Aryanization (derived from " Aryans ") or de-Jewification was the name given by the National Socialists to the displacement of Jews and " Jewish mixed race " from trade, commerce, apartments, houses and science in the sense of the Nuremberg Laws . It took place from 1933 to 1945 in the German Reich as well as affiliated and occupied countries and is now generally classified as " robbery ". Mostly it was staged in the form of a formally proper “ sale ” , but this happened under considerable factual and / or official constraints, so that the seller was rarely able to achieve a reasonable price. As a result, individuals made significant profits.
A distinction must be made between the often forced sales, the confiscation of Jewish property in favor of the state, which partly took place in parallel, and the voluntary emergency sales of those affected in order to anticipate the coercive measures, often also in connection with the preparation and financing of emigration .
Aryanization and confiscation were part of the persecution of the Jews in the German Reich . Some of those persecuted as Jews in the German Reich emigrated abroad; another group failed to flee because of bureaucratic hurdles (e.g. tax clearance certificate) from the Nazi regime or because of problems with issuing entry visas . Another part decided against fleeing or did not have the financial means to do so. Most non-emigrants were from October 1941 in a death camp in eastern deported and murdered.
In addition, the term was and is also used to denote the expulsion or extermination of Jewish cultural workers and scholars. Attractive or sought-after positions (e.g. positions as professors at universities or conductors ) were filled with non-Jews after the previous Jewish position holder no longer held the position (termination, early retirement, or other).
From 1933 discriminatory laws and ordinances were enacted in order to legally underpin the “de-Jewification” of economic and social life in Germany.
The term originated in the context of ethnic anti-Semitism in the 1920s. During National Socialism, he described the process of the gradual displacement of Jews from economic life and the associated processes of expropriation ( de-Jewification ) and processes of appropriation ( Aryanization ). The process included not only the transfer of a business or business from a Jewish to a non-Jewish owner, but also the loss of most of the private assets, such as cash, securities, jewelry, household items, furniture, works of art, land and apartments.
In historical research, the term is partially extended to include the material and social expropriation of the Jews during the Nazi era up to and including forced labor . The vague term is partially avoided by working with conceptual specifications such as the deprivation of property, displacement from the economy, liquidation and the closure of Jewish businesses.
For the period from 1933 to 1938 one speaks of a phase of voluntary Aryanization . The people who were massively forced to sell could in most cases still decide with which people or private companies they wanted to conclude a purchase contract, and the conditions of the sale were still largely officially freely negotiable without official influence. The phase of so-called wild Aryanization under physical coercion began in Austria in 1938 after the annexation of Austria and in Germany around the November pogroms and the subsequent deportation of the action Jews to the concentration camps . At the end of 1938, government decrees passed over to the compulsory state Aryanization , as the Third Reich gave up its foreign policy reluctance after the conclusion of the Munich Agreement .
Beginning in 1933
Immediately after coming to power , the National Socialists began to tyrannize the Jewish population in order to induce them to emigrate. The agitation of the newspaper Der Stürmer , which was sold in print runs of hundreds of thousands and displayed publicly in so-called Striker boxes, played a special role . The boycott of Jewish shops was first carried out across Germany on April 1, 1933. Jewish civil servants were dismissed by the law to restore the civil service of April 7, 1933. With the ordinance on the admission of doctors to work with the health insurance funds of April 22, 1933, non-Aryan doctors and those who had been active in the communist sense were withdrawn from statutory health insurance . The law on admission to the bar of April 7, 1933, revoked the admission of Jewish lawyers. Proof of Aryan membership was required to become a member of the Reich Chamber of Culture and Jewish and Bolshevik artists were therefore subject to a de facto professional ban.
In 1935 it was decided not to give any more public contracts to Jewish companies, and public servants and party members were forbidden to shop with Jews. The Jewish factories were also isolated from their suppliers, as Aryan suppliers voluntarily refused to supply, through reduced raw material quotas by the cartels and also through the reduction of the state's foreign currency allocation. The regional economic advisors of the NSDAP began to control the Aryanization process of companies at the local level via the chambers of commerce. Freedom of contract and reasonably fair prices for company sales were no longer possible.
With the law amending the law on foreign exchange management of December 1, 1936, the foreign exchange offices were empowered to issue so-called security orders regardless of the affected person's intention to emigrate. This gave the foreign exchange offices potential access to the entire Jewish property.
