Reich Citizenship Law

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Wilhelm Stuckart , Hans Globke : Commentary on the Reich Citizenship Law (1936)

The Reich Citizenship Law (RBG) of September 15, 1935 ( RGBl. I p. 1146) divided the German population into Reich citizens , "citizens of German or related blood", on the one hand, and 'simple' citizens, "members of non-racial people", on the other. This effectively created a two-class society: Reich citizens who should receive full rights and Reich citizens with fewer rights. Closely related to this is the simultaneously enacted “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor” ( Blood Protection Act ), which henceforth allows marriages of Jews and “ Germans with blood"As well as extramarital intercourse between them as" racial treason "and made it a criminal offense.

Much more important than the Reich Citizenship Act itself were the ordinances on the Reich Citizenship Act , the first of which contained a National Socialist definition of the term " Jew ", and the dismissal of the last Jewish officials who were still in office according to the provisions of the " Front Fighter Privilege ". The German citizenship was acquired according to the Reichs und Staatsangerschaftsgesetz (RuStAG) of July 22, 1913, with the twelfth ordinance of April 25, 1943 , now in the middle of the World War, a citizenship on revocation and a protection citizenship were introduced, whereby also determined became that “ Gypsies ” and Jews could neither become citizens nor protection members.

The Reich Citizenship Law was one of the two Nuremberg Race Laws that were passed at the 7th Reich Party Congress of the NSDAP (September 10-16, 1935), then adopted by the German Reichstag and solemnly promulgated by the then Reichstag President Hermann Göring . The Reichstag had been convened by telegram to Nuremberg on September 15, 1935 especially for this purpose .

Content of the Reich Citizenship Law

Reichsgesetzblatt Part I, 1935, p. 1146, issued on September 16, 1935: "Reich Citizenship Law"

The Reich Citizenship Law broke with the legal equality of German citizens; There is a difference between the fully entitled "Reichsbürger", who alone has full political rights, and the "simple" citizen:

  • A citizen belongs to the Protection Association of the German Reich and is "particularly obliged" to it.
  • The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights "in accordance with the law". This must be a citizen of “German or related blood” (objective standard). In addition, he must prove through his behavior that he is “willing and able to faithfully serve the German people and empire” (subjective standard). The "Reich Citizenship" should be awarded (written) by a Reich Citizenship Letter .

Legislation based on the authorization to issue ordinances differentiated even more between 1935 and 1943, so that when the Reich Citizenship Act was repealed in 1945 there were five different categories:

  1. Reich citizens (and thus at the same time citizens),
  2. (ordinary) citizens,
  3. Citizens on withdrawal,
  4. Protection members of the German Reich (foreign residents of the incorporated areas, e.g. members of the Protectorate ),
  5. without legal status (e.g. Jews and "gypsies" in the territories occupied during World War II ).

The planned issuing of Reich citizenship letters did not take place. Until the repeal of the Reich Citizenship Law, it remained only with a provisional Reich citizenship. According to the ideas when the law was passed, it should only be given to a small group of people anyway. With the completion of the Anschluss of Austria on March 13, 1938 and the associated retroactive entry into force of the “Ordinance on German Citizenship in Austria” of July 3, 1938 (RGBl. I p. 790), there was no longer Austrian citizenship . Since the “provisional Reich Citizenship Law” was linked to possession of the Reichstag electoral law at the time the Reich Citizenship Act came into force, it was not introduced in Austria . Instead, all Austrians initially received ipso jure the same German citizenship, including Jews and "Gypsies". With the subsequent ordinances on the Reich Citizenship Law, the citizenship of Austrian Jews and “Gypsies” was gradually fragmented and eroded.


With the division of the Germans into two classes, into (privileged) citizens of the Reich and into (ordinary) citizens, the erosion of the right of citizenship that applies equally to everyone began. The creation of the privileged Reich citizenship “of German or related blood” made it possible for the other citizens to be deprived of their rights in the future, and thus to be regarded as inferior citizens. This is the key function of the law.

