General Government

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Generalne Gubernatorstwo
Location of the General Government (District of Galicia hatched)
Location of the General Government ( District of Galicia hatched)
status Sub-country of the German Empire
Official languages Polish , German
Capital Krakow ( Kraków )
Facility October 26, 1939
Governor General Hans Frank ( NSDAP )
Deputy Governor General 1939–1940 Arthur Seyß-Inquart (NSDAP)
1940–1945 Josef Bühler (NSDAP)
surface 95,000 km² (1939)
144,000 km² (1941)
population approx.17,000,000
currency Zloty
Structure of the Greater German Reich, May 1944

The term Generalgouvernement ( Polish Generalne Gubernatorstwo ) was initially Generalgouvernement for the occupied Polish territories and initially referred to the areas of the former Second Polish Republic , which were militarily occupied by the German Reich from 1939–1945 and were not directly incorporated into the Reich territory through annexation , as u. a. initially the new Reichsgaue Danzig-West Prussia , Wartheland and the new administrative district Zichenau in East Prussia . In addition, the term describes the administrative structures established there under the governor general and NSDAP functionary Hans Frank and his deputy Josef Bühler based in Krakow . The establishment of the General Government was based on a decree issued by Hitler on October 12, 1939 and replaced the administration under the military commander-in-chief. It initially covered an area of ​​95,000 km² and on August 1, 1941, after the attack on the Soviet Union , the previously Soviet-occupied Galicia district was expanded to 144,000 km².

In the German occupation of the General Government, exploitation and extermination policies were combined . The Jewish population and large parts of the Polish population were killed. After no quick victory was to be expected in the East, a policy of exploitation was developed parallel to the extermination campaigns ( extermination through labor ), which was intended to compensate for the severe shortage of workers in the German economy .

Economically, the Generalgouvernement should be completely dependent on the Greater German Reich , but cost nothing if possible. According to this concept, the Generalgouvernement represented a “booty good” in economic policy, which was to be plundered regardless of structural or long-term connections of production and whose economy was to be turned into a “heap of rubble”.

The Generalgouvernement was not to become a territory administered according to the German model , but to remain in total disorganization. The administration of the occupation was only supposed to deal with the immediate concerns of the occupants themselves and leave the Poles to their fate.

The General Government

After the successful war against Poland in autumn 1939, it was occupied by the military; The German occupiers basically differentiated between two areas: "Generalgouvernement for the occupied Polish territories" was the name for the so-called German sub-country since October 26, 1939, i.e. those occupied by National Socialist Germany during World War II , but not in Germany National territory incorporated areas of the previous Poland . The name "Generalgouvernement" was deliberately chosen based on the Generalgouvernement of Warsaw , which was administered militarily by the German Empire during the First World War ( see also Ober Ost ). It contained the four districts of Krakow , Radom , Warsaw and Lublin , since August 1, 1941, Lemberg as well , had a total area of ​​142,000 km² with around 12 million inhabitants and existed until 1945.

In the Generalgouvernement, an independent civil occupation administration of the German Reich was installed under Frank, which replaced the military occupation, called the government. The German rule in the General Government is considered to be the most terrible manifestation of the National Socialist terror , against which the Polish Home Army was formed despite or perhaps because of the brutal repression . The hatred erupted in several uprisings , most of which were bloodily suppressed by the German occupiers. The best-known uprisings include the Warsaw Ghetto uprising from spring 1943 and the Warsaw uprising from August to October 1944. Around three million Polish Jews and almost as many Poles were murdered in the General Government during World War II or there were acts of terrorism (including the Przemyśl massacre , so-called “special campaigns” such as the Krakow special campaign ) and the targeted hunger policy of the occupiers. Governor General Frank told a journalist in February 1940: “In Prague, for example, there were large red posters that read that seven Czechs had been shot today. Then I said to myself: if I wanted to put up a poster for every seven Poles shot, then the forests of Poland would not be enough to produce the paper for such posters. "

