|IG Farbenindustrie AG
|founding||December 2, 1925|
|resolution||October 31, 2012|
|Reason for dissolution||Liquidation / bankruptcy|
|Seat||Frankfurt am Main|
|management||Angelika Wimmer-Amend (insolvency administrator)|
The interest group Farbenindustrie AG , shortly IG Farben or IG Farben , based in Frankfurt am Main was the end of 1925 from the merger of eight German companies - Agfa , BASF , Bayer , Cassella , chemical factory Griesheim electron , chemical plant in front. Hamlet Ter Meer , Hoechst and Kalle chemical factory . At its peak, IG Farben was the largest company in Europe and the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world.
Today the company is primarily associated with its role in the Nazi dictatorship . It expanded through the “ Aryanization ” of former Jewish competitors, employed a large number of forced laborers during World War II and established the first privately financed concentration camp, Auschwitz III Monowitz . After the end of the war, the Allied Control Council confiscated the assets of IG Farben AG and ordered the company to be dissolved. In the IG Farben trial , 23 company executives had to answer for their involvement in the crimes of the National Socialists, twelve of them were sentenced to prison terms.
In 1952, IG Farben in the three western occupation zones was broken up into eleven independent companies and the company was renamed IG Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft i. L. renamed. The resolution process lasted around 60 years. After the insolvency at the end of 2003, the company was deleted from the commercial register on October 31, 2012 .
The first "interest group" (IG) of the German tar paint industry was established in 1904. The initiator was the then CEO of the company Friedrich Bayer et comp. (Predecessor of today's Bayer AG ), Carl Duisberg . In 1903 on a trip to the USA he had got to know the trusts there, corporate mergers based on the Standard Oil model . After his return he wrote a memorandum to unite the German tar paint factories . In his view, the competitive situation in the industry has been adversely affected by price pressure and unfair competition methods such as corruption and severance payments to unpopular competitors. In order to “eliminate the damage caused by the competition without losing its advantages”, he proposed the formation of a German paint trust.
The five possible competitors, in addition to Bayer , Agfa (Aktiengesellschaft für Anilinfabrikation Berlin ), BASF (Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik Ludwigshafen ), Farbwerke Hoechst in Höchst , Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur in Fechenheim and the chemical factory Kalle in Biebrich , were a bundle of theirs Quite open to interests, but were not interested in a merger based on the American model and giving up their independence, especially since at this time American legislation with the Sherman Antitrust Act was taking the first steps to restrict the market power of cartels and monopoly corporations ( trusts ).
As a result of Duisberg's initiative, two corporate blocks were formed in 1904: Agfa, BASF and Bayer formed the Triple Alliance , which initially limited itself to exchanging experiences and avoiding competition through joint products. A little further, the Hoechst and Cassella, the one marked by mutual shareholding relationships and supplier relationships were recently Dual Alliance ( "community of interests of the Highest Color works with the Leopold Cassella & Co. closed"), which in 1906 by joining the chemical factory Kalle the Triple Entente was. A link between the two corporate blocks existed in the form of the Indigo Convention , a market agreement made in October 1904 between BASF and Farbwerke Hoechst, with the aim of opposing the English natural indigo monopoly with its own synthetic monopoly, whereupon the market for natural indigo collapsed: In 1906, 80% of the world's indigo needs, an estimated 5000 tons, were produced in Germany.
The First World War created a new situation for German paint manufacturers. Their foreign organizations, patents and trademarks were expropriated in the countries of the war opponents , who thus built up their own production capacities. In Germany, production was converted to meet the requirements of the war economy: instead of dyes and drugs, there was the manufacture of chemical warfare agents and explosives . The basis for this was the ammonia synthesis according to the Haber-Bosch process , which made the company completely independent of saltpetre imports from Chile. Nevertheless, the raw material supply suffered from the British naval blockade . In addition, there was a shortage of labor, as many had been drafted into the war.
In August 1916, therefore, the Triple Alliance (Agfa, BASF and Bayer) and the Dreiverband (Hoechst, Cassella, Kalle) joined forces with the Chemischen Fabrik vorm. Hamlet ter Meer in Uerdingen merged to form an interest group of German tar paint factories initially set up for 50 years . In 1917, the Griesheim-Elektron chemical factory in Griesheim joined the group of companies later known as the Kleine IG . The companies remained legally independent. In 1924, the IG took over 35 percent of the share capital of Rheinstahlwerke , which covered the need for coal .