Jews were not explicitly mentioned in the law. Nonetheless, this law aimed primarily at their exclusion and disenfranchisement. Two months later, the First Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law of November 14, 1935, submitted content that 'translated' the “monstrous racial law” (Essner) into bureaucratic practice: It codified a genealogically derived, gradual concept of Jews (Section 5): “A Jew is who is descended from at least three of the race after fully Jewish grandparents ”,“ is a Jewish mixed race who is descended from one or two of the race after fully Jewish grandparents ”(§ 2).

The proof of being “fully Jewish” for the classification as “Jew” came from the Jewish religion of the grandparents, regardless of whether the persons concerned were Jews, Christians or atheists. When classifying as a “ Jewish mixed race ”, on the other hand, factual criteria were used if he was “first degree” (so-called “half-Jews”, ie with “two ... fully Jewish grandparents”): Did he belong to the “Jewish religious community” or? if he was married to a “Jew” or conceived out of wedlock, the term “Jew” also applied to him (so-called “ valid Jew ”).

Since “Jews” could not be “citizens of the Reich”, they were politically disenfranchised in this way; in particular, they were deprived of their right to vote and the exercise of a “public office” was prohibited (Section 4). The demand of the NSDAP party program of 1920, however, to deprive “Jews” of German citizenship in general, was not implemented in the First Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Act.

But this law soon grew into an existence-threatening and destroying tool, because as a result another twelve “ordinances on the Reich Citizenship Law” were issued, through which the Jewish minority was further excluded and disenfranchised. These ordinances regulated and determined u. a.

  • the dismissal of the last Jewish officials and notaries,
  • preventing Jewish doctors, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, lawyers and patent attorneys from working,
  • the obligation to register and list Jewish businesses,
  • compulsory membership in the Reich Association of Jews in Germany ; thus the dissolution of all self-governing Jewish organizations, the exclusion from public welfare and attending state schools,
  • the loss of citizenship when leaving the national territory, at the same time the confiscation of property,
  • the collection of assets in the event of death
  • and finally the competence of the Gestapo instead of ordinary jurisdiction.

Come into effect

The Reich Citizenship Law was published in the Reich Law Gazette of September 16, 1935 and came into force on that day.

In Austria it was announced on May 27, 1938, after it had been introduced on May 24, and came into force the next day along with the so-called Blood Protection Act. With the exception of the second and tenth ordinances, all ordinances were also published in Austria, although the seventh was not applicable.

First ordinance of November 14, 1935

Reichsgesetzblatt of November 14, 1935: "First Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law"

In the First Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law (for the text see web link ), all German-blooded citizens are granted provisional citizenship until a final regulation has been announced - which never came about. For the time being, “Jewish half-breeds” were also granted political rights as Reich citizens.

This ordinance laid down fundamentally who was to be considered a Jew or a “Jewish mixed race” in the German Reich. In the absence of a verifiable characteristic, the religious affiliation of the ancestors was used as the criterion in order to assign someone to a supposedly existing "Jewish race":

  • “Jews” were people whose grandparents three or four were “ racially ” Jewish.
  • A “ Jewish mixed race ” was defined as someone who had one or two “racially” Jewish grandparents but had no further ties to Judaism .

In order to determine whether the grandparents were "racially" Jews, one would have had to fall back on the generation of the great-grandparents, which in practice would have led to an almost impracticable amount of research. Therefore, a grandparent was easily considered fully Jewish if he belonged to the Jewish religious community. This could mean that a “German-blooded” grandparent who married into a Jewish family and joined the Jewish religious community counted “according to race” as a Jew in the Aryan certificate .