The declared aim of the National Socialist occupiers was to make the General Government “ free of Jews ” and to expel the Poles so that Germans could settle there. Then the General Government should be annexed . Governor General Frank stated at a department heads meeting in Krakow on March 26, 1941:

“The Fuehrer promised me that the Generalgouvernement would be completely liberated from Jews in the foreseeable future . It is also clearly decided that the General Government will be a German area of ​​life in the future. Where twelve million Poles live today, four to five million Germans will one day live. The Generalgouvernement must become as German a country as the Rhineland . "

The so-called Schmalzowniks played a particularly fatal role in this plan .

Massacre in Bochnia 1939
An announcement by City Governor Dr. Franke in Czestochowa on September 24, 1942
Executions and hostage list with the request to report suspects ( denunciation ), 1943

The Poles should be deprived of any possibility of independence; For example, the Polish high schools and universities were closed and the education and press systems were cut back to a minimum in order to cement the oppression of the Slavic population. In a note from Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler it says:

“A fundamental question in solving all these problems is the school question and thus the sifting and screening of young people. For the non-German population of the east there should be no higher school than the four-class elementary school. The aim of this elementary school has only to be: simple arithmetic up to 500, writing the name, a teaching that it is a divine command to be obedient to the Germans, and to be honest, hardworking and good. I don't consider reading necessary. Apart from this school, there must be no school at all in the East. […] The population of the Generalgouvernement will then inevitably, after a consistent implementation of these measures, consist of a remaining inferior population […] over the course of the next ten years. This population will be available as a leaderless workforce and Germany will provide migrant workers and workers for special jobs (roads, quarries, buildings) every year. "


With effect from October 26, 1939, in accordance with a law drawn up by the Reich Ministry of the Interior, the General Government for the occupied Polish territories was placed under civil administration and removed from the military administration of the Commander-in-Chief of the East , Gerd von Rundstedt . The establishment took place abruptly and without consultation with the armed forces. The historian Rolf-Dieter Müller sees a connection here with the criticism of the National Socialist terror policy expressed by the Commander-in-Chief Ost, General Johannes Blaskowitz . He saw his room for maneuver reduced to training replacement units for the Western Front and securing the border with the Soviet Union , but he knew how to secure a great influence in the Generalgouvernement.

Territorial demarcation

The Generalgouvernement comprised central Poland and bordered in the east on the German-Soviet dividing line on the rivers Bug and San , in the south on Hungary ( Carpathian Ukraine ) and the independent Slovak Republic formed six months earlier, and in the west and north on the German Empire ( Prussian Province Silesia , later Upper Silesia , East Prussia and the Reichsgau Wartheland ). The border with Slovakia had already been shifted in their favor on September 21, 1939 when the Polish Arwa-Spiš area was ceded.

The legal status of the General Government remained unclear until 1945. Mostly it was referred to as "Nebenland" or Reichsnebenland , which was subject to the German exercise of power ("spatial sovereignty"), but was not part of the Greater German Reich so that it could be qualified as a foreign country . It was separated from the Reich by a police, currency, currency and customs border.

The seat of Governor General Frank from Berlin was initially the city of Lodsch (Łódź). After their hasty incorporation into the German Reich on November 9, 1939, the Governor General moved his seat to the Wawel in Krakow on October 26, 1939 .

Since July 31, 1940, the Generalgouvernement for the occupied Polish territories only used the name Generalgouvernement . The office of the governor general in Krakow now referred to itself as the government of the general government . The previous district heads were given the new title of governor . State power lay with the governor general and the chairman of the council of ministers for the defense of the empire and commissioner for the four-year plan , Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring . In addition, Adolf Hitler authorized the highest Reich authorities to issue directives for the Generalgouvernement.

This also gave Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich the right to intervene in the affairs of the Generalgouvernement. In the period that followed, these de facto gained sole jurisdiction through their executive bodies, even if Frank resisted.