Under this pressure from the boycott of Jews , professional bans , bureaucratic harassment, numerous discriminatory laws and ordinances and violent attacks, more and more Jews were forced to sell their business, business or personal assets well below their value in order to live off the proceeds or to emigrate can, whereby the sales proceeds were skimmed off by emigration through the Reich flight tax and offices for foreign exchange management . By 1938, 40% of the former Jewish population in the Reich had been expelled or emigrated . Most of their wealth had been lost or left behind. The remaining Jewish population became increasingly impoverished. In autumn 1938, of the 100,000 former Jewish owners, only 40,000 were in the hands of their rightful owners. Jewish wealth had shrunk from 12 billion Reichsmarks in 1933 to half in 1938.
Riots in Austria
The weeks immediately after the annexation of Austria on March 12, 1938 were marked by pogrom-like excesses against Jews and their property. Members of the SS and SA , Gestapo and police officers broke into homes and businesses and confiscated property. Austrian party and national comrades greedy for prey joined them. With the support of the NSBO and National Socialist SME organizations, a real Aryanization race began. Thousands of Austrian National Socialists and their followers took up residence as acting administrators in Jewish shops, factories and apartments in the unlawful area and confiscated property of Jewish citizens on their own in return for illegible receipts. Forced evictions from houses and apartments and initial evictions made numerous properties available to Aryans.
Basic legal work
Until 1938 there was no law in Germany that made the expropriation of Jewish property legally possible. In the course of negotiations with the Prague Petscheks, Friedrich Flick had asked several times to draft such a law so that it could at least be used as a means of pressure. Since the lawyers of the Reich Ministry of Economics and the Office for the four-year plan did not deliver satisfactory results, Hugo Dietrich , in-house lawyer in the Flick Group , was commissioned in June 1938 to prepare an expert opinion to examine the legal possibilities of an aryanization of the property of the Aussig Petscheks . The synopsis , a copy of which was sent to the Reich Ministry of Economics and the Office for the Four-Year Plan under the direction of Hermann Göring , was entitled “On the Ignaz Petschek Problem ”. The first paragraph read:
"Parag. 1. The agent for the four-year plan can appoint a trustee for any property that is subject to registration under the ordinance on the registration of property of Jews of April 26, 1938, whose powers the agent for the four-year plan stipulates in the deed of appointment. In particular, the trustee can be authorized to dispose of the assets with effect for or against the asset owner for an appropriate consideration. "
As part of the November pogroms in 1938 (also called Reichskristallnacht ), synagogues in Germany and Austria were destroyed and Jewish shops and houses were attacked. The riots across the Reich, mainly committed by members of the SS and SA in robber's civilian clothes, were plundered. Money and jewelry were stolen, furniture was taken away in a moving van, and cars and motorcycles were "seized". The Jews were taken into preventive custody and plundered on their way to or from the concentration camps and forced to transfer assets.
The ordinance on the elimination of Jews from German economic life of November 12, 1938 followed the Reichspogromnacht. On December 3, 1938, the ordinance on the use of Jewish assets followed . The remaining businesses of Jewish owners were forcibly transferred to Aryan owners, or they were dissolved. The proceeds were confiscated in favor of the state. Jewelry, jewelery, antiques and real estate had to be sold at prices well below market value. Jewish employees were dismissed, the self-employed were largely subject to a professional ban .
At the Flick trial in 1947, the prosecution brought up the similarity between H. Dietrich's report of June 1938 and the ordinance on the use of Jewish assets of December 3, 1938, stating:
"The participation of Flick , Steinbrinck and Kaletsch in the draft of a general Aryanization law proves with all desirable clarity their participation in the general process of making life in Germany impossible for Jews."
State compulsory Aryanization from 1939
From January 1, 1939, German Jews were prohibited from running retail stores and handicraft businesses, as well as offering goods and services. Even before that, Jewish business owners or landowners were put under, in some cases public pressure, to sell or transfer the business well below its current value. Often previous co-owners or employees were involved or benefited from this, who used their connections to the NSDAP or similar NS organizations for private enrichment.
The largest proportion of stolen Jewish property was made up of residential and commercial buildings. A speculative profit that the buyer of an Aryanized property was able to achieve by reselling it because the Jewish owner received only a fraction of the market value at the time was, according to Fritz Reinhardt, to be exempt from income tax as an Aryanization profit. However, the forced aryanization of home ownership was initially put on hold. In 1939, however, the pressure on the sale of Jewish property increased, at the same time the law on tenancy agreements with Jews deprived Jews still living in Germany of their rental rights, whereby they were gradually assigned to so-called Jewish houses . After the deportations, the remaining Jewish property was nationalized .