A person who had two Jewish grandparents “according to race” was also considered a Jew

  • was still a member of the Jewish religious community or was accepted by it after the law was passed;
  • was married to a Jew or marries a Jew under the enactment of the law;
  • came from a marriage with a Jew that was concluded after September 15, 1935, or
  • was an illegitimate child of Jewish descent who was born after July 31, 1936.

“Jewish half-breeds”, who were considered “full Jews” due to these additional characteristics, were also referred to as “ valid Jews ”.

Since non-racial characteristics such as the religious creed of the grandparents, one's own religious creed or legal declarations of intent were (partly) decisive for the status as a Jew, the regulation was contradictory even for those who subscribed to the Nazi worldview . Furthermore, this ordinance stipulates that all “Jews” within the meaning of this definition are to be retired as civil servants by the end of 1935 . Until then, according to an exception provision in Section 3 (2) of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, an unexpectedly high proportion of "non-Aryans" who could invoke the frontline fighter privilege could remain in civil service status .

As a necessary consequence that “Jews” can never be citizens of the Reich (Section 4, Paragraph 1 of the Ordinance), all Jewish civil servants had to retire on December 31, 1935 according to Paragraph 2.

Three further ordinances refer to the "First Ordinance" and only change or add one point to it: The "Second Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law" (1935) comprehensively defines which groups of people were to be retired. The “Seventh Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law” (1938) repealed the provisions of the First Reich Citizenship Ordinance, according to which retired Jewish civil servants received full pensionable salaries or waiting allowances until they reached the age limit . At the same time, these retirement benefits were reduced. And in the “Ninth Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law” (1939), “Jewish half-breeds” from the Ostmark were granted that they were not married to a Jew if, according to the Austrian Marriage Act of July 6, 1938, until the Reich Citizenship Act was announced , the spouses were only married to The table and bed were separated without dissolution of the marriage bond and had not remarried since then.

Second ordinance of December 21, 1935

The second ordinance is primarily a specification of Section 4 of the First Ordinance. What is new is that Section 4 (1) of the First Ordinance also applied to the position as a senior doctor in public and independent non-profit hospitals and as a medical examiner. They retired on December 31, 1936.

This regulation was not announced in Austria. It was replaced by the ordinance on the reorganization of the civil service of May 31, 1938.

Third ordinance of June 14, 1938

A “Third Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” defined which businesses were to be considered “Jewish”. These should be entered in a separate register that was accessible to the public. The Reich Economics Minister was authorized to agree with the Reich Minister of the Interior and the deputy of the Führer that companies had to carry a special label from “a point in time to be determined”.

Fourth ordinance of July 25, 1938

After the “Fourth Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” of July 25, 1938, Jewish doctors were withdrawn from their medical license with effect from September 30, 1938 . Likewise, no more Jew could obtain a license to practice medicine. Service contracts with Jewish doctors could be terminated on December 31, 1938, even if this was only planned or possible for a later date. Rental contracts for rooms that the doctor had rented for himself, his family or for his professional practice were also to be terminated on September 30, 1938.

Of the 3,152 Jewish doctors still practicing, 709 received a “revocable license” on the basis of this ordinance to work as “ medical practitioners ” for Jewish patients. Thus, of the 9,000 practicing Jewish doctors in 1933, only less than ten percent were licensed. At least 5,000 emigrated and around 1,500 were deported.

Fifth ordinance of September 27, 1938

Through the “Fifth Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” of September 27, 1938, Jewish lawyers who were allowed to continue to work after 1933 in accordance with an exception in the law on admission to the bar were allowed to work in the Altreich on November 30, 1938 and in Austria on November 31 , 1938 . December 1938, the license revoked. Deletion could only be temporarily waived in the case of lawyers admitted in Vienna who had been resident in Austria for at least 50 years and who were former combatants. However, this deletion was possible at any time and until then there was the possibility of prohibiting the exercise of the profession. The ordinance regulated the termination of service and rental contracts that were related to it.