On the advance of the Red Army , the General Government was occupied as far as the Vistula in the summer of 1944 . The remaining parts to the west of the Vistula were captured by the Red Army on their advance to the Oder in the direction of Berlin in the Vistula-Oder operation from January 12, 1945.


The area of ​​the Generalgouvernement was covered with a dense network of concentration camps , where the SS-Totenkopfverband and the Gestapo could rule without barriers. There were labor camps , camps for remand prisoners , and prisoner-of-war camps , where inmate mortality was particularly high. The Polish Jews were locked up in ghettos , the largest of which was the Warsaw Ghetto established in October 1940 . 450,000 Jews lived here in inhumane conditions and were forced to work. In June / July 1941, Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the SD carried out the first large-scale mass murders of the Jewish population in the Generalgouvernement . From July 1942 to October 1943 the ghettos were dissolved as part of the Aktion Reinhardt extermination operation : two million Polish Jews and around 50,000 Roma were murdered in the four extermination camps Belzec , Sobibor , Treblinka and Majdanek .

Forced labor

Obligation to work for the Polish population

The Poles received only around 600 kilocalories a day. They were used on the basis of the ordinance on the introduction of compulsory labor for the Polish population of the General Government of October 26, 1939 for forced labor in the General Government or in accordance with the ordinance of Frank's deputy Josef Bühler to ensure the need for staff for tasks of particular state political importance (so-called service obligation ordinance ) on May 13, 1942 also abducted to areas outside of it. Children of forced laborers were brought to so-called child collection points , which served the purpose of letting the children wither away unnoticed by the public . This happened mainly through systematic neglect and malnutrition . For example, the children at the Upper Austrian collection point Spital am Pyhrn received only half a liter of milk and three pieces of sugar a day.

Compulsory labor for the Jewish population

With the ordinance on the introduction of compulsory labor for the Jewish population of the Generalgouvernement of October 26, 1939, compulsory labor was introduced for the Jews resident there with immediate effect. For this purpose, the obligated persons were grouped into "forced labor groups". The regulations necessary for the implementation of this decree were not issued by the head of the Labor Department in the Office of the Governor General responsible for the implementation of the duty to work for the Polish population, but by the higher SS and Police Leader .

Administrative structure

The governor general was exclusively and directly subordinate to Hitler, all branches of administration were assigned to him under sole responsibility. To lead the administration he made use of the government of the Generalgouvernement, to which the governors and among them the city and district chiefs were subordinate. The number of German administrative officials remained small, the administration was carried out according to colonial principles.

Both at the district and at the county level, all branches of administration were combined (unit of administration), so that there was no room for special authorities.

According to the law of October 12, 1939, the following were empowered to enact new laws in the General Government:

  • the Council of Ministers for Defense of the Reich,
  • the representative for the four-year plan ,
  • the governor general.

In Berlin, the “authorized representative of the governor general” was tasked with developing and promoting economic relations in particular.

The police of the General Government were subordinate to the Higher SS and Police Leader in Krakow (HSSPF), who, in addition to the State Secretary (Deputy Governor General), was directly subordinate to the Governor General Frank. The Higher SS and Police Leader was also the representative of the Reich Commissioner for the consolidation of the German nationality . In order to retain at least some influence on the executive, Governor General Frank built up the special service , a kind of substitute police made up of ethnic Germans who acted at the district level. This showed the polycracy typical of the Nazi regime , insofar as Frank, despite great efforts, did not succeed in gaining the competence for the police and thus for the ethnicity and settlement policy, which quickly became the dominant political field in the General Government.

The commander of the Ordnungspolizei and the commander of the Security Police and the SD (BdS) were subordinate to him . These commanders and the task forces subordinate to them essentially had the task of murdering political opponents, communist functionaries and all people (“Jews and Gypsies ”) who were considered to be “racially inferior” in the “eastern regions” to be conquered .

