bayer skyscraper , which began in 1960 , caused the Japanese Garden to move a few times .
In 1962 the group had 61,000 employees in the Federal Republic of Germany and achieved an annual turnover of 4 billion DM . This year, additional external plants were established in Thailand , Japan , the Philippines and Australia . In addition to production, these start-ups also promoted international contacts that had initially developed with difficulty after the Second World War.
The Bayer subsidiary Agfa AG and Gevaert AG merged in 1964. This was done in order to combine Gevaert's products for professional films, for example large rolls of film for cinemas or X-ray machines, and Agfa's offerings in the field of photography for everyone. From an economic point of view, the merger was favorable because both companies would not have been internationally competitive on their own.
In Italy , market relations, which were first established in 1899 and torn off by the Second World War, were resumed. Bayer was able to regain its rights as early as 1946, but had not yet found a secure footing. It was not until 1967 that this was restored by “Bayer Italia SpA”.
Business relations in the USA were also destroyed: the name "Bayer" could no longer be regained, and the parts of the company had largely been dispersed and passed into other hands. In 1954 the joint venture “ Mobay ” was founded with Monsanto in the USA, the name is made up of the first letters of the two founding companies. Among other things, the company produced Agent Orange for use in the Vietnam War. In 1967, Mobay from Pittsburgh became a wholly-owned Bayer subsidiary.
In 1969 all textbooks, productions and workshops were brought together in one complex, which was located on the Flittarder Feld in Cologne, directly on the city limits of Leverkusen.
Development until 2001
In 1971 a new corporate structure was developed. The functional structure that assigned a management board to each individual division - including accounting and human resources - was abolished in order to do justice to the company's growth and the increasing complexity. Each division, each central area and the individual plant administrations were given their own small “board of directors”, from which two division heads were ultimately elected. The division leaders were equal a chemist and a businessman.
In 1973 the Bayer plant was built in Brunsbüttel on the Elbe. One reason for the easy accessibility by ship, the place also offered enough space to expand if necessary. The state government of Schleswig-Holstein used it for this work, and therefore supported it , because it favored the industrialization of the still more agricultural area.
After Kurt Hansen moved to the Supervisory Board in 1974, Herbert Grünewald took over the chairmanship until 1984. Between 1978 and 1981, Bayer took over a number of companies again: These included Miles Inc. , which was 97 percent owned by Bayer, and Agfa -Gaevert, which became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bayer. With the acquisition of Miles Inc. Bayer achieved a very important position in the US stock market . Plant protection research was also expanded, and in 1979 the construction of a plant protection center began in Monheim .
In 1990 Bayer employed 171,000 people and achieved annual sales of DM 41.643 billion. After the fall of the Iron Curtain, the company turned to new sales markets in Eastern Europe. In 1994 a new Bayer plant in Bitterfeld started producing aspirin . The group has been able to operate under the name 'Bayer' again in the US since 1995 , as the company also reacquired the naming rights for the US with the purchase of the company Sterling Winthrop (After the First World War, the Bayer patents were confiscated by the US as enemy assets ). After Hermann J. Strenger , who was CEO from 1984 to 1992, Manfred Schneider followed from 1992 to 2002 .
On October 22, 1999, an accident occurred in the village of Tauccamarca in the Peruvian Andes, in which 42 of the 48 children in the village were initially poisoned and 24 of them died. The poisoning was caused by the improper use of an insecticide containing parathion-methyl , which was accidentally mixed with the local school milk powder. In autumn 2002, an investigative commission of the Peruvian Congress accused Bayer of inadequate labeling with warning notices on the original plastic containers. The packaging, which contained one kilogram of the highly toxic insecticide, was only labeled in Spanish, which is little used among the rural population, and showed the image of a plant. There were no safety instructions in the form of pictograms .
In October 2001 Bayer took over the crop protection division from Aventis . With a price of 7.25 billion euros, this was the largest acquisition in Bayer's history to date. A year later, Bayer also bought the seed division of Aventis and, alongside Monsanto , DuPont , Pioneer and Syngenta, became one of the largest seed companies in the world. On October 1, 2002, Bayer CropScience AG became legally independent. With 22,000 employees and a turnover of 6.5 billion euros, it ranks second in the crop protection industry.
Restructuring of the group from 2002 to 2005
On September 13, 2001 Werner Wenning was elected as the new CEO of the Bayer Group. The previous chairman of the board, Manfred Schneider , became chairman of the supervisory board. Under the new CEO Wenning began between 2002 and 2005, one of the largest phases of upheaval in the group. The necessity of the realignment increased the considerable economic difficulties due to the Lipobay crisis and the sharply collapsed share price. Initially, the previous divisions of Bayer AG (crop protection, pharmaceuticals, polymers and chemicals) were formed into independent subgroups (Bayer CropScience, Bayer HealthCare, Bayer Polymers and Bayer Chemicals) under the umbrella of a holding company . Other parts of Bayer AG were spun off into service companies such as Bayer Technology Services , Bayer Industry Services ( Currenta since January 1, 2008 ) and Bayer Business Services . In other countries, too, substantial business areas were separated into independent companies.
From January 24, 2002 to the end of September 2007, Bayer shares were traded in New York under the symbol BAY . The initial public offering was supposed to take place on September 26, 2001, but had to be postponed due to the Lipobay scandal. With the withdrawal from the New York Stock Exchange , the company sought the complete deregistration and thus the end of all reporting obligations to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Bayer thus followed BASF , which shortly beforehand also announced a delisting .