IG Farbenindustrie AG
In the spring of 1925, all the directors of the IG companies agreed to the merger proposed by Carl Bosch and Hermann Schmitz , because the establishment of a holding company was comparatively expensive and because the members of the previously existing GbR , to which the old IG was merged, would leave at any time could. On October 28, 1925, the merger negotiations were ended and it was decided that BASF would take over the capital of the merged companies of the former IG. Hermann Schmitz was appointed finance director of IG Farben. The contract to establish IG-Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft was signed on November 21, 1925 and came into force on December 2, 1925. Eight large chemical companies were involved:
- Actien-Gesellschaft for Aniline Fabrication ( Berlin )
- Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik AG ( Ludwigshafen am Rhein ) with Ammoniakwerk Merseburg GmbH ( Merseburg / Leuna )
- Paint factories vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. ( Leverkusen )
- Chemical factory Griesheim-Elektron ( Frankfurt-Griesheim )
- Chemical factory Kalle & Co.AG ( Biebrich )
- Chemical factories Weiler-ter Meer ( Uerdingen )
- Farbwerke Leopold Cassella & Co. ( Fechenheim )
- Inking units vorm. Master Lucius and Brüning AG ( Höchst am Main )
The unrivaled collaboration within an interest group was agreed. For this purpose, the assets as a whole (i.e. including all subsidiaries) were transferred to BASF AG. In exchange, the shareholders received BASF shares of the same par value . Subsequently, BASF changed its company to IG Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft . All the individual companies involved then only functioned as "plants" of IG Farben. The share capital amounted to around 1.1 billion marks after the merger 1926th Production was initially organized in the four operating groups Niederrhein, Mittelrhein, Oberrhein and Mitteldeutschland. In November 1929 Berlin was added.
For group-wide sales, sales associations (VG) were set up for the product groups of dyes, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, photo supplies and synthetic fibers, while fertilizer sales remained with the Berlin nitrogen syndicate GmbH, founded in 1919.
The IG-Farben building at the company's headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, completed in 1931, was one of the largest office buildings in Europe at the time . The organization of the IG was tightly summarized and comprised administratively
- the supervisory board (number of members 55 ( 1926 ), 23 ( 1938 ), 21 ( 1940 )) - Carl Duisberg (Leverkusen plant) first chairman of the supervisory board ( 1926 )
- the board: (number of members 82 ( 1926 ), 27 ( 1938 ), 22 ( 1944 )) with the central committee. - Carl Bosch (Ludwigshafen plant) was the first CEO ( 1926 )
- the Technical Committee (TEA) with 41 sub-committees
- the commercial committee with around 20 members
- and Joint Committees (Chemicals Committee, Paints Committee , Main Pharmaceutical Conference).
The workforce of the IG rose from 94,000 (1926) to 138,000 (1938) and 189,000 (1944 including forced and foreign workers).
In addition to basic chemicals , the IG Farben Group produced dyes , pharmaceuticals, synthetic fibers , photographic materials and (by means of coal liquefaction ) carburetor and diesel fuels . On the synthesis of ammonia by the Haber-Bosch process could ammonium nitrate for the production of nitrogen fertilizers and explosives ( ammonium picrate ) are generated.
IG Farben in the USA
In 1929 the holding IG Chemical Corporation , later renamed General Aniline & Film (GAF), was founded from the foreign representations of the member companies in the USA . Until Germany declared war on the United States on December 11, 1941, there were close economic ties between IG Farben and American banks and chemical companies such as Rockefeller's Standard Oil of New Jersey . The business relations (and cartel agreements) with the Standard Oil of New Jersey that had existed since 1929 were also maintained during the Second World War. Duisberg's son Walther (1892-1964) represented in 1925 in the US as a patent attorney German interests in the American IG The GAF still exists today under the name of GAF Materials Corporation .
IG Farben in the National Socialist state
After the IG Farben was founded in 1926, there was not only left-wing parties, but also the National Socialists. “ International capitalist and Jewish company ”, “ IG = Isidore G. Farber ” or “ IG Moloch ” were headlines in the press at the time. Well-known Jewish entrepreneurs and bankers of IG Farben at the time were Max Warburg , Arthur von Weinberg and Carl von Weinberg , Otto von Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Alfred Merton , Ernst von Simson and Kurt Oppenheim . IG Farben were favored by the German People's Party (DVP) (e.g. Wilhelm Ferdinand Kalle ); no member of the IG leadership had been a member of the NSDAP until 1933 .