A legal advisory activity was Jewish jurists prohibited since 1935th Some “ consultants ” were admitted to represent and provide legal advice to Jewish clients . Of the 1,753 Jewish lawyers who were still licensed, only 172 were allowed to work as consultants. This activity was revocable or temporary and the consultants were under the supervision of the administration of justice.

Sixth ordinance of October 31, 1938

With the “Sixth Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” of October 31, 1938, Jews were prohibited from working as patent attorneys . The ordinance also regulated the termination of service and rental contracts related to it.

Seventh ordinance of December 5, 1938

The full remuneration of civil servants who were retired on the basis of the First Ordinance, which was still paid on the basis of the “Front Fighter Privilege”, was reduced to the general pension by this Ordinance from January 1, 1939.

The seventh ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law was announced in the Ostmark, but was not applicable.

Eighth ordinance of January 17, 1939

With the “Eighth Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” of January 17, 1939, Jewish dentists, veterinarians and pharmacists were banned from practicing their profession with effect from January 31, 1939, which means that the entire field of medicine was now closed to Jews. They were only allowed to continue working as auxiliaries for work with Jews or at Jewish hospitals. A few dentists and dentists or dental technicians, who were revocably permitted to continue their profession, were allowed to treat wives, children and otherwise only Jews. This ordinance also regulates the termination of relevant service and rental contracts.

Ninth ordinance of May 5, 1939

In the “Ninth Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law” of May 5, 1939, “Jewish half-breeds” from the Ostmark were granted that they were not married to a Jew if the marriage was in accordance with the applicable Austrian law by the announcement of the Reich Citizenship Act (September 16, 1935) Marriage law could not be separated according to bond, but was only divorced from table and bed, provided that no new marriage was entered into.

Tenth ordinance of July 4, 1939

The "Tenth Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law" brought about radical changes. It established compulsory membership in the “ Reich Association of Jews in Germany ”, which acted as an extension of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) and later played an inglorious helper role in carrying out the deportations .

The Reichsvereinigung had to encourage emigration and had to levy a property levy in order to be able to hand over money to poor emigrants. The Reichsvereinigung was also obliged to provide schooling for the Jews. As the bearer of Jewish welfare, it had to support needy Jews so sufficiently that public welfare did not have to intervene. This was to be financed from contributions and donations from the impoverished and overaged Jewish community; From 1941 the RSHA contributed financial resources from the confiscated property of the deported Jews.

The tenth ordinance was not announced in the Ostmark.

Eleventh ordinance of November 25, 1941

One Jew now lost his German citizenship "with the transfer of his habitual residence abroad" . This meant that in this way all already into foreign relocated German Jews - later - their nationality was withdrawn, representing approximately 250,000 affected and 280,000 emigrated Jews. The ordinance also stipulated that this would apply to subsequent changes of residence. However, since the Jews were forbidden to emigrate on October 18, 1941 by order of Heinrich Himmler , the process can only be equated with deportation.

Obviously, the “Eleventh Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law” also had the purpose of bringing the remainder of their property to the Nazi state when the German Jews were to be deported , without having to carry out a previously customary individual decision: “The property of the Jew who the If you lose German citizenship on the basis of this ordinance, the Reich will lose that citizenship. [...] The forfeited property should serve to promote all purposes related to the solution of the Jewish question . ”Inheritance and gifts were also forbidden. Insofar as there were liabilities on this property, such as maintenance claims, debts and the like, these were not taken over by the Reich and were not partially offset by the value of the confiscated property.

Since many deportation trains were supposed to lead to the Generalgouvernement , the Reichskommissariat Ostland or the Reichskommissariat Ukraine , which were not considered foreign under Reich law, these target areas were classified as "foreign countries within the meaning of the Eleventh Ordinance" by a circular issued by the Reich Minister of the Interior on December 3, 1941.