At the end of 2003 it was announced that the Bayer Chemicals subgroup, together with larger parts of the plastics business of the Bayer Polymers subgroup, would be spun off from the group as an independent company. The Bayer Polymers subgroup was renamed Bayer MaterialScience on January 1, 2004 . The separation of the areas was completed on February 1, 2005 in the form of a spin-off and with the IPO as Lanxess .
As announced in summer 2004, at the beginning of 2005 the OTC division (non-prescription drugs) of the Swiss Roche (including the 50 percent share of the joint OTC joint venture ) was taken over. With this takeover, the pharmaceutical sector was realigned. The aim is to become the world's leading company in the market for non-prescription drugs.
The restructuring has brought the Bayer Group out of the meanwhile red figures. In 2005 sales amounted to 27.383 billion euros, 17.6 percent above sales in 2004. The operating result improved by 50 percent from 1.875 billion euros in fiscal 2004 to 2.812 billion euros in fiscal 2005. The dividend was from 0.55 euros (2004) increased to 0.95 euros (2005), 1.00 euros (2006) and 1.35 euros (2007).
Development since 2005
On March 23, 2006, the Bayer Group submitted a takeover offer for the Berlin-based pharmaceutical manufacturer Schering AG , thereby outbid Merck KGaA . Bayer offered shareholders € 86 per share compared to € 77 from Merck. The planned transaction volume should be around 16.5 billion euros. Bayer wanted to own at least 75 percent of the Schering shares by May 30, 2006. However, due to the poor demand, this deadline had to be extended to June 14, 2006. Shortly before the deadline, it became known that Merck had increased its original stake in Schering to 21.8 percent through acquisitions. By reaching the blocking minority of 25 percent, Merck could initially have prevented the takeover. On June 14, Bayer and Merck agreed that Bayer would acquire the Schering shares from Merck for EUR 89 per share, generating income of EUR 400 million for Merck . This increased price was successfully offered to the other Schering shareholders. The takeover cost Bayer almost 17 billion euros.
On September 13, 2006, the last general meeting of Schering AG passed a domination and profit transfer agreement . The company was renamed " Bayer Schering Pharma AG". Bayer now held more than 95 percent of the shares and was thus able to squeeze out the remaining shareholders of Schering AG by excluding minority shareholders ("squeeze-out") and ultimately take the company off the stock exchange.
On June 29, 2006, it was announced that Bayer had sold the Diagnostics Division of Bayer HealthCare to Siemens . The purchase price was 4.2 billion euros. Bayer's withdrawal from the diagnostics business, which is heavily influenced by electronics, had been prepared for some time and was not related to the takeover of Schering. Nevertheless, the net inflow of 3.6 billion euros makes it easier to finance this transaction. The Diabetes Care and Contrast Media divisions were not sold .
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In March 2014, Bayer completed the takeover of the Norwegian pharmaceutical company Algeta, which specializes in cancer drugs, with a stake of 98.2 percent .
On May 6, 2014 Bayer announced that it would take over the consumer care business of the US pharmaceutical company Merck, Sharp & Dohme for 14.2 billion US dollars in cash. With this acquisition, Bayer became the world's second largest supplier of non-prescription drugs and health products after Johnson & Johnson .
On September 18, 2014, Bayer announced the spin-off and IPO of the MaterialScience division. Almost nine months later, on June 1, 2015, the name of the new company was published, which has been operating as Covestro since September 1, 2015 . The company went public on October 6, 2015. At the end of 2018, Bayer still held 6.8 percent after the sale of larger Covestro shares in order to service an exchangeable bond due in 2020 .
On May 23, 2016, Bayer submitted an official offer to take over US agrochemical company Monsanto for USD 62 billion. A cash offer of $ 122 per share was made to shareholders. At this point in time, it would have been by far the largest acquisition in Bayer's history. The following day, Monsanto's management announced that it had rejected the offer because the offer was too low. But one is open to constructive discussions. On September 6, 2016, the offering was increased to USD 127.50 per share. On September 14, 2016, it was announced that Monsanto accepted the acquisition by Bayer. The purchase price was 66 billion USD (60 billion euros), making it the largest takeover by a German group abroad to date. At the same time, Bayer became the world's leading company in the agrochemicals business with the approval of the antitrust authorities for the takeover.
On March 21, 2018, the EU Commission approved the planned takeover of Monsanto subject to certain conditions. Bayer had previously committed to selling almost all of its global seeds and agronomic traits business, including research, to BASF . In addition, BASF was to take over the crop protection product glufosinate and three key research programs for broad-spectrum weed killers. In addition, Bayer is in exclusive talks with the chemical company about the sale of its vegetable seed business.
On August 10, 2018, Monsanto was sentenced by a California jury to pay $ 289 million in damages to a cancer victim. In addition, it became known that 5,000 similar lawsuits against cancer victims are pending in the United States, whereupon Bayer's share price fell by up to 11%.
At the beginning of 2019, data journalists from Bayerischer Rundfunk discovered and reported the Winnti malware attacking the Bayer Group. The interfaces between the Internet , intranet and authorization systems are said to have been infected. The company was warned of its publication and removed the malware without any data leakage.
At the beginning of April 2019, the company announced that as a result of an austerity program that Werner Baumann presented in December 2018, 12,000 jobs are to be cut worldwide. In Germany, around 4,500 jobs are to be cut, which will primarily affect the Wuppertal site and the headquarters in Leverkusen.
On April 26, 2019, discharge was denied to the incumbent Executive Board under Chairman Baumann at the Annual General Meeting with 55.5% against, a unique event in the history of a DAX group. This happened against the background of ongoing criticism of the takeover of Monsanto and the consequences for the company.