On August 22, 1940, the Vugesta (also VUGESTAP for "Sale of Jewish Moving Goods Gestapo") was founded, which operated from 1940 to 1945 and played a central role in the redistribution of stolen private property from Jewish Austrians .
With the Eleventh Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Act of November 25, 1941, the assets of deported Jews fell into favor of the Reich. With the thirteenth ordinance of July 1, 1943, the property of deceased Jews also fell to the Reich. The Finance Ministry was under the code name Action 3 at the beginning of November 1941 instructions to his subordinate authorities out is how to proceed in the recovery of these assets to. With this, the aryanization of Jewish assets in the Reich territory was formally legally completed after the deportations were completed.
The new owners
The outcome of the transfer of ownership from Jewish owners depended on the character of the buyer. There was:
- Active and unscrupulous profiteers who ruthlessly pushed down the purchase price, which was already low due to the forced situation of the sellers, through threats, denunciations and cooperation with approval authorities.
- Silent partners who contented themselves with the aryanization profit that resulted from the forced situation and, in the case of companies, from the under-valuation of inventory and receivables.
- Good-willed and understanding buyers who agreed decent prices and sometimes even paid more than was stated in the contract, thereby enabling the Jewish sellers to freely dispose of part of the purchase price without passing the controls.
Unfortunately, there are no generally accessible publications on research results or otherwise made objective investigations into the question in how many aryanization cases the buyers paid far too low or reasonably decent purchase prices.
Companies were able to increase their profits with Aryanization. State institutions such as auction houses and especially museums were also able to acquire valuable items. The inventory of houses and apartments was offered for viewing and buying on site for days.
Many companies and company shares were sold well below their economic value. Some of them - e.g. B. the Hertie department store (formerly Hermann Tietz , the largest department store in Berlin), Salzgitter AG as the successor to the aryanizing armaments and metal group Hermann-Göring-Werke , Günther Quandt , who acquired numerous Jewish companies for his group, and Friedrich Flick - played played an important role in the later years of the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany and found themselves exposed to the charge that the “German economic miracle ” was based in part on stolen assets.
Museums and art collections
Renowned museums such as the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna , the Natural History Museum Vienna , the Technical Museum Vienna , the Albertina (Vienna) , the Austrian Gallery Belvedere and the Austrian Museum of Folklore benefited from the Aryanization . The Frankfurt museums fought with the Gestapo over art objects from the looting of Jewish institutions and sent buyers to the occupied countries who acquired art objects from Jewish property whose commercial value in Germany was five times the purchase price.
Adolf Hitler had looted art procured from all over Europe for his planned Führer Museum in Linz . Hermann Göring - as the representative of the four-year plan, largely responsible for the state Aryanization - built up a large art collection in Carinhall . Other Nazis emulated them. Confiscated Judaica and Hebraica were brought together centrally in the Institute for Research into the Jewish Question in Frankfurt. The SS reopened the Jewish Museum in Prague and expanded it into the central museum for the collection of Jewish sacred equipment from the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia . The religious communities sent many exhibits to Prague to protect them from looting and vandalism.
cities and communes
The cities and municipalities, supported by the German Community Association founded in 1933 , saw the Aryanization of Jewish assets as a compensation for the costs of welfare services that arose from the impoverished Jewish population. After the Reichspogromnacht in 1938, they bought damaged or destroyed synagogues, Jewish cemeteries, hospitals and old people's homes at the lowest prices, as the demolition costs were high. In Bad Buchau , for example , the community acquired the synagogue property so cheaply that the purchase contract was considered a Jewish donation by the Ministry of the Interior and declared null and void because it violated racial principles. The Jewish foundations were brought under Aryan control, changes to the statutes were enforced by decree of the Reich Ministry of the Interior of May 8, 1938, and incorporated into foundations that were more racially suitable.
taxes and expenses
The German Reich and its financial authorities were the largest ariseur and benefited from various levies and the administration and exploitation of confiscated property from Jewish emigrants and later from deportees.