There was an SS and Police Leader (SSPF) in each of the five districts .

The armed forces of the Wehrmacht deployed in the General Government were subordinate to the Wehrmacht Commander-in-Chief in the General Government under the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. In a Führer decree of October 19, 1939, special rights of the Wehrmacht to protect military interests and in the event of internal unrest were established.

Territorial division

Territorial structure of the General Government (July 31, 1940)
Territorial structure of the General Government (from 1941)

The general government for the occupied Polish territories was initially divided into the four districts of Krakow, Lublin, Radom and Warsaw with the corresponding number of urban and rural districts.

After the beginning of the German-Soviet War , the Soviet-Ukrainian area around Lemberg came to the Generalgouvernement on August 1, 1941 as the new District of Galicia with its seat in Lemberg. The Bialystok district was not incorporated into the General Government, but on August 1, 1941, formed a separate civil administrative district under the East Prussian President Erich Koch .

While the boundaries of the districts were completely redefined, the districts were essentially left with the former Polish demarcations.

At the turn of the year 1939/1940, due to a lack of German personnel, several districts were combined into larger administrative units, which were given the designation "District Main Team " and "City Main Team". They were from German administrators (district or city chief commissioners), a total of 130 functionaries from the old Reich such as B. Fritz Schwitzgebel , rules.

The administration of the local rural communities (= collective communities with several village communities) was in Polish hands.

Change of city districts:

  • Krakow, Lublin, Radom, Czestochowa and Warsaw became urban districts when German administration began.
  • On July 13, 1940, after incorporation into the parts of the city of Przemyśl that remained German, west of the San, the city district Deutsch-Przemysl was formed, which until then had belonged to the district authority Jaroslau. This was renamed on November 15, 1941 after the incorporation of the eastern part of Przemysl, which was previously part of the Galicia district, in the city of Przemysl, which now became the administrative seat of the new district chief Przemysl as a district town.
  • The district of Kielce was founded on October 10, 1940.
  • On August 11, 1941, Lemberg was confirmed as an urban district.


With the establishment of the General Government on October 26, 1939 , Colonel General Blaskowitz took over the military territorial command that Rundstedt had previously as Commander-in-Chief . He exposed himself through open criticism of terror and national politics in the Generalgouvernement, attracted Hitler's displeasure and was replaced in May 1940 by Lieutenant General Curt Ludwig Freiherr von Gienanth .

Training area south

From the end of 1939, the planning and construction of large military training areas began. Tens of thousands of Poles had to be forcibly relocated for this. The largest contiguous military training area complex, the southern military training area and the territorially related SS military training area Heidelager , was built in western Galicia . It covered several hundred square kilometers. Furthermore, the large military training area in the middle of Radom was set up. Other large military training areas for the Wehrmacht were the Rembertow military training area near Warsaw and the Reichshof military training area in southern Poland.

In the course of the deployment for " Operation Barbarossa " in the area of ​​the General Government, the military leadership was transferred to the highest command authority of the Army . She was also subordinated to the military commander in the General Government. This new name had replaced the old Commander in Chief East in July 1940 . Since then, the Generalgouvernement has only been regarded as an administrative area of ​​operations for the Army, and from September 1, 1942, it was otherwise considered a home war area . Since then, the Generalgouvernement has formed its own military district , in which soldiers were drafted into the Wehrmacht. Gienanth was replaced by a military district commander, General Siegfried Haenicke . On September 11, 1944, an army area Generalgouvernement was established in accordance with the changed military situation .


As Reichsleiter of the NSDAP , Frank was in charge of the “General Government of the NSDAP”. This was subdivided into district site tours and sites (= local groups).

The General Government of the NSDAP headed the “German Community”, which included all Germans who were not members of the NSDAP, as well as all ethnic Germans. The “Volksdeutsche Gemeinschaft”, founded on April 20, 1940, was transferred to the “Deutsche Gemeinschaft” in May 1941.

