|Oblast :||Lviv Oblast|
|Rajon :||District-free city|
|Height :||296 m|
|Area :||171.01 km²|
|Residents :||728,545 (March 1, 2015)|
|Population density :||4,260 inhabitants per km²|
|Area code :||+380 322|
|Geographic location :|
|Administrative structure :||6 city rajons , 1 city , 2 urban-type settlements|
|Mayor :||Andrij Sadowyj|
|Address:||pl. Rynok 1
79000 M. Lviv
Lviv , German Lviv ( Ukrainian Lviv [ lʲʋiu̯ ], Polish Lwów [ lvuf ], Yiddish לעמבערג[ lɜmbɜrk ], Russian Львов Lwow [ lʲvov ]), is a city in western Ukraine with a population of about 730,000. It forms the most important regional center of western Ukraine, is the capital of the Lviv Oblast district of the same name and (as of 2015) the seventh largest city in Ukraine . In addition to the city of Lviv with its six Stadtrajonen , the city administration also controls the city of Vynnyky ( Ukrainian Винники ) and the two urban-type settlements Brjuchowytschi and Rudne .
Lviv lies on the main European watershed , the border of which is formed by a hill in the city. To the south of this the rivers flow into the Black Sea , north into the Baltic Sea . The canalized Poltwa River, which flows underground through the city, flows towards the Bug . The city is located on the Lvivske plate ( Львівське плато ), which belongs to the Podolian plate , about 80 kilometers east of the border with Poland .
For centuries, Lviv has been shaped by the coexistence of several ethnic groups. Up until the 20th century there was a Polish majority as well as a large proportion of Jews and Ukrainians . The initially small proportion of Ukrainians gradually increased due to immigration from the surrounding area. There were also various minorities, such as German-speaking, due to the Austrian officials, or Armenian . At the beginning of the 21st century, the city was mainly home to Ukrainians, alongside Russians , Belarusians and Poles . The old town is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site and is dominated by buildings from the Renaissance , Baroque , Classicism and Art Nouveau periods . Their Mediterranean flair served as the backdrop for Soviet films that were supposed to portray Rome or Venice. Lviv hosted the 2012 European Football Championship .
City name and languages
According to historical sources it is assumed that under King Casimir the Great the German colonization work was founded in the area of Lviv. In documents written in Polish or Latin, the name of the place appears for the first time as Lamberg in 1342 . Other documented spellings are: Lamburg (1351), in terra Lamburgensi (1364), Lamburg alias Lwow (1370), Lamburg (1396), Lemburg (1416).
There are names for the long multiethnic city in many languages: Ukrainian Львів Lviv , Russian Львов Lwow , Polish Lwów , Yiddish לעמבערג Lviv or dialectalלעמבעריק Lemberik , Armenian Լվով Lwow , Hungarian Ilyvó , German Lemberg, French Léopol and Italian Leopoli , both from Latin Leopolis , Lion City . Before 1945, Lviv was a predominantly Polish language island (see Lviv dialect ) in a predominantly Ukrainian-speaking area.
coat of arms
Old Russian Lvov 1256-1349
In 1256 Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia , the prince of the Rus Principality of Galicia-Volhynia , built a castle for his son Lev on the site of today's Lemberg. From this Lev ( old East Slavic for lion ) the city got its name Lwow - "Lew or belonging to the lion". The lion also appears again and again in the city's coat of arms and in numerous stone sculptures. The convenient location at the crossroads of trade routes made the city grow rapidly. However, the devastation of the Rus by the Mongols and tribute payments soon undermined the power of Galicia-Volhynia. After the local line of the Rurikid dynasty died out, Lvov fell to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and to Poland in 1349 .
Polish Lwów 1349–1772
1356, the city received from the Polish king Casimir the Great , the Magdeburg rights ; German citizens, Jews as well as Christians settled there. In the same year the Armenians received Kazimir's privileges. The official language was German for almost 200 years. The city council's seal was Latin S (igillum): CIVITATIS LEMBVRGENSIS . In 1387, after a brief period of Hungarian rule, the city returned to the Kingdom of Poland . From 1375 to 1772 Lwów was the capital of the Polish Voivodeship of Ruthenia and the Lviv Land ( Ziemia lwowska ), since 1569 in the aristocratic republic of Poland-Lithuania .
In the early modern period the city developed into an important trading center and - alongside Krakow , Vilnius and Warsaw - a center of Polish cultural and intellectual life. The area around Lwów was mostly Ukrainian-speaking. In the 16th century the Russian Ivan Fjodorow worked in Lwów , one of the first East Slavic book printers after the Belarusian Francysk Skaryna .
During the Khmelnytskyi uprising and the Russo-Polish War 1654-1667 Lwów was besieged in 1648 and 1655 by the Zaporozhian Cossacks . The city received the title semper fidelis (“always loyal”) because it repeatedly defended itself against besiegers during the 17th century.