On May 13, 2019, Bayer lost the third glyphosate trial because of the weed killer Roundup . The ruling requires the payment of more than two billion dollars (over 1.78 billion euros) to the plaintiff couple, both over 70 years old and suffering from lymphatic cancer.
On May 30, 2019, Los Angeles County filed a lawsuit with the California federal district court allegedly causing environmental damage decades ago. The plaintiffs claim that the company must share in the costs of cleaning up dozens of bodies of water contaminated with PCB chemicals and pay punitive damages. The group announced that it would examine the lawsuit, but assume that the allegations are baseless. Monsanto voluntarily stopped PCB production more than 40 years ago. The plaintiffs accuse Monsanto of having concealed the devastating effects of the toxic pollutants on nature and living beings for decades. The company was the only manufacturer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the United States from 1935 to 1977 . In 1979 the chemical was banned there.
On July 26, 2019, a court reduced the fine in a case in California that was important for Bayer from a total of around two billion to 86.7 million dollars. The sum of two billion dollars that a jury had granted the cancer-stricken couple Alva and Alberta Pilliod was many times too high and thus went beyond the constitutionally appropriate framework. The number of lawsuits filed against the Roundup weed killer was 18,400 as of July 11, 2019.
On August 20, 2019, Bayer AG announced the sale of its veterinary medicine division to the US company Elanco Animal Health for 7.6 billion US dollars . The completion of the transaction was announced on August 3, 2020. Bayer received US $ 5.17 billion (before tax) in cash and 72.9 million common shares from Elanco. Bayer now has a 15.5% stake in Elanco, but plans to sell its stake in Elanco after the holding period expires in mid-2021.
Immediately after the law to mitigate the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in civil, insolvency and criminal procedure law was passed on March 27, 2020, Bayer became the first stock corporation to announce that it would hold its Annual General Meeting planned for April 28, 2020 entirely online .
On June 24, 2020, Bayer announced an agreement with some of the glyphosate plaintiffs from the United States. In the out-of-court settlement, Bayer agreed to pay more than $ 10 billion without admission of guilt.
In mid-August 2020, Bayer announced that it would take over the British biotech company KaNDy Therapeutics for $ 425 million. KaNDy Therapeutics has an active ingredient under development to alleviate menopausal problems, which should enter the final phase III of clinical development in 2021.
The operative business of Bayer AG is in the three divisions
- Consumer Health,
- Crop Science,
and the Animal Health business unit.
In addition, the Corporate Functions and Bayer Business Services support the business, the Engineering and Technology division is integrated into Bayer AG. Together with Lanxess , Bayer operates the Currenta joint venture, which was formed from the former “Bayer Industry Services”, and holds 60 percent of the shares there.
The Pharmaceuticals Division is responsible for the research, development, production and sales of prescription products, particularly in the cardiology and women's health sectors , as well as specialty therapeutics in the oncology , hematology and ophthalmology sectors . The division also includes the Radiology business unit with medical devices for use in contrast agent-assisted diagnostic imaging and with the contrast agents required for this. Pharmaceuticals emerged from Bayer HealthCare AG , a former subsidiary of Bayer AG, which was dissolved on January 1, 2016. The most important research centers for Pharmaceuticals are Berlin, Wuppertal and Cologne in Germany, San Francisco and Berkeley in the USA, Turku in Finland and Oslo in Norway. In February 2020, Bayer announced that a large part of the Berlin research unit was to be transferred to the international service provider Nuvisan, with research continuing to take place on the Bayer research and development campus. The transfer should be completed by mid-2020. Head of the Pharmaceuticals Division based in Berlin is Stefan Oelrich.
The Consumer Health division is responsible for the research, development, production and distribution of non-prescription products in the categories of dermatology , nutritional supplements , pain, gastrointestinal diseases, allergies , colds , foot care , sun protection and cardiovascular risk prevention. These include world-famous brands such as Claritin, Aspirin, Aleve, Bepanthen / Bepanthol, Canesten and Dr. Scholl's. Consumer Health, like Pharmaceuticals, emerged from Bayer HealthCare AG , a former subsidiary of Bayer AG, which was dissolved on January 1, 2016. Heiko Shipper is the head of Consumer Health based in Basel.
On July 31, 2018, Bayer announced the sale of the prescription dermatological business that Bayer acquired in 2006 through the acquisition of Schering AG. The Danish company LEO Pharma initially took over the business in the USA on September 4, 2018 and for all other countries on July 2, 2019. On May 13, 2019, the sun protection brand Coppertone was sold to the Hamburg cosmetics manufacturer Beiersdorf AG for 550 million euros.
The Crop Science division is the crop protection division of Bayer AG, which is active in the fields of seeds, crop protection and pest control in and outside of agriculture. In 2002, as part of the restructuring, it was spun off as a subgroup with the name Bayer CropScience AG and converted back into a division in 2016. In organizational terms, the Crop Science business is divided into the two operating units Crop Protection / Seeds and Environmental Science . The former focuses on seeds, chemical and biological crop protection solutions and offers customer service for farmers. The latter focused on non-agricultural applications until 2015 and researched products and services for the control of pests in the home and garden through to forestry. In addition to important German locations in Dormagen , the Höchst Industrial Park and Knapsack , the European headquarters are in Lyon. Measured in terms of sales in the Crop Science division, Bayer is the second largest agrochemical company in the world. Liam Condon is the head of Crop Science based in Monheim am Rhein .
Business units without divisions
The Animal Health business unit offers products and solutions for the prevention and treatment of diseases in pets and farm animals. It operates largely independently of the other Bayer AG divisions. Liam Condon , Head of the Crop Science Division, is responsible for the Animal Health division on the Group's Board of Management. The head of the division is Dirk Ehle. On August 20, 2019, the sale of the business for mid-2020 was announced.