Finance and economy

20 zloty

The Polish currency was retained in the General Government; the rate was set at 2 złoty to 1 reichsmark . The banknotes of the former Bank Polski, founded in 1924, were exchanged in May 1940 by the new issuing bank in the Generalgouvernement founded on December 15, 1939 (1 złoty = 1 złoty).

The trustee office established on November 15, 1939 in the Generalgouvernement with its branch offices in the districts administered both the confiscated assets of the Polish state, which was lost from the German point of view, as well as “private” Polish or Jewish assets.

The main source of income for the Generalgouvernement, however, were the monopolies , which Hermann Senkowsky headed from 1942 . The Generalgouvernement was integrated into the National Socialist war economy , even though national politics always had priority in the event of a conflict. The recruitment of forced laborers was economically significant: by 1942, around one million Poles had already been brought from the General Government to work in the German Reich.

The “labor deployment” of the Polish and Jewish population was directed through the local employment offices. For the Polish population there was compulsory work and a restriction on changing jobs. The Jewish population was forced to work.

From December 1, 1940, the building service in the Generalgouvernement was responsible for important work in the field of national culture, the expansion of traffic lines or emergencies. It was divided into the Polish construction service, the Ukrainian homeland service and the goral homeland service.


Executions for Helping Fled Jews (September 5, 1942)

The jurisdiction lay with the higher SS and police leaders who were under Himmler's authority. Important cities in the Generalgouvernement had German courts and a German higher court for each district. A court tip - for example in Krakow - was missing. Furthermore, as in the German Reich, there were special courts .

In addition, Polish jurisdiction continued to exist. The Supreme Court, however, was repealed and replaced by an appellate court in each district. These courts had to apply Polish law under Poles. In the event of a conflict, the German courts and German law took precedence.

post Office

The post and telecommunications system was taken care of by the "Deutsche Post Osten". Its head (from late October 1939 to January 1945 Richard Lauxmann ) was based in Krakow. He was responsible for the district post administrations and under these the heads of the individual post offices.

Deutsche Post Osten issued its own postage stamps. After Hindenburg medallion stamps were provisionally overprinted with the Polish currency denomination and “Deutsche Post Osten” in December 1939, and Polish stamps with the “Generalgouvernement ” overprint in spring 1940, the first stamps specially designed for the occupied areas arrived in August 1940 the switches. By autumn 1944 around 85 values ​​for normal postal traffic had appeared (see stamp issues for the Generalgouvernement 1940 , 1941 , 1942 , 1943 and 1944 ) and 36 official stamps . The designers include Erwin Puchinger , Ferdinand Lorber and Wilhelm Dachauer .

The postage was equivalent to that of the German Reich at the exchange rate of 1 pfennig = 2 groschen .

From October 1943 the Generalgouvernement was integrated into the Reich German postal code system. Post code 7 a was valid for the entire area .


The new German Railway Directorate established during the invasion of Lodsch and the operations department advanced to Krakow from the Reichsbahndirektion Opole were merged on November 9, 1939 in Krakow to form the "General Directorate of the Eastern Railway ". This facility , known as Gedob for short, was formally founded on October 26, 1939. The Ostbahn itself did not take place until November 27th. This managed the Eastern Railway via the Eastern Railway Operations Directorates (since December 1940: Eastern Railway District Directorates) Krakow, Lublin, Radom and Warsaw, the Eastern Railway , which had taken over the railway network of the former Polish state railway PKP , but was not its legal successor . The operation was largely carried out by German railway personnel.

By the winter of 1939/1940, the destruction in the formerly Polish railway network had been eliminated to such an extent that the German troops could be brought back by rail from the Bug and San. In the spring of 1940 the railway lines were operational again, apart from a few bridge repairs that were still missing.