In 1926, the Merseburg - Leuna Werke ammonia plant began producing synthetic gasoline by liquefying coal ( hydrogenation ) using the Bergius Pier process . There was a risk that this would be one of the biggest bad investments because the production costs exceeded those of conventional gasoline ( made from petroleum ). In the medium term, gasoline synthesis was not viable without government subsidies. Therefore, on June 25, 1932, Leuna director Heinrich Bütefisch and the head of the company's press office Heinrich Gattineau met with Adolf Hitler in Munich . On behalf of Carl Bosch, they were supposed to find out whether IG Farben's synthetic gasoline, which is too expensive for the world market , would continue to be competitive through protective tariffs . Hitler assured them that he considered synthetic fuel to be imperative for a politically independent Germany. Carl Bosch commented with "The man is more sensible than I thought."
As a result of the global economic crisis , the Economic Policy Department (WiPo) was set up in 1933 , which was supposed to promote the cooperation of the IG with the NSDAP and which dealt with questions of legislation, taxation and foreign trade policy.
At the beginning of December 1932, under the chairmanship of Carl Bosch, the IG Farben General Assembly approved the agricultural cartelization program , a compromise between industry and large- scale agrarians . According to Alfred Sohn-Rethel , this decision by what was then the largest corporation in Europe also paved the way for the Nazi dictatorship.
At the secret meeting of February 20, 1933 , at which a group of industrialists decided on an electoral fund of 3 million Reichsmarks for the NSDAP, the board member Georg von Schnitzler took part as a representative of IG Farben . IG Farben contributed 400,000 RM to this election fund and transferred the sum to the NSDAP party fund on February 28, 1933, one day after the Reichstag fire . The SA maintained an account known as the “Black Cash” at the Bayerische Hypo- und Wechselbank with the name “B 2” for donations from industrial circles , into which IG Farben paid over 500,000 Reichsmarks. According to Heinrich Gattineau, IG Farben donated 200,000 Reichsmarks for SA coats in the winter of 1933/34 .
In 1933, the new government signed the Feder-Bosch Agreement with IG Farben on a sales and minimum price guarantee for 350,000 tons of synthetic gasoline, thus saving the company from a total of 300 million Reichsmark losses. From 1934, IG Farben became a founding member and subsequently a leading company in Braunkohle-Petrol AG (BRABAG). In 1935, Hermann Schmitz succeeded Carl Bosch as chairman of the board and in 1940 Carl Krauch succeeded him as chairman of the supervisory board. Krauch had a double function. He also made a career in government and made it to the position of director of the armaments command center and agent for special issues in chemical production.
In 1937 all Jewish managers and supervisory board members were removed, at that time around a third of the supervisory board ( Carl von Weinberg , Arthur von Weinberg , Otto von Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Alfred Merton , Richard Merton , Ernst von Simson , Wilhelm Peltzer , Gustav Schlieper ). The board members Carl Krauch , Fritz ter Meer , Georg von Schnitzler , Max Ilgner , Otto Ambros , Friedrich Jähne , Christian Schneider , Carl Wurster , Carl Lautenschläger and Ernst Bürgin joined the NSDAP, Hermann Schmitz , Heinrich Hörlein , Wilhelm Rudolf Mann , Fritz Gajewski and Hans Kühne had already entered.
IG Farben expanded strongly, also through " Aryanization ", ie the cheap takeover of Jewish assets and war-related fiduciary assets, for example from the former competitor Aussiger Verein . At peak times in Germany, it owned 200 plants and around 400 German and 500 foreign company holdings. Due to this expansion, IG Farben became the largest company in Europe and the fourth largest in the world (after General Motors , US Steel and Standard Oil ).
With the production of nitrogen for the production of explosives and propellant charges , buna (a synthetic rubber substitute), synthetic gasoline made from coal and an alloy of magnesium and aluminum under the name Elektron, these were extremely profitable before and during the Second World War, with appropriate quantity and price guarantees by the rulers To do business. Other well-known products from IG Farben were u. a. the synthetic fiber Perlon and the nerve agent tabun .
The IG played an important role in the four-year plan . Hitler's memorandum on the four-year plan was based on documents from the IG, and as a result, many posts in the four-year plan authority were filled with their employees, to whom the IG paid extraordinarily high salaries in order to keep them connected to the group.