Before this date, a case-by-case decision was carried out as a formal administrative act that was later only used for stateless Jews and for deportations to the “Theresienstadt old age ghetto” : A bailiff delivered these Jews to the assembly camp with a document stating that their entire property was classified as “people - and property hostile to the state ”was confiscated. From the 1933 law on the confiscation of property hostile to the people and the state and a decree of May 29, 1941, neither the wording nor the literal sense of the law can be used to derive a justification for the confiscation of property.

The injustice of the Eleventh Ordinance is “readily apparent”: the withdrawal of German citizenship after deportation, loss of assets and the suspension of pension claims. According to Uwe Dietrich Adam , however, this ordinance “did not create a revolutionary new 'law'”, but only standardized the actual situation when it came to grabbing Jewish property and thus represented a simplification of the administration. The Jews living in the Reich stayed - contrary to the original plans - spared from the provisions on financial collapse.

According to Article 116 (2) of the Basic Law, persons whose German citizenship was withdrawn for political, racial or religious reasons between January 30, 1933 and May 8, 1945, can be naturalized again upon their application. In its decision of February 14, 1968, the Federal Constitutional Court regarded the 11th ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Act as an intolerable contradiction to justice and considered it null and void from the start.

The de jure statelessness resulting from the 11th ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Act is viewed as completely undisputed. Jews who were liberated from one of the concentration or extermination camps located abroad towards the end of the war fulfilled the requirements of a stateless displaced person .

Twelfth ordinance of April 25, 1943

With the “Twelfth Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law”, a German “citizenship on revocation” and a legal status “Protected Member of the German Reich” were introduced. A guardian could not be a citizen. “ Gypsies ” and Jews (including “half-Jews”) could neither be or become citizens on revocation nor protection members. This actually affected children of Jews or Gypsies who were born after April 30, 1943, the date on which this regulation came into force. Contrary to allegations occasionally found in the literature, Jews or "Gypsies" who still had German citizenship did not lose it through the 12th ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Act.

For "Citizenship on Revocation" and "Protected Members of the German Reich" see also: German People's List

Thirteenth ordinance of July 1, 1943

The "Thirteenth Ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law" deprived the Jews of ordinary jurisdiction ; Criminal acts by Jews were henceforth punished by the police. The few Jews who remained legally in the Reich, mostly surviving under the uncertain protection of a “ mixed marriage ”, were at the mercy of the Gestapo. After the death of a Jew, his property fell to the Reich.

Repeal of the law and nullity

The Reich Citizenship Act and its ordinances were repealed in Germany by the Allied Control Council Act No. 1 of September 20, 1945.

In Austria it was announced retrospectively in the State Law Gazette of June 6, 1945 as having expired on April 10, 1945.

In 1968 the Federal Constitutional Court formulated the following guiding principles: “National Socialist 'legal' provisions can be denied validity as law if they contradict fundamental principles of justice so clearly that the judge who wanted to apply them or recognize their legal consequences would pronounce injustice instead of right. In the 11th ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law of November 25, 1941 (RGBl. I p. 772) the contradiction to justice has reached such an unbearable level that it must be considered null and void from the start . ”The prohibition of arbitrariness is one of the fundamental legal principles , which is now anchored in Article 3, Paragraph 1 of the Basic Law .

Nullity in Switzerland

The Swiss Federal Court set down in 1935 in several decisions clear that in Switzerland the anti-Semitic Nazi legislation - especially the Reich Citizenship Law - as against legal principles offending forming injustice was to see what she could not apply. However, in practice this was disregarded by the authorities ( visa requirement for "non-Aryans" 1938, withdrawal of the settlement permit for expatriated German Jews from November 1941)