After the conclusion of the German-Soviet economic agreement in the spring of 1940, the border crossings at Brest-Litovsk and Przemysl were considerably expanded. Efficient reloading stations were built there, as the Russian broad gauge met the European standard gauge here .

Since October 1940, the "Otto" program has been used to restore and expand the larger west-east railway lines through the Generalgouvernement after war damage, so that their transport capacity has multiplied. In particular, this concerned the railway line from Radom via Demblin to Lublin.

With the incorporation of the new Galicia district on August 1, 1941, the new Galicia Eastern Railway District Directorate was established. However, this was not able to take over the route network from the main railway directorate in Kiev until December 1, 1941.

In the autumn of 1942, the Lublin Eastern Railway District Directorate was dissolved and its network was distributed among the Krakow, Radom and Warsaw directorates. By decree of March 8, 1943, the Eastern Railway District Directorate Radom was also dissolved; From May 1, presidents were appointed for the three remaining directorates of Krakow, Lemberg and Warsaw - now called "Ostbahn directorates". Incidentally, the full Reichsbahn organization was introduced. When the Red Army advanced, the Eastern Railway's offices were gradually relocated to the west in 1944/45 and finally reached the area north of Pilsen via Bayreuth in the spring of 1945 .

Motor transport

The distinguishing mark for motor vehicles registered in the General Government was "East". Before that there were the Roman numerals I to V for the districts of Krakow, Lublin, Radom, Warsaw and Galicia.

Germanization of place names

The Polish place names retained their validity. The more important places were given names that were Germanized or adapted to the German language.

By decree of September 15, 1941, the names of the following Polish cities were Germanized from October 1, 1941:

Krakow district
Jaroslaw Jaroslau
Kraków Krakow
Krzeszowice Kressendorf
Lanckorona Landskron
Łańcut Landshut
Nowy Sącz New Sandez
Nowy Targ Neumarkt (Dunajec)
Rzeszów Reichshof
Stary Sącz Alt-Sandez
Tarnów Tarnau
Lublin district
Biała Podlaska Biala-Podlaska
Biłgoraj Bilgoraj
Chełm Cholm
Janów Lubelski Janow-Lubelski
Puławy Pulawy
Radom District
Czestochowa Czestochowa
Końskie Konskie
Piotrków Trybunalski Petrikau
Tomaszów Mazowiecki Tomaschow-Mazowiecki
Warsaw district
Grójec Grojec
Łowicz Lowitsch
Małkinia Malkinia
Mińsk Mazowiecki Minsk
Ostrów Mazowiecka Ostrow
Sokolov Sokolov
Warszawa Warsaw

City districts and district chiefs 1944

Galicia District

Galicia District Governors :

  • Karl Lasch (August 1, 1941 to January 6, 1942, executed or suicide)
  • Otto Wächter (January 22, 1942 to July 1944)
Urban district
District chiefs

Krakow district

Krakow District Governors:

Urban district
District chiefs

Lublin district

Governors of Lublin District:

Urban district
District chiefs

Radom District

Radom District Governors:

City districts
District chiefs

Warsaw district

Warsaw District Governor:

Urban district
District chiefs

Baedeker's General Government

Baedeker's General Government . Karl Baedeker, 1943

In 1943 a volume on the Generalgouvernement appeared in the series Baedeker's travel guides . According to the publisher's foreword, “the Governor General, Reich Minister Dr. Hans Frank ”gave the“ Suggestion for this new volume in our collection ”. In classic Baedeker fashion, the “travel guide” aims to provide information about the “scope of the orderly and constructive work” of the German Reich in the occupied “Vistula area”. The fact that this “reconstruction work” included the organization and implementation of the expulsion and extermination of the Jewish population in this area was, of course, concealed in Baedeker's general government in 1943.