On February 15, 1936, the company presented the first car tire made from synthetic Buna rubber at the 26th International Automobile and Motorcycle Exhibition in Berlin (IAMA) .
In 1937 plans were drawn up for the economic mobilization of the IG works, which were rated as war and vital operations. From the Economic Research Association (WIFO), in whose founding IG-Farben had a 25% stake, the IG received not only construction costs but also a kind of license fee for the establishment of secret shadow factories, which should be integrated into armaments production in the event of war.
During the Spanish Civil War , the society donated sums of 100,000 pesetas to the coup plotters several times. Together with Siemens and other German companies, the group supported the “Legion Vidal”, the putschists' medical troops, and equipped the fighters. The electron thermite stick incendiary bomb B 1 E produced by IG Farben was used in the air raids by the “ Condor Legion ” on Guernica and other Basque cities .
With the exchange W, the IG cooperated directly with the Wehrmacht on armament issues . On April 28, 1939, before the General Council of the four-year plan, Carl Krauch , IG CEO and General Representative for Special Issues in Chemical Production, demanded :
“Today, as in 1914, the German political and economic situation - a fortress besieged by the world - seems to demand a swift war decision through extermination attacks right at the beginning of the hostilities. [...] Germany must strengthen its own war potential and that of its allies so that the coalition can cope with the efforts of almost the rest of the world. "
World War II and Holocaust
Of the 43 main products of the IG during the war, 28 were of importance for the armaments industry. IG Farben took over a number of chemical plants in the occupied territories, such as the Apollo refinery in Pressburg / Bratislava or the Jewish-owned Skoda-Werke Wetzler .
A holding company of Degussa AG , Th. Goldschmidt AG and IG Farben AG, the German Society for Pest Control (Degesch), sold the pest control agent Zyklon B , which was used for mass murder in the gas chambers of the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp . Employees of the IG defense department, who u. a. who were entrusted with the defense against industrial espionage and the fight against rogue deals, were demonstrably aware of the gassing of Jews in Auschwitz.
The great need for raw materials for warfare, such as synthetic rubber and gasoline, led to the construction of a large buna factory in Auschwitz in 1941 . The Monowitz concentration camp , Auschwitz III , was built especially for the prisoners who had to build the factory . Due to the Eastern Tax Aid Ordinance of December 1940, the approximately 600 million Reichsmarks invested by IG-Farben in Auschwitz remained tax-free. On February 26, 1941, Himmler complied almost verbatim with the request of the IG Farben Group and ordered the swift evacuation of all Jews from the city of Auschwitz.
The choice of Auschwitz to run the factory was rather accidental. While Himmler was pondering the suitability of Auschwitz as a location for a model settlement in the east, Otto Ambros , a member of the company's board of directors, chose the same region completely independently of these plans. In doing so, he thought of the 525,000 cubic meters of water per hour required to operate the factory, of a good railway connection and the required air-secured space. When looking at the available land at the end of 1940, he decided on the confluence of three rivers: the Soła , the Lower Vistula and the Przemsza . The closest small town was Auschwitz. In response to a request from Ambros, the German mayors there provided him with a wealth of information. By chance, two things developed at the same time: Himmler wanted to use large numbers of forced laborers to build up his colonies in the east , and IG Farben was now able to make use of them on a large scale, as there were great concerns about whether the region would provide the necessary comfort for them at first thought German workers could offer. An ominous symbiosis was established: the SS units were responsible for the availability and guarding of the prisoners, and the IG would make the investments and procure the building materials. It is estimated that 20,000 to 25,000 people lost their lives in the construction and operation of this factory, which took up an area of approximately 30 km².
Due to the course of the war, the plant was never able to produce synthetic rubber or other synthetic substances (apart from methanol ). This resulted, among other things, from the fact that the large-scale buildings for the manufacture of synthetic products had led to a large-scale network of interdependent production facilities, which was vulnerable to bomb attacks.
The Auschwitz Buna plant is still in operation today and is by far the largest synthetic rubber plant in Poland.
Dissolution after 1945
After the complete occupation of Germany, the Allies began to implement the decartellization resolutions previously agreed at the Yalta Conference . The school of thought shaped by the Sherman Antitrust Act initially influenced American occupation policy.