Reich flight tax
The Reich Flight Tax was introduced in December 1931 and was intended to tax emigration from Germany in order to counteract capital migration and tax evasion. When, after the National Socialists came to power, more and more Jews decided to emigrate, which at that time was still a state-intended emigration, because of their discrimination and persecution in Germany, the tax exemptions were reduced in 1934 from 200,000 RM to 50,000 RM for assets and from 20,000 RM to 10,000 RM for income. The Reich flight tax developed into an instrument with which the Jews who were leaving were partially deprived of their profits after the Nazi ideology. Tax revenue rose significantly by the start of the war .
In Germany there had been a foreign exchange restriction since 1931 , so that the export of Reichsmarks and the acquisition of foreign currency were subject to authorization and only took place via a blocked mark account at the Deutsche Golddiskontbank ( Dego for short ). On behalf of the state, this retained a percentage of the transfer amount, the so-called Dego levy. From 1938 this tax was increased to the equivalent of the removal goods brought with you when you emigrated. The levy was 20% in 1934 and was gradually increased to 96% in 1939.
Jewish property tax
With the Jewish capital levy of 12 November 1938, the German Reich wanted the one hand, its through the upgrading of the armed forces improve tight financial situation and, second, a propaganda claiming hostile attitude of the Jews against the German people by Herschel Grynszpan's assassination of Ernst vom Rath atone. A tax of 20% for Jewish assets over 5000 Reichsmarks led to further sales.
The self-enrichment and corruption among the NSDAP members up to the Gauleiters reached such an extent that a commission investigated them from 1939 onwards. As a result, a tax of 70% on the Aryanization profit - the difference between market value and purchase price - was introduced.
Restitution after the Second World War
The four occupying powers could not agree on the manner of returning property that was confiscated from the former owners in 1933–1945. This was therefore regulated differently.
Law No. 59 of the military government was enacted on November 10, 1947 in the American occupation zone . According to this, all legal transactions were contestable, in which a predicament could not be ruled out from the outset. This included not only sales where the purchase price was clearly too low, but also all sales after September 15, 1935 - the date the Nuremberg Laws came into force - even if a reasonable purchase price had been paid. Rights to abandoned objects (no owner or legacy left) were transferred to the Jewish organization JRSO ( Jewish Restitution Successor Organization ). If those liable for reimbursement wanted to remain the owner, they had to purchase the business, property or property again. The purchase price previously paid was only partially offset - reduced by rent or lease claims and devalued in a ratio of 1 to 10 (exchange rate DM to RM).
According to Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Transitional Agreement of May 26, 1952, these laws and ordinances of the occupying powers continue to apply unchanged in the Federal Republic ; they were expanded and supplemented by the Federal Restitution Act passed in 1957 ( German reparation policy ). The international Supreme Restitution Court existed here from 1955 , and the Supreme Restitution Court for Berlin had also existed for Berlin (West) since 1953 . The restitution of the real estate was largely completed in 1957.
The reparation for property damage due to National Socialist persecution was not carried out in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and later in the GDR . The law on the regulation of open property issues (VermG) of 1990 is therefore applicable in its property law provisions to property losses due to persecution in the period from January 30, 1933 to May 8, 1945 ( Paragraph 6 Property Act) and thus documents that “that the opportunity offered by reunification for a final general cleanup of this problem should be used ”.
In Austria eight restitution laws were enacted between 1946 and 1998 .
German parts of companies in Denmark and Danish suppliers to Germany aryanized their management and company representatives under economic pressure. After the deportation or rescue of the Danish Jews , the Danish authorities managed to protect their property.
On September 27, 1940, the military commander of Paris, Otto von Stülpnagel, ordered Jews to register, and on October 18, 1940, for Jewish companies in occupied France . In November 1940 he informed his military district chiefs that the Aryanization of Jewish property had been ordered by Walther von Brauchitsch . The Aryanization was carried out through the Service du Controle of the Vichy government , with Stülpnagel reserving the right to appoint trustees for Jewish industrial companies in order to be able to favor German buyers. On December 17, 1941, Stülpnagel ordered a “Jewish fine” of one billion francs, which the Association of Jews in France had to pay in installments.
Shortly before the ghettoization and deportation in Thessaloniki , War Administrator Max Merten ordered from the Wehrmacht administration there in February 1943 to dismiss the public administration of Jewish officials and to stop doing business with Jews . These were also excluded from associations under public law, organizations and associations. During the ghettoization in March, lists of assets and the keys to shops and apartments had to be surrendered. The formal Greek office for the administration of Jewish assets (Greek: Yperesia Diacheiriseos Isrilitikis Periousias ; short: YDIP ) took care of the exploitation under German supervision.