  • Wilhelm Stuckart , Hans Globke : Reich Citizenship Law of September 15, 1935. Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor of September 15, 1935; Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health of the German People ( Marriage Health Law ) of October 18, 1935; In addition to all implementation regulations and the relevant laws and regulations. CH Beck, Munich 1936, p. XII u. 287 (including comments on German racial legislation by Stuckart)
  • Cornelia Essner: The "Nuremberg Laws" or The Administration of Rassenwahns 1933–1945. Schöningh, Paderborn 2002, ISBN 3-506-72260-3 . At the same time Habil.-Schr. , TU Berlin , 2000 (full text at Digi20 ).
  • Walter F. Schleser : German citizenship. 4th edition, Verlag für Standesamtwesen, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-8019-5603-2 , Section IV: Citizenship provisions after 1933 (A. Expatriation laws, B. Restitution in the field of citizenship law) , pp. 69-74.
  • Magnus Brechtken, Hans-Christian Jasch, Christoph Kreutzmüller (eds.): The Nuremberg Laws - 80 Years Later: Prehistory, Origin, Effects. Wallstein Verlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8353-3149-5 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ER Huber , Construction and Structure of the Reich , in: ders. (Ed.): Idea and Order of the Reich , Vol. 1 (collective work), Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1941, pp. 16, 31.
  2. a b c d Cornelia Essner: Introduction or summary of the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor ["Nuremberg Laws"], September 15, 1935, and the first two implementing provisions, November 14, 1935 , 100 ( 0) Key documents on German history in the 20th century - online . Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  3. Dieter Gosewinkel: Naturalization and Exclusion. The nationalization of citizenship from the German Confederation to the Federal Republic of Germany. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-35165-8 , p. 385.
  4. Ingo von Münch , The German Citizenship. Past present Future. De Gruyter Recht, Berlin 2007, p. 65 .
  5. ^ After Georg Hansen, Die Deutschmachung - Ethnicity and Ethnization in the Process of Inclusion and Exclusion. Waxmann, Münster / New York / Munich / Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8309-1043-6 , p. 102.
  6. Ingo von Münch, Die deutsche Staatsangerung , 2007, p. 65.
  7. Cornelia Essner: The "Nuremberg Laws" or managing the racial madness 1933-1945. Schöningh, Paderborn 2002, p. 136.
  8. ^ The "Second Ordinance on German Citizenship in Austria" of June 30, 1939 , RGBl. I p. 1072 (GBl. Fd L. Ö. No. 840/1939) put the RuStAG of 1913 into effect in the Ostmark with effect from July 1, 1939. See Walter Schätzel, The German Citizenship Law , Commentary, 2nd edition, Berlin 1958, p. 323 .
  9. See Hannelore Burger, Harald Wendelin, Expulsion, Return and Citizenship. The practice of enforcing citizenship law for Austrian Jews , in: Dieter Kolonovits / Hannelore Burger / Harald Wendelin (eds.), Citizenship and Expulsion. Oldenbourg, Vienna / Munich 2004, pp. 239–501, here p. 284.
  10. Dieter Gosewinkel: Naturalization and Exclusion. The nationalization of citizenship from the German Confederation to the Federal Republic of Germany. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, p. 392.
  11. Isabel Heinemann: "Race, Settlement, Blood". The Race & Settlement Main Office of the SS and the racial reorganization of Europe. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89244-623-7 , p. 83.
  12. Wolfgang Form / Wolfgang Neugebauer / Theo Schiller (eds.): Nazi justice and political persecution in Austria 1938–1945. Analysis of the proceedings before the People's Court and the Higher Regional Court of Vienna. Munich 2006, p. 461.