Bayer Business Services
Bayer Business Services serves the Bayer subgroups as a business process outsourcing partner and IT service provider. External contacts are also accepted, but these are treated with lower priority. The company was founded on January 1st, 2003 and was spun off in 2004 as part of the restructuring of the group. Company director of the GmbH based in Leverkusen , which was converted into a competence center as part of Bayer AG in 2016, has been Daniel Hartert since January 1, 2009. With 5,190 employees worldwide, Bayer Business Services generated sales of EUR 1.148 million in 2015.
Bayer Business Services is also home to the corporate archive (Corporate History & Archives department), which stores around 28 million documents on the history of Bayer.
The Corporate Functions bundles the business support services of Bayer AG. In the Engineering & Technology division , for example, the company develops problem solutions for chemical-pharmaceutical processes and systems and also offers special software expertise in the field of operations management .
The Currenta GmbH & Co. OHG (proper spelling CURRENTA) worked as Bayer "Industry Services GmbH & Co. OHG" by the end of 2007 and was held by 2019 to 60 percent by Bayer. Lanxess AG holds the remaining shares . The company is responsible for the operation and the range of infrastructure and services that are made available at the Chempark locations in Dormagen, Leverkusen and Krefeld-Uerdingen. The company is based in Leverkusen and employed around 3,200 people in 2018. On August 6, 2019, Bayer and Lanxess announced that they would sell their shares in Macquarie . Currenta was valued at 3.5 billion euros in the transaction. The transaction was completed on November 29, 2019.
- Bayer Gastronomy GmbH
- Bayer Innovation GmbH
- Bayer Intellectual Property GmbH
- Pallas Insurance AG
- Bayer 04 Football GmbH
- Bayer 04 Immobilien GmbH
- EuroServices Bayer GmbH
- INVITE GmbH
- TravelBoard GmbH
The company has issued a total of around 982 million registered shares , 100 percent of which are in free float . The vast majority of the approximately 383,000 shareholders entered in the share register are private investors from Germany. This group represents approximately 11 percent of the share capital . Around 1 percent of the share capital is held by Bayer employees. Distribution of voting rights of reportable shareholders see table:
|proportion of||Shareholders (as of May 2019)|
|7.17%||BlackRock, Inc. , Wilmington|
|3.97%||Ellington Investments, Government of Singapore|
|3.18%||Massachusetts Financial Services Company, Boston|
|3.07%||Harris Associates LP, Wilmington|
|82.61%||remaining free float|
In the interests of continuity, Bayer is aiming for an annual dividend that is at least the same as the previous year. In the past ten years (2009–2019) the dividend has been increased nine times and kept constant once. Due to the consistently above-average dividend yield recently, Bayer shares have been included in the DivDAX since September 2016 .
As announced in September 2019, the Board of Management of Bayer AG was downsized at the beginning of 2020. After Hartmut Klusik and Kemal Malik left, it now only consists of five members:
- the chairman of the board Werner Baumann
- Wolfgang Nickl (Finance)
- Stefan Oelrich (Pharmaceuticals)
- Heiko Schipper (Consumer Health)
- Liam Condon (Crop Science)
The Supervisory Board consists of the following 20 members:
- Norbert Winkeljohann , chairman
- Oliver Zühlke, Deputy Chairman, Chairman of the Bayer General Works Council
- Paul Achleitner , Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Deutsche Bank AG
- Simone Bagel-Trah , Chairwoman of the Supervisory Board of Henkel AG & Co. KGaA and Henkel Management AG and of the Shareholders' Committee of Henkel AG & Co. KGaA
- Horst Baier, independent consultant
- Norbert Bischofberger , Executive Vice President Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer of Gilead Sciences Inc.
- André van Broich, Chairman of the Bayer Works Council - Dormagen site
- Ertharin Cousin , nutrition and agriculture expert
- Thomas Elsner, Chairman of the Speaker Committee of Bayer AG Leverkusen and Chairman of the Group Speaker Committee of Bayer AG
- Johanna W. (Hanneke) Faber, Chief Commercial Officer & Member of the Executive Committee of Koninklijke Ahold NV
- Colleen A. Goggins, self-employed consultant
- Robert Gundlach, Chairman of the Works Council - Berlin location
- Heike Hausfeld, Chairwoman of the Works Council - Leverkusen site
- Reiner Hoffmann , Chairman of the German Federation of Trade Unions
- Frank Löllgen, District Manager North Rhine of IG Bergbau, Chemie, Energie
- Wolfgang Plischke , independent consultant
- Petra Reinbold-Knape, member of the executive board of the IG Bergbau, Chemie, Energie
- Michael Schmidt-Kießling, Chairman of the Bayer Works Council - Elberfeld site
- Otmar D. Wiestler , President of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers
Public and sustainability
In 2019, Bayer established this new corporate division and appointed ex-Green Matthias Berninger as director; One of its tasks is to campaign for the plant protection product glyphosate in the interests of the company.