The YDIP was also responsible for the restitution of the property after the war. It happened only slowly and in Thessaloniki to a minor extent.
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Fascist Italy under Mussolini adopted an anti-Semitic policy out of opportunism with the aim of “not persecuting, but discriminating”. The anti-Jewish charter was completed in mid-November 1938 and then Jews and Jewish property were defined and recorded. In economic terms, the Jews' lifelines were slowly being cut off. The catalog of discriminatory laws and ordinances was expanded and tightened almost every week, not only by the government, but also by the municipalities and provinces.
The Italian race laws also provided for exceptions for deserving Jews and cases of doubt who could be "Aryanized" as persons. The resulting corruption became so scandalous and notorious that the General Directorate for Demographic and Racial Issues ( Direzione generale per la demographia e la razza ) was criticized even within the fascist party.
In Italian Libya , the governor Italo Balbo opposed too strict observance of the regulations and received from Mussolini the desired freedom to implement the laws and ordinances only in the way that Libyan conditions allowed. The racial laws and regulations were extended to the annexed regions as well, while the racial issue was not addressed in the Italian-occupied areas of southern France, Yugoslavia and Greece.
On September 5, 1940, the head of civil administration and Gauleiter of the Moselle region, Gustav Simon, issued an ordinance on the expropriation of Jewish assets. District inspector Josef Ackermann was entrusted with the implementation . Of the 335 Jewish businesses, 75 were Aryanized and the others were liquidated. Furniture that refugee Jews had left behind was made available to the civil administration in Luxembourg, the Reichsbahn, Reichspost, Hitler Youth, etc.
In autumn 1941 the Norwegian collaboration government under Vidkun Quisling revoked the license to practice Jewish lawyers and Jewish employees had to retire from the public service. The property of the Jews was confiscated and used by German and Norwegian agencies.
In the first weeks after the occupation of Poland, the German occupation administrations unrestrainedly robbed the Jewish and Polish population. In November 1939, representatives of the German occupation authorities discussed how the planned deportations of Jews and nationally conscious Poles from the Warthegau should record, confiscate and collect their assets. Only gradually did Hermann Göring's newly established main trust agency in the east become the all-powerful and unrivaled central institution of the process, with the previous Aryanizations in the Reich, Austria and the Protectorate serving as a model. Only after months of negotiations with the Reich Ministry of Economics and other departments was the Polish Property Ordinance subsequently created a legalistic framework for the deprivation of property.
Since the state and police departments had more far-reaching responsibilities, according to Loose, the term “Aryanization” should be dispensed with and instead “confiscation”, “confiscation” or “expropriation”, “provisional administration” and “liquidation”, as the property is not directly in the hands of ethnic German resettlers rather than initially passed into the property of the German Empire. Aryanization takes a back seat to “ Germanization ” and “ Germanization ” in contemporary usage .
The Swedish economy, which is heavily dependent on Germany, also went through an Aryanization process. Decisions made in Germany changed the ownership, management and composition of the employees in the Swedish branches of German companies. Swedish companies aryanized themselves voluntarily out of political opportunism or fear of economic disadvantage, in that Jewish employees were laid off and Jewish owners and managers had to leave or were at least pushed into the background.
On May 30, 1941, the military commander issued an ordinance on Jews. The Jews were registered, with contribution payments in the form of taxes, their basic assets aryanized, trustees appointed for the Jewish businesses, and the Jews excluded from public life and ousted from social life. Forced Aryanization was decreed on July 22, 1941. Dr. Neuhausen, the general representative for the economy, took care of the sale to Aryan and mostly German interested parties. The proceeds from the sale of the businesses and ultimately the furniture they left behind were confiscated.
- Human failure - documentary, Germany 2008, 90 minutes, director: Michael Verhoeven . Verhoeven's film shows the aryanization crime in a variety of forms from the beginnings based on the tax files of those affected to the evacuation, e.g. B. to Kaunas and Theresienstadt in the middle of an otherwise seemingly "normal" society. Personnel continuities of the actors and the research approaches in the released files of the financial administration are shown.