Austrian Lemberg 1772–1918
In 1772, when Poland was first partitioned , the city fell to the Habsburg monarchy . Lviv became the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the fourth largest city in the multi-ethnic state . At first, Emperor Joseph II wanted to establish the German language as the administrative language, as in all of his rule. Since Maria Theresa's school reform up to around 1850, lessons in the secondary and trivial schools took place exclusively in German, which was problematic because - as the Polish author Kazimierz Brodziński remembered - the Polish children could only acquire the subject matter by memorizing, without to understand him.
In the middle of the 19th century, the composition of the civil servants changed. If 600 of the 800 civil servants had previously been German, the relative autonomy of the Kingdom of Galicia from 1867 onwards meant that Polish was quickly added as a second language. Now mainly Poles acted as officials of the Vienna Imperial and Royal Government in Galicia.
From 1867, when the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy was formed, the Galicians had the unified Austrian citizenship and were represented by Polish and, after the extension of the electoral law, Ruthenian members in the Reichsrat , the parliament of Cisleithania in Vienna. The Reichsgesetzblatt published in Vienna appeared in Polish since 1867 and in Ruthenian since 1870 .
Lemberg was the seat of the kk governor (the representative of the emperor and his government), the Sejms (state parliament), three archbishops (Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic), who by virtue of their office were members of the manor house of the Austrian Imperial Council, and a chief rabbi . From 1804 to 1870 the city was also the seat of the Evangelical Superintendentur AB Galicia . In Lviv there were consulates of Great Britain , France , Germany , Russia and Denmark . The Galician capital had a university and a polytechnic , both with Polish as the language of instruction, four Polish, one German and one Ruthenian grammar school.
Around 1900 about half of the population were Poles, a quarter were Jews and 30,000 Ruthenians (the name for Ukrainians at the time ). However, these were discriminated against by the Polish majority population. In 1908 three Polish kk gendarmes killed a Ruthenian peasant, whereupon the Ukrainian philosophy student Miroslaw Siczynski shot and killed the governor Count Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki . This led to bloody clashes between Polish and Ruthenian students.
Before the First World War , Lviv was one of the largest garrisons of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the east of the monarchy , along with Krakow and the Przemyśl fortress . The location was a cornerstone to protect the Austro-Hungarian border against the Russian Empire . However, at the end of August 1914, the Russian army captured the city in the Battle of Lviv and advanced far west. Lviv remained occupied by Russia until June 1915 (see main article ) and was endangered several times until the Russian Revolution in 1917 .
Polish Lwów 1918–1939
At the end of the First World War, the West Ukrainian People's Republic was founded in Lviv on November 1, 1918 , but Poland gained power after sometimes fierce fighting in the Polish-Ukrainian War . Polish troops occupied the city on 21/22. November 1918. In a pogrom against the Jewish population that lasted from November 22nd to 24th, 64 people were killed , according to the report by Henry Morgenthau senior . Many were injured or robbed. It has been proven that some of the Polish officers, soldiers and civilians were responsible. Members of the Jewish militia (a dozen were arrested) and deserters from the Galician army were also involved. Sections of the Polish and Ukrainian population were also among the victims of the looting. The act of violence shook the hitherto quite harmonious coexistence of the various ethnic groups and religions in Lwów in the interwar period .
At that time the city had 361,000 inhabitants, most of them Poles (between 50 and 53 percent in 1912, over 55 percent from 1925), a third of the majority were Polonized Jews, and Ukrainians , Germans and Polish Armenians . The majority of Ukrainians lived in the outskirts of the city (around four to five-sixths of the population, depending on the district). In the interwar years Lviv remained both a stronghold of Polish culture and a focal point of Ukrainian national sentiment; However, the Habsburg supranational identity also remained in the background. The Lemberg-Warsaw School had world renown in the philosophical field of logic .
Second World War
In September 1939 Lwów was incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Republic by the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in 1939 due to the Hitler-Stalin Pact . The Polish army had put up bitter resistance to German troops despite artillery and air bombardment, as the area had been planned as a supply route for the Allies via Romania. This plan did not take into account the fact that Germany and the Soviet Union could have been allies. Fighting stopped on September 22, 1939, three days after the appearance of Soviet troops. As agreed in the pact, the Germans left the city to the Soviet troops and withdrew. As everywhere in the Soviet Union , forced collectivizations of business associations and peasant farms took place in the Soviet-occupied Lvov. At that time, about 160,000 Poles, 150,000 Jews and 50,000 Ukrainians lived in the city.