Personnel policy and participation
Since the end of the Second World War, the company management has maintained a cooperative relationship with the corporate interest group. Already in March 1946 had a joint meeting between representatives of the management and the even before the adoption of the Works Councils Act, the Allied Control Council ( CC Law 22 ) "unofficially" elected council took place where the management tried to integrate the works into the existing social division. This failed because of the resistance of the works council, which defended its independence. With Fritz Jacobi , the new head of human resources appointed in March 1948 , who became an equal member of the Board of Management when the company was re-established in 1951, a " co-determined reform of Bayer's social policy" began. Jacobi sought cooperation with the works council and at the end of the 1950s set up an independent HR department, which was headed by his deputy and later successor, Paul Gert von Beckerath . According to Ruth Rosenberger, Bayer was one of the first large companies to set up a personnel department not only for employees but for all employees in addition to the social department, and which appointed a personnel manager to the company's highest hierarchical level, the board of directors. “Conventional social policy alone” was “no longer a sufficient means to meet the demands of a self-confident workforce”. The social and human resources department developed into a comprehensively differentiated department and a complementary interaction between the HR department and the works council, which was also maintained by the successors on both sides. In the 1980s, for example, representatives of the works council took part in the negotiations on a redesign of the personnel policy . The common goal was the internal integration of the employees and their identification with the "Bayer community" through intensive support, further education and training of the employees. As a result of this cooperation, the adjustments and restructuring of the group went largely smoothly, apart from those groups that opposed the works council's cooperation policy in works council elections and were represented as a minority in the works council.
|1863||Barmen (since 1929 Wuppertal )|
|1863||Frankfurt-Höchst 2, 3|
1. Founding company Schering AG
2. Locations of Aventis CropScience
3. Founding company Hoechst AG
4. Founding company Weiler-ter Meer
The first plant in Barmen was poorly located in terms of traffic, which is why operations were completely relocated to the larger and better-connected Elberfeld. In the Wupper valley below the city center, the main plant had enough space for several years. However, the necessary shipping connection was missing for the permanent company headquarters, and the tightly built valley location between steep slopes limited further expansion. However, the Wuppertal plant still exists today as a research and secondary production facility . There is a connection to the Düsseldorf – Elberfeld railway line , and the plant is located directly on the B 7 and the suspension railway , as well as near the A 46 .
The Leverkusen plant, which was also put into operation in 1912, was better suited as the main plant, renamed the Leverkusen Chemical Park in 2001 and became part of the " CHEMPARK " in 2008 , which also includes the locations in Dormagen and Krefeld-Uerdingen. It is partly in Leverkusen- Wiesdorf , partly in the Cologne district of Flittard and directly on the Rhine , where there are transshipment facilities for inland vessels. The road connection is via the B 8 and the nearby motorways with the Leverkusen junction ( A 1 / A 3 and A 59 ). A branch line to Cologne-Mülheim provides the connection to the railway network. For passenger transport, the plant can be reached via the S-Bahn ( S-Bahn ) stop Leverkusen-Chempark (formerly Bayerwerk); the air traffic connection is via the nearby Cologne / Bonn and Düsseldorf airports .
The Dormagen plant, founded in 1917 for the production of sulfuric acid, is also connected to shipping via the Rhine. There is a direct rail connection with the Dormagen Chempark stop (formerly Dormagen Bayerwerk), and the location is also connected to the German motorway network via the A 57 .
With the takeover of the Weiler-ter Meer chemical plant after IG Farben was dissolved, Bayer's Krefeld - Uerdingen plant, founded on the Rhine in 1877, also belonged to Bayer. This plant can also be reached via the A 57 and has a connection to the rail network via the Krefeld-Hohenbudberg Chempark station (formerly Hohenbudberg Bayerwerk). The flight connection is given here via Düsseldorf Airport. Until 1995, the KFC Uerdingen 05 carried the name of Bayer AG, but this sponsorship was ended.
Another plant was founded in Brunsbüttel in 1973. It is located directly on the B 5 , on the Kiel Canal and the Elbe , which means that there are good connections to ships. The plant has a good rail connection, but has a less developed road connection, which is why attention was paid to expanding the port when the plant was built.
In 1979, the Bayer plant in Monheim, a large-scale crop protection research center, went into operation. There is a motorway connection via the A 59 and A 542 via the Monheim / Langenfeld motorway junction .
In 1992 a plant was founded in Bitterfeld ; the methyl cellulose operation was spun off at the end of 2006 and passed to Wolff Walsrode AG . The location is indirectly connected to the A 9 , to air traffic via Leipzig / Halle Airport , to the rail network via factory tracks and the nearby Wolfen railway station .
Other locations in Europe
Overall, the highest turnover is achieved in Europe with 13,751 million euros. A total of 54,300 employees work there, and Bayer is represented by 165 companies. The sites include the Bayer MaterialScience plant in Antwerp , founded in 1961, the Bayer Schering Pharma plant in Turku (Finland) and the Bayer CropScience branches in Lyon , Norwich and Widnes . There are also several branches in Italy. The most important southern European plant for Bayer is the Tarragona production site .
Of the total of 16,400 employees in North America, around 15,500 work in the USA . All subgroups are equally represented at 65 locations. There are also other research facilities and large production sites in Berkeley , Stilwell and Baytown . Overall, in terms of sales, Bayer AG's largest organization outside of Europe is located in the USA.
In addition to the United States, there are also Bayer plants in Canada , owned by Bayer Inc. and Bayer CropScience Inc. , which mainly sell animal and plant protection products and medicines there. Around 1,100 people are employed here.
The total number of employees working in Latin America, Africa and the Middle East is set at 16,100, and Bayer is represented by 45 companies in these regions. In Latin America, there are production facilities in the Andean region ( Colombia , Ecuador , Peru and Venezuela ). There are also large production facilities in São Paulo , where Bayer AG's Brazilian headquarters are located. In the southern cone there are other production facilities, with the focus here on Buenos Aires and Argentina in general . The second largest market in Latin America is, after Brazil, Mexico , where further production sites are operated.