End of the General Government

The existence of the General Government, which was created shortly after the start of the war, ended a few months before Germany's total surrender . The advancing Soviet troops reached the eastern border of the territory as early as the spring of 1944. In the course of Operation Bagration , the Red Army penetrated deep into the German-occupied Poland: On July 27, 1944, Lemberg was taken; before that, on July 24th, Lublin had been lost, where a Polish communist government dependent on the Soviet Union was formed. After Soviet units began to cross the Vistula at the same time, the Warsaw Uprising began on August 1st, which was suppressed by the Waffen SS and other German troops after a few weeks.

At the end of 1944, most of the Government General was occupied by the Red Army, the Germans only controlled the west of the area. Nevertheless, the Generalgouvernement was not dissolved, rather Frank and his administration stayed in Krakow, which was only a few kilometers away from the front. The final collapse came with the Red Army's Vistula-Oder operation in January 1945. The German front could no longer withstand the onslaught and so the occupied Polish territories were lost within a few days. On January 17th, Warsaw was conquered, and on January 19th the occupation capital Krakow. The day before, Governor General Frank had fled to Bavaria . This ended the existence of the General Government.


See also


  • Martin Broszat : National Socialist Poland Policy 1939-1945. Revised by the author. Unabridged edition, Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1965.
  • Beate Kosmala: General Government . In: Wolfgang Benz , Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483 ff.
  • Walther Hubatsch (Ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815–1945 , Johann Gottfried Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn; Series A: Prussia , Volume 4: Silesia , edited by Dieter Stüttgen, Helmut Neubach, Walther Hubatsch, 1976, ISBN 3-87969-116-9 .
  • Witold Wojciech Mędykowski: Macht Arbeit Frei ?: German Economic Policy and Forced Labor of Jews in the General Government, 1939–1943. Academic Studies Press, Brighton 2018, ISBN 978-1-618119-56-8 .

Sources / documents

  • The General Government. Travel guide. Karl Baedeker Verlag , Leipzig 1943 - three dates of the overview map: IV.43, VI.43, undated.
  • Max du Prel (ed.): The General Gouvernement. Konrad Triltsch, Würzburg 1942.
  • Werner Präg / Wolfgang Jacobmeyer (eds.): The service diary of the German Governor General in Poland 1939–1945 (=  sources and representations on contemporary history. Vol. 20). Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-421-01700-X (publication by the Institute for Contemporary History ).
  • Feliks Tych , Alfons Kenkmann , Elisabeth Kohlhaas, Andreas Eberhardt (eds.): Children about the Holocaust. Early references 1944–1948. Interview transcripts from the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland. Metropol Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-938690-08-6 .
  • Wolfgang Curilla : The murder of Jews in Poland and the German order police 1939–1945 . Schöningh 2011.

Research on Nazi crimes

  • Adalbert Rückerl (Ed.): National Socialist Extermination Camps in the Mirror of German Criminal Trials. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-423-02904-8 .
  • Stefan Lehr: An almost forgotten "Eastern insert". German archivists in the Generalgouvernement and in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (=  writings of the Federal Archives. Vol. 68). Droste, Düsseldorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-7700-1624-2 (also: Düsseldorf, Univ., Diss., 2006).
  • Markus Roth: Gentlemen. The German district chiefs in occupied Poland. Career paths, rule practice and post-history (=  contributions to the history of the 20th century. Vol. 9). Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8353-0477-2 (also: Jena, Univ., Diss., 2008).
  • Markus Roth: The regime of the master people. The district chiefs in Poland were educated lawyers and administrative experts. They saw themselves as an elite and ruled as tyrants. In: Die Zeit , No. 36, August 27, 2009, p. 84.
  • Bogdan Musial : German civil administration and persecution of Jews in the Generalgouvernement. A case study on the Lublin district 1939–1944 (=  German Historical Institute Warsaw. Sources and Studies. Vol. 10). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-447-04208-7 (at the same time: Hannover, Univ., Diss., 1998: Diepolitik gegen die Juden in der Bezirk Lublin 1939–1944. ) (1st unchanged new edition, ibid. 2004, ISBN 3 -447-05063-2 ).
  • Jacek Andrzej Mlynarczyk: Hans Gaier. A police captain in the Government General. In: Klaus-Michael Mallmann , Gerhard Paul (Ed.): Careers of violence. National Socialist perpetrator biographies (=  publications by the Ludwigsburg Research Center of the University of Stuttgart. Vol. 2). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-534-16654-X (2nd, unchanged edition, ibid 2005; 2nd, revised edition, special edition, ibid 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-23811-8 ; Primus, Darmstadt 2011 , ISBN 978-3-896-78726-2 ).
  • Robert Seidel: German Occupation Policy in Poland - The Radom District 1939-1945. Paderborn / Munich / Vienna / Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-506-75628-2 .