- Bergier report on bank accounts in Switzerland, also for dormant accounts of individuals (publ. 1997–2000)
- Law on the revocation of naturalizations and the withdrawal of German citizenship , 1933
- Law on the Confiscation of Property Hostile to the People and the State , 1933
- Law on Tenancy with Jews , 1939, which relaxed tenancy with Jews
- M-Aktion (looting of Jewish property in the occupied countries)
- Action 3 (so-called private sale of Jewish property)
- Looted gold
- Emigration tax
- Vugesta , sale of Jewish removal goods Gestapo
- Gildemeester campaign
- Götz Aly : Hitler's People's State. Robbery, Race War and National Socialism. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-10-000420-5 .
- Avraham Barkai : From Boycott to "De-Judaization". The economic struggle for existence of the Jews in the Third Reich 1933–1943. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-596-24368-8 .
- Helmut Genschel : The displacement of the Jews from the economy in the Third Reich. (= Göttingen building blocks for historical science. 38). Musterschmidt, Göttingen a. a. 1966. (At the same time dissertation at the University of Göttingen 1963)
- Constantin Goschler , Philip Ther (Ed.): Robbery and Restitution. “Aryanization” and restitution of Jewish property in Europe (= The time of National Socialism . No. 15738). Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-596-15738-2 .
- Harold James : Deutsche Bank and the "Aryanization". Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47192-7 .
- Martin Jungius: The Managed Robbery. The "Aryanization" of the French economy from 1940 to 1944 . (= Supplement to Francia . Volume 67). Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2008, ISBN 978-3-7995-7292-7 . (also dissertation at the University of Konstanz 2005)
- Helen B. Junz, Oliver Rathkolb u. a .: The assets of the Jewish population in Austria. Nazi robbery and restitution after 1945. (= publications by the Austrian Commission of Historians. Asset deprivation during the Nazi era as well as provisions and compensation since 1945 in Austria. 9). Verlag R. Oldenbourg, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-486-56770-5 . (About the method: A representative sample was drawn from the approximately 60,000 property registrations in the Austrian State Archives. The information was expanded to include information on restitution and compensation from the post-war documents - if available - and recorded in a database.)
- Ingo Köhler: The "Aryanization" of private banks in the Third Reich. Repression, elimination and the question of reparation. (= Series of publications for the journal for corporate history. 14). Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-53200-4 . (At the same time dissertation at the University of Bochum 2003)
- Joel Levi : The Aryanization of Jewish Law Firms. In: Lawyers and their history: on the 140th year of the foundation of the German Lawyers' Association. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-16-150757-1 , pp. 305-314.
- Johannes Ludwig: boycott, expropriation, murder. The “de-Jewification” of the German economy. Revised new edition. Piper, Munich / Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-492-11580-2 .
- Melissa Müller , Monika Tatzkow: lost pictures, lost lives. Jewish collectors and what became of their works of art . Sandmann, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-938045-30-5 .
- Werner Schroeder: The "Aryanization" of Jewish second-hand bookshops between 1933 and 1942. In: From the second-hand bookshop. Part 1: NF 7, No. 5, 2009, , pp. 295-320; Part 2: No. 6, 2009, pp. 359-386.
- Dirk Schuster: "Dejudging" as a divine task - The Church Movement German Christians and the Eisenacher Dejudungsinstitut in the context of National Socialist politics against Jews , in Swiss Journal for Religious and Cultural History , Volume 106, 2012, pp. 241 to 255.
- Peter Melichar : Entrepreneur under National Socialism. On the social function of Aryanization. In: Austria in History and Literature, 2/2016, pp. 197–211.
- Irmtrud Wojak , Peter Hayes (ed.): "Aryanization" in National Socialism: National Community, Robbery and Memory . Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-593-36494-8 .
Individual places or regions
- Frank Bajohr : "Aryanization" in Hamburg. The displacement of Jewish entrepreneurs 1933–1945. Christians, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-7672-1302-8 . (At the same time dissertation at the University of Hamburg 1996/97)
- Hanno Balz: The "Aryanization" of Jewish houses and land in Bremen. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2004, ISBN 3-86108-689-1 .
- Gerhard Baumgartner, Historical Commission of the Republic of Austria: "Aryanizations", confiscated assets, provisions and compensation in Burgenland. (= Publications of the Austrian Commission of Historians: Deprivation of assets during the Nazi era as well as provisions and compensation since 1945 in Austria . Volume 17). Oldenbourg, 2004, ISBN 3-486-56781-0 .
- Christof Biggeleben, Beate Schreiber, Kilian JL Steiner (ed.): "Aryanization" in Berlin. Metropol, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-938690-55-0 .