  13. RGBl. I p. 594 (GBlÖ No. 150/1938, announcement of the Reichsstatthalters in Austria, whereby the ordinance on the introduction of the Nuremberg race laws in the state of Austria of May 20, 1938 is announced ). See Sievert Lorenzen, Die Juden und die Justiz. Processed on behalf of the Reich Minister of Justice. Writings of the Reich Institute for the History of the New Germany, 2nd edition, Berlin / Hamburg 1943, p. 189.
  14. a b Hannah Mang: Nürnberger Rassegesetze and the 13 ordinances to the Reich Citizenship Law , Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-656-28942-5 , p. 24.
  15. See Hans-Christian Jasch: State Secretary Wilhelm Stuckart and the Jewish policy. The myth of clean administration (= Studies on Contemporary History, No. 84), Oldenbourg, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-70313-9 , p. 206 f.
  16. See Peter Longerich : Politics of Destruction… , Munich 1998, ISBN 3-492-03755-0 , pp. 42–43.
  17. Mang, p. 11.
  18. Mang, p. 18.
  19. Mang, p. 13.
  20. a b c d e Mang, p. 23.
  21. Mang, p. 14.
  22. Mang, p. 15.
  23. a b Konrad Kwiet : After the pogrom: levels of exclusion. In: Wolfgang Benz (Ed.): The Jews in Germany 1933–1945. Munich 1966, ISBN 3-406-33324-9 , p. 548.
  24. Thomas Beddies, Susanne Doetz, Christoph Kopke (eds.): Jewish doctors in National Socialism. Disenfranchisement, expulsion, murder , de Gruyter, Berlin 2014. Figures based on Bernward Dörner in: Zeitschrift für Geschichtswwissenschaft 64 (2016), Issue 2, p. 198.
  25. a b Mang, p. 16.
  26. a b c Mang, p. 17.
  27. Mang, p. 18.
  28. Mang, pp. 18-21.
  29. See Mang, p. 21.
  30. RGBl. I 1941, p. 723 .
  31. See Mang, p. 22.
  32. ^ Hans-Dieter Schmid: 'Finanztod' - The cooperation between the Gestapo and the financial administration in the plundering of Jews in Germany. In: Gerhard Paul, Klaus-Michael Mallmann (ed.): The Gestapo in the Second World War . Darmstadt 2000, ISBN 3-89678-188-X , p. 151.
  33. Christiane Kuller: 'First principle: hoarding for the Reich Finance Administration.' The exploitation of the property of the deported Nuremberg Jews. In: Birthe Kundrus, Beate Meyer (ed.): The deportation of the Jews from Germany. Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-89244-792-6 , p. 166.
  34. Wolf Gruner : Resistance in the Rosenstrasse… , Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16883-X , p. 68; Printed as a document by Hans Günther Adler: The secret truth. Theresienstadt documents. Tübingen 1958, p. 61; Text of the certificate also in Walther Hofer: The National Socialism. Documents 1933-1945. FiTb 6084, revised. New edition Frankfurt am Main 1982, ISBN 3-596-26084-1 , pp. 172, 298 f.
  35. Uwe Dietrich Adam : Jewish policy in the Third Reich. Unv. Reprint Düsseldorf 2003, ISBN 3-7700-4063-5 , p. 210.
  36. Uwe Dietrich Adam: Jewish policy in the Third Reich. Unv. Reprint Düsseldorf 2003, p. 211.
  37. BVerfG, decision of February 14, 1968 - 2 BvR 557/62
  38. Martin Stiller: A history of international law of statelessness. Shown using selected examples from Europe, Russia and the USA. Springer, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-7046-6223-1 , p. 98.
  39. Joachim Neander: The citizenship law of the "Third Reich" and its effects on the fate of persecution of German citizens. In: theologie.geschichte - Journal for Theology and Cultural History , Vol. 3 (2008). Universaar, Saarbrücken 2008, ISSN  1862-1678 ( online ). Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  40. Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of February 14, 1968 - 2 BvR 557/62 (online at OpinioIuris ); see. for this purpose the Radbruch formula . (Note: There is a typographical error in the quotation of the decision, the 11th ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law can be found in RGBl. I p. 722.)
  41. Switzerland, National Socialism and the Second World War: Final report of the Independent Expert Commission Switzerland - Second World War , University of Zurich, 2002, section “Law and Legal Practice”, pp. 407–439, on dealing with the authorities in particular p. 414.