Between the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 and the invasion of the German Wehrmacht in Lvov, Soviet forces (especially the NKVD ) killed around 4,000 political prisoners. In the early morning of June 30, 1941, the 1st Mountain Division under Major General Hubert Lanz and the building training battalion, e.g. V. 800 “ Die Brandenburger ”, supported by the Ukrainian volunteer battalion “Nachtigall” , captured the city without resistance. On the same day members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - Banderists (OUN-B) around Yaroslav Stetsko called for the restoration of Ukrainian independence from the balcony of the Lubomirski Palace . However, they were arrested by the Gestapo a few days later because the German side did not want a Ukrainian state. Lwow became part of the German General Government and now functioned again under the name Lemberg as the capital of the Galicia district .
The NKVD massacre of Ukrainian prisoners was exploited for propaganda purposes by the Wehrmacht units, the “Nightingale” battalion and the Ukrainian nationalist and anti-Semitic militia of the OUN-B. This fueled a pogrom mood that was directed against the Jewish civilian population. When mass murders in the first days of the German occupation about 4,000 Jews died, partly in riots "spontaneous" Ukrainian militia and civilians in the city, but most of them in an organized mass execution by the Einsatzgruppe C on July 4, 1941 on the outskirts. On the night of July 3 to 4, 1941, the Gestapo under the then SS-Oberführer Karl Eberhard Schöngarth arrested 22 Polish professors, according to a list drawn up with the help of Ukrainian students, and murdered them, some of their relatives.
District chief and thus the highest civilian ruler in Lemberg was then the Krefeld Joachim Freiherr von der Leyen . Almost all Jewish residents of Lemberg were subsequently murdered, including in the Lemberg Ghetto established by the National Socialists , in the Lemberg-Janowska municipal forced labor camp and in the Belzec extermination camp . Almost all synagogues were destroyed. Only two buildings still exist today. A total of around 540,000 people were killed in concentration and prison camps in Lviv and the Lviv surroundings during the Nazi era , 400,000 of them Jews, including around 130,000 Lvivs. The remaining 140,000 victims were Russian prisoners.
As part of the German euthanasia policy, between 1941 and 1944 there were murders of 2000 patients at the Kulparkow institution.
In Lemberg there was later the prisoner of war camp 275 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War . There was a prisoner of war cemetery with over 800 graves near the camp. Seriously ill people were treated in the prisoner-of-war hospital in 1241 .
Soviet Lvov 1945–1991
When the city came under Soviet rule again in the course of the Lviv-Sandomierz operation in 1944, most of the Poles residing there were expelled . After the expulsion of the Germans living there, part of the population was settled in Lower Silesia , especially in Wroclaw . Many Ukrainians who had previously lived in Polish western Galicia and central Poland were simultaneously forcibly resettled from Poland and resettled by the USSR in or near Lwow. This fundamentally changed the ethnic and cultural composition of the city. The traditional Polish, Jewish and Armenian populations were replaced by Ukrainians.
The Soviet authorities began to rebuild the city, which was accompanied by the influx of skilled workers from all over the USSR and the industrialization of Lvov. By the 1980s, 137 large factories had emerged that produced buses ( LAZ ), trucks , televisions and machines. The city population grew from 330,000 to 760,000 residents. At the same time, nationalist currents among the Western Ukrainians were suppressed.
Ukrainian Lviv from 1991
Lviv has been part of independent Ukraine since 1991. Since then, Galicia has repeatedly sought autonomy, not least because of Lviv's history as the capital of its own kingdom. The city celebrated its 750th anniversary in autumn 2006.
Lviv has been a center of Jewish life since the Middle Ages. The first written mention of the existence of a Jewish community in Lviv comes from the late 14th century. The city's oldest synagogue was built in 1582. In the 19th century, about a third of the population was Jewish. There were various Jewish cemeteries and numerous synagogues such as the Temple Synagogue , the Golden Rose Synagogue , the Great City Synagogue , and the Great Suburban Synagogue . Synagogues currently in use are the Hasidic Synagogue and the Tsori Gilod Synagogue . From the 19th century onwards there were two separate Jewish communities in Lviv: Conservative and liberal-minded Jews, who lived separately from one another, had little contact with one another and each had their own rights, privileges, administrations, synagogues and schools. The Jews of Lviv spoke Yiddish and German. The Jewish philosophers and writers living in Lemberg, such as Nachman Krohaben , Moritz Rappaport and Joseph Roth , wrote in German.
In 1908 Hasmonea Lemberg was founded as the first Jewish sports club in Austria-Hungary. Well-known Jews living in the city included the rabbi Jehoschua Falk , the Zionist Ruben Bierer , the scholar Salomon Buber , the historian Majer Balaban and the soccer player Zygmunt Steuermann .
Since the 2010 elections, the All-Ukrainian Association “Svoboda” , which was founded in Lviv, has had the most seats in the Lviv City and Regional Parliament . The party is generally strong in Lviv Oblast . Andrij Sadowyj ( Samopomitsch ) has been the city's mayor since 2006 .