- Ramona Bräu : "Aryanization" in Wroclaw: The "de-Judaization" of a German city and its discovery in the Polish memory discourse . VDM, Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-5958-7 ( online in the Digital Library Thuringia ).
- Christian Faludi, Monika Gibas : Documentation of Robbery - The Research Project "Aryanization" in Thuringia ". In: Medaon - magazine for Jewish life in research and education. Issue 3/2008. (PDF; 138 kB)
- Christiane Fritsche: Looted, repaid and compensated - Aryanization and reparation in Mannheim. Regional culture, Mannheim 2012, ISBN 978-3-89735-772-3 .
- Monika Gibas (Ed.): "Aryanization" in Thuringia. Disenfranchisement, expropriation and extermination of the Jewish citizens of Thuringia 1933–1945. (= Sources on the history of Thuringia. 27). 2 volumes. 2nd Edition. State Center for Civic Education Thuringia , Erfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-937967-06-6 .
- Monika Gibas (Ed.): "Aryanization" in Leipzig. Approaching a long repressed chapter of the city's history from 1933 to 1945. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-86583-142-2 .
- Matthias Henkel, Eckart Dietzfelbinger (ed.): Disenfranchised. Degraded. Robbed: Aryanization in Nuremberg and Fürth. Imhof, Petersberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-86568-871-2 . (Book accompanying the exhibition in the Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds )
- Christoph Kreutzmüller: Sale. The destruction of Jewish business activity in Berlin 1930–1945 . Metropol, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-86331-080-6 .
- Peter Melichar , Displacement and Expansion. Expropriations and restitution in Vorarlberg , publications d. East Historikerkommission 19, Vienna, Munich 2004.
- Christian Reder: Deformed bourgeoisie. Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-85476-495-3 . ("Aryanizations" in Vienna)
- Tina Walzer , Stephan Templ : Our Vienna. "Aryanization" in Austrian . Structure, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-351-02528-9 .
- Jürgen Lillteicher: Restitution of Jewish property in West Germany after 1945. Dissertation . 2002 Dis Lillteicher refund (pdf); with Constantin Goschler: "Aryanization" and restitution. The restitution of Jewish property in Germany and Austria after 1945 and 1989. Wallstein, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-89244-495-1 .
- Hubert Schneider: The dejudification of living space - Jewish houses in Bochum / The history of buildings and their inhabitants , LIT Verlag, Berlin, 2010, ISBN 978-3-643-10828-9
Individual companies or people
- Götz Aly , Michael Sontheimer : Fromms. How the Jewish condom manufacturer Julius F. fell among the German robbers. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-000422-2 (illustration of aryanization based on the Fromms condom company ).
- Bastian Blachut: “Aryanization” as a business principle? The monopoly of the German detinning market between 1933 and 1939 by Th. Goldschmidt AG in Essen. Klartext, Essen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8375-0666-2 .
- Peter Melichar , reorganization in banking. The Nazi measures and the problem of restitution, publications d. East Historians' Commission 11, Vienna, Munich 2004.
- Ulrike Felber, Peter Melichar , Markus Priller, Berthold Unfried , Fritz Weber , Economy of Aryanization, Part 2: Economic Sectors, Industries, Case Studies. Forced sale, liquidation and restitution of companies in Austria 1938 to 1960, publications d. East Historikerkommission 10/2, Vienna, Munich 2004.
- Gregor Spuhler , Ursina Jud, Peter Melichar, Daniel Wildmann , Aryanizations in Austria and their connections to Switzerland. Contribution to research, publications of the Independent Expert Commission Switzerland - Second World War 20, Zurich 2002.
- Jens Schnauber: The Aryanization of Scala and Plaza. Varieté and Dresdner Bank during the Nazi era. Weidler, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89693-199-7 .
- Joachim Scholtyseck : Liberals and "Aryanizations": Some case studies and an outlook . In: Heuss-Forum 8/2017.
- Manuel Werner: Cannstatt - Neuffen - New York. The fate of a Jewish family in Württemberg. With the memoirs of Walter Marx. Sindlinger-Burchartz, Nürtingen / Frickenhausen 2005, ISBN 3-928812-38-6 . (In it detailed description of the "Aryanization" of a ribbon weaving mill, the mechanisms, preliminary stages, the people and institutions involved, the effect on the Jewish owners and a brief description of the refund)
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