There are three other production sites in the Caribbean and Central America. The headquarters for this region is located in Costa Rica , 8 percent of the total sales from Latin America are in this region.
Africa and Middle East
In Africa , South Africa is of particular importance for the Group , because half of its total sales are generated here on the African continent. Other focal points in Africa are crop protection and medical production in the production facility in Morocco . The headquarters of Bayer Maghreb SA are also located in Casablanca
In the Middle East , as in the rest of the world, all available products are sold. The main focus here is Bayer Türk , headquartered in Istanbul responsible for production and sales in these countries. Another headquarters in the Middle East, especially for offices in Egypt , Saudi Arabia , Jordan and Cyprus , is the office in Dubai ; In other neighboring countries, Bayer products are sold through third-party agencies.
Asia and Pacific
According to its own classification, Bayer is also active in the “Asia and Pacific” sector, which includes Australia as well as the entire ocean region . A total of 24,600 people are employed in this area, and sales of 7.5 billion euros are achieved. The so-called Greater China , where the largest turnover is achieved, plays an important role . The focus here, with a production site in Shanghai , is Bayer MaterialScience.
Another 30 percent of total sales are achieved in Japan , which focuses on agriculture because it has an international research center. With seven other locations in particular Bayer CropScience is also in India or Bangladesh and Sri Lanka represented. Another important location is Korea , where the focus is on animal welfare because of its market leadership in this area. Other locations are, for example, in Singapore or Thailand , where the entire product portfolio is sold on a smaller scale.
Another 840 people are employed in Australia and New Zealand . Here, too, the focus is on health and agriculture.
The pharmaceuticals product with the highest sales is Xarelto , which is a drug that inhibits blood clotting, is used prophylactically in thrombosis or embolism and with which Bayer made 703 million euros in sales in the second quarter of 2016. Adjusted for currency effects, this results in sales growth of 30.1 percent compared to the same quarter of the previous year. This makes Xarelto the most successful product from all of Bayer AG.
Eylea , a human, recombinant fusion protein for the treatment of neovascular, age-related macular degeneration , a retinal disease, in adults is in second place among the top-selling Pharmaceuticals products . Sales in the second quarter of 2016 amounted to 418 million euros, which corresponds to a sales increase of 40.9 percent.
The third of the three best -selling products is Kogenate or Kovaltry , a glycoprotein and coagulation factor for the treatment of hemophilia , the so-called hemophilia in which the blood from wounds does not coagulate or coagulates slowly. The turnover in the 2nd quarter of 2016 was 280 million euros.
In October 2014, Bayer took over the consumer care business of the US pharmaceutical company Merck, Sharp & Dohme , expanding Bayer's product range in particular with the antihistamine Claritin . Claritin is Bayer AG's top-selling consumer health product, with which the company had sales of 178 million euros in the second quarter of 2016. However, Claritin is not available in Germany.
The best-known drug from Bayer AG is aspirin . In 1897 Felix Hoffmann succeeded for the first time in producing by- product-free o- acetylsalicylic acid . Aspirin officially became a brand on March 6, 1899. And to this day it is Bayer's figurehead. The medicine not only helps with pain, fever and rheumatism , but also prevents heart attacks and strokes . In the second quarter of 2016, Bayer had sales of aspirin of 102 million euros.
In fourth place among the top-selling consumer health products is Bepanthen or Bepanthol , an active ingredient for the topical treatment of diseases of the skin and mucous membranes and an ingredient in cosmetics , with which Bayer achieved sales of 95 million euros in the second quarter of 2016 Adjusted for inflation means an increase in sales of 20.7 percent compared to the same quarter of the previous year.
Under the Iberogast brand , Bayer sells an over-the-counter medicine made from nine herbal extracts for the relief of gastrointestinal complaints, which it acquired in 2013 with the takeover of Steigerwald Arzneimittel . The extracts are from the bitter candytuft (Iberis amara), angelica , milk thistle fruit , celandine , caraway fruit , licorice root , peppermint leaves , melissa leaf and Chamomile . The preparation has been around since 1960 and is named after one of the medicinal drugs it contains (Iberis) and the ancient Greek expression for stomach (gaster). Iberogast is said to have generated an estimated turnover of 120 million euros in 2018.
The Crop Science division manufactures crop protection products . Crop Science is divided into the two business areas Crop Protection / Seeds and Environmental Science . The former comprises the Herbicides, Fungicides, Insecticides and SeedGrowth business areas.
With sales of EUR 2.363 billion, the Crop Protection / Seeds business area is the strongest one within Crop Science. The largest share of this turnover comes from fungicide production with a turnover of 840 million euros in the 2nd quarter of 2016, which corresponds to a turnover increase of 6 percent. The turnover from the sale of herbicides is 769 million euros. The demand for insecticides produced by Bayer decreased compared to the previous quarter. With sales of EUR 302 million, the loss in sales was 11.9 percent after adjustment for currency effects. SeedGrowth had a turnover of 144 million euros in the second quarter of 2016.
In the Seeds business area, Bayer generated sales of 308 million euros in the second quarter of 2016, while the Environmental Science business area had sales of 155 million euros.
The second place for the best-selling products is occupied by the Seresto collar, which contains both imidacloprid to control fleas and flumethrin to control ticks in its polymer matrix. Bayer achieved sales of 67 million euros, which is a record in terms of sales growth. This was 44.6 percent in the 2nd quarter of 2016.
The third product of the three top-selling Drontal products is an anthelmintic that is used in worm infestation. The turnover in the 2nd quarter of 2016 was 32 million euros.