"In order to make any future threat to its neighbors or to world peace from Germany impossible, and taking into account the fact that IG Farbenindustrie has knowingly and to an outstanding degree concerned itself with the expansion and maintenance of the German war potential," the Allied Control Council confiscated With the Control Council Act No. 9 of September 20, 1945, the entire assets of IG Farben. The Control Council formed a committee of four officials who were charged with preparing the dissolution of IG Farben. The Control Council Act expressly formulates the following objectives:
- Providing industrial facilities and assets for reparations;
- Destruction of those industrial facilities which were used exclusively for the purposes of warfare;
- Splitting up of ownership of the remaining industrial plants and assets;
- Liquidation of all cartel relationships;
- Control of all research;
- Control of production activity.
With the order 124 of the SMAD of October 30, 1945, the USSR had placed the IG Farben plants in its zone of occupation under its control. The large IG plants in Leuna , Schkopau , Bitterfeld and Wolfen were initially operated as Soviet stock corporations (SAG) and later, some of which were considerably dismantled , were handed over to the GDR .
In the Bizone , the British and American military governments transferred control of IG Farben to the Bipartite IG Farben Control Office (BIFCO) in 1947, which was advised by a committee of German economic experts. The chairman of the FARDIP ( Bizonal IG Farben Dispersal Panel ) advisory body was Hermann Bücher from AEG . With the formation of the Trizone in 1948, the BIFCO control office was expanded to include a representative of the French military government to form the Tripartite IG Farben Control Group (TRIFCOG). After the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany , the Allied High Commission created the legal requirements for the splitting up of IG Farben in Law No. 35 of August 17, 1950. The sole proprietorships that emerged from the unbundling should be viable and competitive on their own. In addition, the shareholders of IG Farbenindustrie should be given the right to exchange their shares for shares in the successor companies.
In 1951, it was decided in the Federal Republic of Germany to continue operations and to outsource its original components from IG Farben . As the official successor company, the Allied High Commission named in June 1952:
- Cassella inking units
- Huels (Chemical Works Hüls AG, Marl)
- Bayer AG
- Farbwerke Hoechst AG
- Duisburger Kupferhütte AG
- Wacker-Chemie Munich,
- Dynamit AG Troisdorf
- Wasag Chemie AG
These companies were called "color successors" in stock market jargon.
In addition to the split, the use of brand names beginning with “Ig-” was prohibited, and for example Igepon was renamed Hostapon. Otherwise, the companies were able to continue their work almost as before and successfully conquered the world markets in the following decades without seriously competing with each other.
The trial in Nuremberg
In the summer of 1947, the entire board of directors and senior executives, a total of 23 people, were brought before an American military court in the IG Farben trial in Nuremberg. Twelve of them were sentenced to prison terms, including a. CEO since 1938 and CFO Hermann Schmitz for four years for "looting", Carl Krauch , board member and active in many economic offices in the Reich, and Heinrich Bütefisch , director of IG Auschwitz, each for six years in prison for "enslavement". The American military court did not accept the accusation of the prosecution that IG Farben had supported Hitler's rise to power through a donation. The company had only participated in fundraising for the NSDAP when Hitler was already Chancellor. Even at the well-known lecture by Hitler in front of the industry club in Düsseldorf , no senior IG employee was involved. The court found, "... that none of the accused took part in planning a war of aggression or wars of aggression or knowingly participated in the preparation and unleashing or waging of a war of aggression or in the invasion of other countries ...". The defendants were found not guilty on the relevant counts.
On January 1, 1952, the IG went into liquidation and called itself IG Farbenindustrie AG i. L. By the Liquidation Final Act of January 21, 1955, IG Farben was taken out of control by the Allies. After the following general meeting on May 27, 1955, IG Farben was in liquidation for decades (IG Farbenindustrie AG i. A.). Their only job was to manage old claims and take legal responsibility. The continued existence of IG Farben also allowed the chemical companies that emerged from it to largely exclude responsibility for the crimes committed during the time of National Socialism and to rely on IG Farbenindustrie AG i. A. to refer. Former forced laborers as well as some shareholders and group critics such as Axel Köhler-Schnura repeatedly demanded that the company be finally dissolved and that its capital be used for compensation. In this context, an international appeal was signed by several organizations and around 1500 private individuals.
On November 10, 2003, the liquidators of IG Farben filed for bankruptcy . The reason was the financial difficulties of the holding company WCM , which meant that the liquidity of IG Farben was no longer adequately secured. The shares of IG Farben were listed until March 9, 2012. The company's history ended on October 31, 2012 when it was deleted from the commercial register.