Research on propaganda and press

  • Lars Jockheck: Propaganda in the Generalgouvernement. The Nazi occupation press for Germans and Poles 1939–1945 (=  individual publications by the German Historical Institute Warsaw. Vol. 15). Fiber-Verlag, Osnabrück 2006, ISBN 3-938400-08-0 .
  • Klaus-Peter Friedrich: The National Socialist Murder of Jews in Polish Eyes: Attitude in the Polish Press 1942–1946 / 47. 2 volumes. Cologne 2003 (Cologne, Univ., Diss., 2003).

Web links

Commons : General Government  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. On October 25, 1939, the following was said about the liquidation of Poland: “Formation of the German 'General Government' from the areas of the rest of Poland not annexed by the Reich with its seat in Krakow”, cf. Bernhard H. Bayerlein: “The traitor, Stalin, you are!” From the end of left solidarity. Comintern and Communist Parties in the Second World War 1939–1941 (=  Archives of Communism - Paths of the XXth Century , Vol. 4). Structure, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-351-02623-3 .
  2. Włodzimierz Borodziej : Der Warsaw Uprising 1944. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-10-007806-3 , p. 27.
  3. Werner Präg, Wolfgang Jacobmeyer (ed.): The service diary of the German Governor General in Poland 1939-1945 (=  sources and representations of contemporary history , vol. 20), Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1975, p. 338.
  4. May 15, 1940: Heinrich Himmler on the treatment of foreigners in the east ,, accessed on September 24, 2017, quoted in Wolfgang Benz: Prejudice and Genozid. Ideological premises of genocide. Böhlau, Vienna 2010, p. 144.
  5. ^ Rolf-Dieter Müller: Hitler's Eastern War and German Settlement Policy. The cooperation between the armed forces, business and the SS. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1991, p. 13.
  6. ↑ On this in detail Daniel-Erasmus Khan , Die deutscher Staatsgrenzen , Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2004, Part II, Chap. II note 203 .
  7. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz , Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483.
  8. Norman Davies : In the Heart of Europe. History of Poland. CH Beck, Munich 2006, p. 65.
  9. Saul Friedländer : The Third Reich and the Jews. Volume 1: The Years of Persecution: 1933–1939. Beck, Munich 2006, pp. 172-184.
  10. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 484.
  11. ^ Thorsten Wagner: Aktion Reinhardt . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 354 f.
  12. VBlGG p. 5 .
  13. VBlGG of May 26, 1942, p. 255 .
  14. VBlGG p. 6 .
  15. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483.
  16. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483 f.
  17. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483.
  18. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 484.
  19. ^ Beate Kosmala: Generalgouvernement . In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml and Hermann Weiß (eds.): Encyclopedia of National Socialism . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 483.
  20. Michel catalog . Germany 2006/2007 with CD-ROM. Schwaneberger, Unterschleißheim 2006, ISBN 3-87858-035-5 .
  21. The General Government. Travel guide. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1943, SV
  22. Götz Aly / Susanne Heim: thought leader of annihilation. Auschwitz and the German plans for a new European order , Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2004, here the subchapter Baedeker's Generalgouvernement , p. 188 ff.
  23. Table of Contents