Sports and cultural engagement
Bayer has been involved in the cultural and sporting promotion of Leverkusen since the “Bavarian Culture Department” was founded in 1907 . Carl Duisberg saw this as an opportunity to connect the group and the newly emerging city with one another and to promote the non-specialist education of its employees. In the same year the recreation house was built, in which cultural events could take place. The rest house has since been modernized several times. Bayer.Kultur now organizes concerts, guest theater performances and exhibitions that attract a nationwide audience, works closely with cultural cooperation partners and awards piece contracts. With l'arte del mondo , Bayer.Kultur hosts its own orchestra as “orchestra in residence”. Bayer was also important to the city because of the Bayer department stores in the districts of Leverkusen and the main department store in Wiesdorf. The Group's last department store was closed and demolished in December 2007. Nevertheless, the cultural department of Bayer AG continued to exist and was awarded the first prize of the initiative Freedom and Responsibility of German Industry for the One Century Bayer.Kultur campaign .
The sports clubs RTHC Bayer Leverkusen and TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen make a further contribution to city life . The latter was founded in 1904 under the name Turn- und Spielverein 1904 of the paint factory formerly Friedrich Bayer Co. Leverkusen . The best known are the basketball department, which competes under the name Bayer Giants Leverkusen and is the German record champion to this day, as well as the athletics department; there are also other offers for adults and children in various sports.
The former soccer department of TSV, Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH , is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bayer AG.
The company also manages the Foundation for the Promotion of Young Scientists .
In 1988 the company came into the possession of the small bronze Mars of the Renaissance artist Giambologna , which IG Farben co-founder Theodor Plieninger had acquired in 1927 for the Griesheim-Elektron chemical factory . Since the work of art did not fit into the Group's art portfolio, Bayer commissioned the auction house Sotheby’s with the exploitation in 2018 .
The 2007 annual report received two gold, two silver and two bronze medals, as well as two certificates of honor. These awards were achieved at the “International ARC Award” 2008, which awards bronze, silver and gold for reporting in different categories such as design, photography, cover, language, text, etc.
In 2007 Bayer received the Takeover Award for the takeover of Schering AG, which has been presented annually since 2005 by Deutsche Börse and the “Forum for Takeover Law”. The award was justified by the "speed and quality of the acquisition".
Bayer's cultural work was also the winner in the “Large Company” category in the Freedom and Responsibility company competition , which was launched in 2008 by the initiative of the leading associations of German business under the patronage of the Federal President .
Criticism and scandals
Sale of HIV-contaminated blood products
In early 2000, Bayer, along with other companies, came under fire after it became known that its US subsidiary Cutter had sold HIV- contaminated blood products worldwide in the 1980s . In February 1984, Cutter launched a less infectious product. Still, the old product was sold overseas for a year, contracting HIV to more than a hundred people in Hong Kong and Taiwan alone . Many of them died.
Strong side effects of Lipobay
On August 8, 2001, Bayer withdrew the previously successful cholesterol-lowering drug Lipobay from the market because of strong interactions with fatal consequences, which also had a negative impact on the media. The active ingredient cerivastatin triggered muscle breakdown ( rhabdomyolysis ) , especially in combination with other cholesterol-lowering agents of the active ingredient gemfibrozil . Rhabdomyolysis is a known side effect of all cholesterol-lowering drugs, but it was more common in the combination of cerivastatin with gemfibrozil. Although the combination was contraindicated according to the package insert , it was still prescribed by doctors and sold by pharmacists, especially in the USA under the name “Baycol”. As the risk for Bayer could no longer be controlled, the company voluntarily withdrew cerivastatin from the market. In the United States, the first lawsuits were filed against Bayer shortly after it became known. According to the 2004 Annual Report, Bayer has been sued in approximately 14,660 cases (14,550 of them in the United States). As of February 18, 2005, 6,191 cases (6,111 in the USA) were still pending. Without recognition of any legal obligation, settlements of $ 1,114 million were made by February 18. In addition to the settlements, two lawsuits resulted in acquittals for Bayer.
Yasminelle birth control pills
By Bayer HealthCare displaced pill "Yasminelle" based on the active ingredient drospirenone is since 2010 due to increased thrombosis - and embolism risk in the criticism. According to the critics, the group did not provide sufficient information about the side effects. In the United States , Bayer has already paid almost $ 2 billion in out-of-court settlements. At the end of 2015, the Waldshut-Tiengen regional court was the first German court to open civil proceedings against Bayer. The plaintiff, who suffered from pulmonary embolism , is demanding damages and compensation for pain and suffering of 200,000 euros from the company due to damage to health allegedly caused by Yasminelle. She was unable to assert herself in court. The group denies any wrongdoing and would like to leave the drug on the market because of what it claims to be positive risk-benefit ratio . On October 23, 2019, the ARD broadcast the feature film "What we knew - risk pill" from 8:15 pm. The ARD magazine "plusminus" then took up the topic from 9.45 pm and named the companies behind it and, with Yasminelle, the real name of the product.
The product from the product portfolio of the “Consumer Health” division received public attention because of the long-term refusal of the authorization holder to include warnings in the product information of the celandine product Iberogast . Celandine is suspected of causing liver damage. Like the previous authorization holder Steigerwald, Bayer also denies the liver-damaging potential and justifies this with the low content of celandine alkaloids. Legal proceedings are pending. A study on the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, completed in 2018, showed that Iberogast did not differ significantly from placebo in terms of safety and that it had a favorable safety and tolerability profile. There was also no statistically significant difference compared to placebo with regard to the effectiveness of Iberogast . In 2020, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the brand , Bayer not only granted Iberogast a new look that focuses more on the herbal composition, but also introduced a new product variant that does not contain extracts of celandine, angelica root and milk thistle fruits.