On September 13, 2001, the IG Farbenindustrie Foundation with its headquarters in Frankfurt am Main was brought into being. It was supposed to support aid organizations that looked after the survivors of the Holocaust and other victims of National Socialist rule. Furthermore, the foundation should keep the documents of the former IG Farben in liquidation in order to keep them accessible to historians. The Darmstadt Regional Council dissolved the foundation at the end of 2015 because the income was no longer sufficient to fulfill the purpose of the foundation.
Brand names with "IG-" and logo
In 1953, the successor companies were banned from using IGFarben's brand names and trademarks for ten years.
The IG Farben logo, created around 1925, contains the letters I (with serifs and i-dot) and G, whereby the horizontal bar of the G arises in the lower serif of the I. The enveloping contour is reminiscent of a round-bottomed flask made of glass or a similarly shaped chemical reactor, as it is common for the batchwise implementation of chemical syntheses on an industrial scale.
Supervisory board and board of directors
The IG Farben Supervisory Board consisted of 55 members until it was downsized in the 1930s, including:
- Carl Duisberg 1926–1935 (Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
- Carl Bosch 1926–1935 (Chairman of the Board of Management), 1935–1940 (Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
- Carl Krauch 1926–1940 (board member), 1940–1945 (chairman of the supervisory board)
- Adolf Haeuser 1926–1932 (Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
- Walther vom Rath 1926–1940 (Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
- Leo Gans 1926–1932 (Supervisory Board)
- Wilhelm Ferdinand Kalle 1926–1945 (Supervisory Board)
- Hermann Hummel 1926–? (Supervisory board)
- Clemens Lammers 1926–? (Supervisory board)
- Paul Moldenhauer 1926–? (Supervisory board)
- Wilhelm von Meister 1926–1935 (Supervisory Board)
- Richard von Schnitzler 1926–1938 (Supervisory Board)
- Paul von Schnitzler 1926–1932 (Supervisory Board)
- Edmund ter Meer 1926–1931 (Supervisory Board)
- Theodor Plieninger 1926–1930 (Supervisory Board)
- Otto von Steinmeister 1926–1937 (Supervisory Board)
- Hermann Josef Abs 1937–1945 (Supervisory Board)
- Gustav Pistor 1938–1945 (Supervisory Board)
- Oscar Schlitter 1931–1935 (Supervisory Board)
- Otto Hauck 1926–1932 (Supervisory Board)
- Eduard Mosler 1926–1939 (Supervisory Board)
- Fritz Haber 1926–1932 (Supervisory Board)
- Arthur von Weinberg 1926–1936 (Supervisory Board)
- Carl von Weinberg 1926–1936 (Supervisory Board)
- Ernst von Simson 1926–1937 (Supervisory Board)
- Franz Oppenheim 1926–1929 (Supervisory Board)
- Max Warburg 1926– approx. 1935 (Supervisory Board)
- Otto von Mendelssohn Bartholdy 1926–1938 (Supervisory Board)
- Alfred Merton 1926–1934 (Supervisory Board)
The board of directors of the new company consisted of 83 full and deputy members and, due to the size of the merger, was just as incapable of working as the overstaffed board of directors. The board members (all listed persons have since died) included u. a .:
- Hermann Schmitz 1926–1935 (member of the board) 1935–1945 (chairman of the board)
- Fritz ter Meer 1926–1945 (board member)
- Fritz Gajewski 1931–1945 (board member)
- Heinrich Bütefisch 1934–1945 (board member)
- Otto Ambros 1938–1945 (board member)
- Friedrich Jähne 1938–1945 (board member)
- Carl Wurster 1938–1945 (board member)
- Georg von Schnitzler 1926–1945 (board member)
- Ernst Bürgin 1938–1945 (board member)
- Paul Häfliger 1938–1945 (board member)
- Heinrich Hörlein 1931–1945 (board member)
- Max Ilgner 1938–1945 (board member)
- August von Knieriem 1932–1945 (board member)
- Hans Kühne 1926–1945 (board member)
- Carl-Ludwig Lautenschläger 1938–1945 (board member)
- Wilhelm Rudolf Mann 1934–1945 (board member)
- Christian Schneider 1938–1945 (board member)
- Heinrich Oster 1931–1945 (board member)
- Carl Hagemann 1926–1932 (board member)
- Erwin Selck 1926–1936 (board member)
- Otto Stange 1926–1936 (board member)
- Paul Duden 1926–1932 (board member)
- Kurt Maetzig (Director): The Council of Gods . GDR 1950.
- Bernhard Sinkel (Director): Fathers and Sons . BRD / A / F / I 1986. With Burt Lancaster , Bruno Ganz , Julie Christie , Hannes Jaenicke , Martin Benrath . Dramatization of the topic as a television series in four parts, each approx. 130 minutes.
- Luke Holland (Director): I Was a Slave Laborer. GB 1998 (DF), 75 minutes.
- Joseph Borkin : The unholy alliance of IG Farben. A community of interests in the Third Reich . Translation Bernhard Schulte. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1979
- Federal symposium of the chemical faculty / IG Farben working group (ed.): ... from aniline to forced labor. The path of a monopoly through history. On the origin and development of the German chemical industry. 2nd edition, online edition; BuFaTa Chemie (2007)
- Josiah E. DuBois: The Devil's Chemists. 24 conspirators of the International Color Cartel who manufacture wars. Beacon Press, Boston 1952
- Dirk Hackenholz: The electrochemical works in Bitterfeld 1914–1945. A location of IG-Farbenindustrie AG. LIT, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7656-X
- Peter Hayes: Industry and Ideology. IG Farben in the Nazi Era. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2001, ISBN 0-521-78638-X
- Peer Heinelt: The unbundling and post-war history of IG Farbenindustrie AG. Norbert Wollheim Memorial / J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main 2008, available online as PDF.
- Charles Higham: Trading with the Enemy. An exposé of the Nazi-American money plot 1933–1949. Delacorte, New York 1983, ISBN 0-440-09064-4
- Stefan Hörner: Profit or Morality. Structures between IG Farbenindustrie and National Socialism . European University Press, Bremen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86741-763-1 .
- Diarmuid Jeffreys: Global corporation and war cartel. The destructive work of IG Farben. From the English by Helmut Dierlamm and Werner Roller, Karl Blessing Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-89667-276-6 ( review in the FAZ on June 15, 2011).
- Otto Köhler : ... and today the whole world. The history of IG Farben and its fathers. Rasch and Röhring , Hamburg, Zurich 1986, Papyrossa, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-89136-081-9
- Stephan H. Lindner: Hoechst. An IG Farben plant in the Third Reich. CH Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52959-3
- James Stewart Martin: All Honorable Men. Little, Brown & Company, Boston 1950
- Jan Große Nobis: www.ig-farben.org IG FARBEN and the end of the Weimar Republic. Munster 1994
- Gottfried Plumpe: The IG Farbenindustrie AG - economy, technology and politics 1904–1945. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-06892-0
- Richard Sasuly: IG Farben. Boni & Gaer, New York, 1947 (German: IG Farben. Berlin 1952: Volk und Welt.)
- Bernd C. Wagner: IG Auschwitz. Forced labor and extermination of prisoners from the Monowitz camp 1941–1945. Diss. Phil, Frankfurt 2005. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-598-24032-5 (Vol. 3 of the illustrations and sources on the history of Auschwitz from the Institute for Contemporary History )
- ... from aniline to forced labor Federal symposium of the chemical faculty / IG Farben working group
- BASF and the founding of IG-Farben. State Main Archive Koblenz
- Online archive of the Nuremberg War Criminals Tribunal against the chemical and pharmaceutical company IG Farben.
- Thorsten Giersch: The group that made the World War possible for Hitler The history of IG Farben in the Handelsblatt on July 28, 2011
- Karl Heinz Roth: The history of IG Farbenindustrie AG from its founding to the end of the Weimar Republic , Fritz Bauer Institute , 2009 (PDF; 333 kB)
- Documents and newspaper articles about IG Farben in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Business register. Federal Gazette , accessed on November 11, 2012 (Frankfurt am Main Local Court, HRB 400; published on November 5, 2012 at 12:00). Commercial register announcement .
- Werner Abelshauser (ed.): The BASF: a company history. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2002. P. 132ff.
- Arne Andersen: Historical technology assessment using the example of metalworking and the chemical industry 1850-1933. (Zeitschrift Fur Unternehmensgeschichte - Beihefte, Volume 90), Steiner, Franz 1996. p. 238.
- Werner Abelshauser (ed.): The BASF: a company history. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2002. pp. 218f.
- Werner Abelshauser (ed.): The BASF: a company history. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2002. p. 231.
- S. Balke: The IG Farben Trial in Nuremberg. In: Chemical Engineer Technology - CIT. 21, 1949, pp. 33-37, doi : 10.1002 / cite.330210111 .