Lawsuits related to Essure contraceptive product
The US FDA accused Bayer of failing to report patient complaints about Essure , a hysteroscopically implantable medical device for permanent contraception, as prescribed. Bayer had not met its reporting obligations, which is why the FDA could not have known that the warning labels for the implant would need to be updated. In the United States alone, Bayer had served around 33,100 health claims in connection with Essure as of February 6, 2020, according to the 2019 annual report. The plaintiffs attribute a variety of complaints to the implant, such as pain, bleeding and depression. In 2013 Bayer took over the US company Conceptus, the manufacturer of the contraceptive product Essure .
In August 2020, it was announced that Bayer had reached an agreement with the majority of the plaintiffs in the United States in the dispute over possible risks from the Essure sterilization coil. Agreements had been made to resolve about 90 percent of the nearly 39,000 lawsuits in the United States. Bayer pays a total of around 1.35 billion euros for the comparison. This includes a flat rate for claims for which no agreements have yet been made.
Human rights and environmental protection
Human rights violations
In the black book Brand Firms - The Machinations of Global Corporations , Bayer is accused of serious human rights violations, including "importing raw materials from war zones, financing unethical drug trials, hindering a developing country in the manufacture and marketing of essential medicines, selling dangerous plant toxins, exploiting and child labor at raw material suppliers". With the raw material imports, a subsidiary "according to the United Nations contributed significantly to maintaining the war [in the Congo]".
From the end of the 1970s, the number of animal experiments carried out by large research-based pharmaceutical and chemical companies had contributed to a heated public debate about the usefulness and necessity of animal experiments , accompanied by numerous protests among the population. The animal consumption of Bayer AG was also the subject of critical media reports.
In early 2007, the company came because of the construction of a CO - pipeline between the works Krefeld-Uerdingen and Dormagen in the criticism, which constitutes a great danger to human beings and nature, because the gas is colorless and odorless and leakage therefore can not be noticed . The security measures taken are inadequate.
As early as 1854, 23 citizens of Barmer protested against the granting of a concession for Friedrich Bayer to produce tin and iron stain, indigo carmine and blue powder, because they feared damage to health and vegetation. In the summer of 1864 the company, which had only been founded a year earlier, had to pay its first compensation.
By the end of 2012, the BayerCropScience subgroup wanted to completely discontinue all highly toxic insecticides. However, in 2014 the group still offered chlorpyrifos-methyl, a compound from the group of phosphoric acid esters.
The company was ranked 3rd in the 2016 Toxic 100 Index by the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts . The index is a list of the 100 largest air polluters in the United States. It takes into account the direct and indirect emissions and their toxicity.
Plant protection product exports
Active ingredients for plant protection products manufactured by Bayer , which (no longer) have approval in the EU, were sold on the Brazilian and South African markets in 2017. These include, for example, Oxadiazon , Propineb , Thidiazuron and Triadimenol .
At the end of October 2010, the group came under fire because, together with BASF and E.ON , it sponsored US politicians who deny climate change or block laws against it with a donation of 175,000 US dollars. Above all, it was criticized that these companies rejected climate protection targets in Europe on the grounds that the USA was inactive in this area.
Price manipulation and collusion
Aspirin price fixing
On October 11, 2007, the Bayer Vital sales company in Leverkusen and Cologne were searched by the Federal Cartel Office . The star had previously published an article according to which Bayer had made illegal price agreements with around 11,000 German pharmacies in so-called target agreements. The group had promised the pharmacists an additional discount of 3 percent if they adhered to the limits set by Bayer for discounts. The company is threatened with competition proceedings with a maximum fine of 2.9 billion euros. The consumer centers have found in a study in 2007 that 90 percent of all pharmacies for aspirin demanded a price equal to the recommended retail price Bayer.
In 2007 the European Commission fined Bayer, Denka , DuPont , Dow Chemical , Eni and Tosoh a total of 243.2 million euros. The reason was the establishment of a chloroprene rubber cartel . According to the Commission, the companies split the market for chloroprene rubber between 1993 and 2002 and made price agreements. Most of the cartel fine was imposed on Bayer, at € 201 million. However, thanks to the leniency program introduced in 2002, Bayer was waived the entire fine, even though the group had previously been involved in similar violations and would therefore have had to face an increased antitrust fine without the leniency program. After taking into account the reductions granted on the basis of the leniency program, the largest part of the fine (132.1 million euros) went to Eni, which, along with Bayer, had already been fined in earlier Commission decisions for cartel activities.
Price manipulation at the expense of the US social security funds
In April 2003 Bayer had to pay a fine [...] to the US government for fraudulent price manipulation at the expense of public welfare funds, according to the Black Book of Brand Companies . "
Arznei-telegramm and Spiegel Online reported in January 2012 on “lever handle methods on the practice door”. It was criticized that doctors were sent samples - unsolicited - as part of advertising. According to the German Medicines Act (AMG) , however, pharmaceutical samples may only be submitted if the doctor has requested the sample in writing ( AMG). Therefore, in the procedure criticized here, the postman requires the doctor's signature. The voluntary self-regulation for the pharmaceutical industry e. V. (FSA) has initiated a complaint procedure and will examine whether this form of sample submission is permissible.
In 2002 Bayer received a Big Brother Award in the “Working World” category. The jury justified this with the drug tests that trainees have to carry out in order to receive a training position.
In October 2018, Bayer Austria received the Big Brother Award in the Communication and Marketing category for its plans to use facial scanners in pharmacies to deliver advertising to target groups.
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