- Carl Duisberg (1861–1935): Letters from an Industrialist p. 638 .
- Ernst Bäumler, Die Rotfabriker - Family History of a Global Company (Hoechst), Piper 1988, p. 277 f., History of Chemistry in Frankfurt .
- Otto Köhler: Hitler left - they stayed. KVV specifically, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-930786-04-4 , p. 21.
- Otto Köhler: ... and today the whole world. The history of IG Farben and its fathers. Rasch and Röhrig, Hamburg / Zurich 1986, Papyrossa, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-89136-081-9 , p. 214.
- Stefan Hörner: Profit or Morality. Structures between IG Farbenindustrie and National Socialism . Europäische Hochschulverlag, Bremen 2012. p. 27.
- Joseph Borkin : The unholy alliance of the IG colors. A community of interests in the Third Reich. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1990, p. 57 f., ISBN 3-593-34251-0 .
- Alfred Sohn-Rethel : Industry and National Socialism. Notes from the "Central European Business Day". Wagenbach, Berlin 1992; ISBN 3-8031-2204-X ; P. 87.
- Karsten Heinz Schönbach: The German Corporations and National Socialism 1926–1943 . Berlin 2015, p. 201 f.
- Hans Radandt (ed.): Case 6. Selected documents and judgment of the IG Farben trial . Berlin 1970, p. 53.
- Joseph Borkin, The crime and punishment of IG Farben , Andre Deutsch 1979, chapter IG prepares Hitler for war .
- Augsburger Allgemeine from February 15, 2011, section Das Datum .
- Stefan Hörner: Profit or Morality. Structures between IG Farbenindustrie and National Socialism . Europäische Hochschulverlag, Bremen 2012. p. 35.
- IG FARBEN in the Spanish Civil War .
- Wolfgang Michalka: German History 1939-1945 . Frankfurt am Main 1999, p. 123.
- Stefan Hörner: Profit or Morality. Structures between IG Farbenindustrie and National Socialism . Europäische Hochschulverlag, Bremen 2012. P. 36, P. 40.
- Sybille Steinbacher : Auschwitz. History and post-history (= Beck'sche series. 2333). Beck, Munich 2004. p. 37ff.
- Bernd C. Wagner: IG Auschwitz. Forced labor and extermination of prisoners from the Monowitz camp 1941–1945. Munich 2000, ISBN 3-598-24032-5 , p. 187.
- John Cornwell: Research for the Guide. German scientists and the Second World War. Lübbe-Verlag, 2004, p. 417 ff., ISBN 3-7857-2165-X .
- Control Council Act No. 9 of September 20, 1945 regarding the “confiscation and control of the property of IG Farbenindustrie”.
- Ernst Bäumler: The red factory. Family history of a global company, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-492-10669-2 , p. 333.
- Law No. 35 (Splitting of the assets of IG Farbenindustrie AG) of the Allied High Commission of August 17, 1950 (ABl. AHK p. 534, ber. P. 617, amended: p. 1674, p. 3161).
- 1st Implementing Ordinance to Act No. 35 of May 23, 1952.
- Cabinet the Federal Government of June 19, 1952 .
- Quotation and information on the acquittals from: Ernst Bäumler: Farben, Formen Researcher. Hoechst and the history of industrial chemistry in Germany , Munich 1989, ISBN 3-492-10971-3 , p. 226 ff.
- See Peter Nowak : No end for IG Farben . In: taz , December 19, 2002. (Accessed December 20, 2010.)
- Master data: NAME IGFarbenindustrie AG i. A. Liquidation share certificates, ISIN DE0005759070, WKN 575907, symbol IGL
- IG Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft i. L .: Application to revoke admission to the stock exchange in Stuttgart, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg and Hanover, ad-hoc announcement according to § 15 WpHG, August 17, 2011.
- Norbert Wollheim against IG Farben. In: Deutsche Welle . Retrieved December 7, 2013 .
- IG Farbenindustrie Foundation is canceled - permanent and sustainable fulfillment of purpose no longer guaranteed ( memento of the original from April 25, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Website of the Darmstadt Regional Council.
- Sieghard Neufeldt: Chronologie Chemie: Entdecker und Entdeckungen, John Wiley & Sons, 2016, 434 S. - Name index entry: Duisburg, C., Bosch, C. ( limited preview in Google book search)
- Werner Abelshauser (ed.): The BASF: a company history. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2002. p. 230.