Lviv's economy is relatively diversified . The IT industry, which employs around 12,000 people, is of particular importance. This means that around 15 percent of all Ukrainian IT specialists work in the city. The Lviv-based IT groups also include the largest Ukrainian IT company SoftServe with around 4,000 employees . Another mainstay is tourism. Numerous new hotels and restaurants opened in the city, especially before the European Football Championship in 2012 .
Lviv's old town and the neighborhoods in the area, which were built around the turn of the 20th century, show an almost unique closed development of the Renaissance, Baroque, Classicism, Historicism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco that was spared from war destruction and post-war interventions. In 1998, the historic center of the city was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Reason: “With its urban structure and architecture, Lviv is an excellent example of the merging of architectural and artistic traditions of Eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany. […] The political and economic role of Lviv attracted a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions that formed different but interdependent communities within the city that are still recognizable in the modern cityscape. "
- Latin Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary (1360–1481)
- Greek Catholic St. George's Cathedral (Bernard Meretyn, 1744–1770)
- Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (Paolo Romano, 1591–1629)
- Armenian Cathedral of Mary (1356-1363)
- All Saints Church (former Benedictine monastery, 1597–1616)
- Former Stavropihija Church ( Pavlo Rymlyanyn , 16th century)
- Boim Chapel (1609-1615)
- Former Dominican Church of Corpus Christi ( Jan de Witte , 18th century)
- St. Andrew's Church (former Bernardine monastery, 17th century)
- Beit-Aaron-we-Israel-Synagogue , 1924
- Open-Air Museum of Folk Architecture and Rural Life Shevchenko Grove
- National Museum in Lviv ( Національний музей у Львові ) with a large collection of icons
- Kornjakt Palace with royal apartments (1580)
- Lviv Picture Gallery
- Lviv Museum of Religious History
- Ethnographic Museum (Museum of Folklore and Crafts)
- Bandinelli-Palais ("Museum of Historical Treasures", 16th century)
- Museum of the History of Western Ukraine ( Black Palace , 1588/1589)
- Lviv Beer Museum (Brewery Museum )
- Weapons Museum of Ukraine in the former "Royal Arsenal Lviv "
- Memorial museum of the opera singer Salome Kruschelnytska
Other structures and facilities
- Town hall on the market square (19th century)
- Town houses on the market square ( Rynok, 16th to 18th centuries)
- Lviv National Opera and Ballet Theater (19th century)
- Palais Potocki
- Lychakiv Cemetery (historical-architectural monument)
- Janivskyj Cemetery
- Hoher Schloßberg : Ruins of the castle of Prince Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia
- Wall of the destroyed synagogue Goldene Rose
- Stryysky Park (1887)
- Biggest crossword in the world (January 2009)
Lviv has numerous theaters, museums and libraries and the architecturally prominent Lviv National Opera in the city center. The largest Ukrainian book fair, the Lviv Book Forum , takes place annually. The Alfa Jazz Fest or Leopolis Jazz Fest , which has been taking place since 2007, has become a crowd puller .
On April 28, 2009, Lviv was elected Ukrainian Capital of Culture for 2009. The competition took place for the first time in 2009.
The city has a (small) international airport , which was expanded and modernized for the 2012 European Football Championship and which is served several times a week from Berlin , Munich , Dortmund , Düsseldorf , Athens , Prague , Istanbul and Vienna . The main train station , built by the Austrian State Railways and opened in 1904, forms the center of rail traffic in all of western Ukraine and is served by passengers from Moscow , Belgrade , Wroclaw , Krakow , Kiev , Kharkiv , Odessa and Vienna without changing trains.
Local public transport in the city is carried out by trams , trolleybuses and buses . In addition, privately operated marshrutki (shared taxis) are available. The city's tram network has been fundamentally renewed in recent years with financial support from the EBRD .
Lviv has the following Ukrainian universities :
- Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , founded in 1661
- Lviv National Polytechnic University , founded in 1844
- Ukrainian Catholic University , founded in 1994
- Lviv Danylo Halyzkyj National Medical University , founded in 1784
In the 21st century, Lviv has a major speedway track with a well-known league racing club. Decisive qualification runs for the Speedway Individual World Championship have already taken place here. Ukrainian speedway drivers like Andriy Karpov, Oleksandr Loktaev, Igor Marko and Vladimir Trofimov learned to drive here.
Between 1923 and 1939 the German association VIS Lwów existed in the city .
Lviv was one of the four Ukrainian venues for the 2012 European Football Championship in Poland and Ukraine. In the Lviv arena, which was specially built for this major event , three group B group games took place.
Lviv currently references seventeen twin cities :
|Banja Luka||Bosnia and Herzegovina||2004|
|Cheng you||Sichuan, People's Republic of China||2017|
|Freiburg in Breisgau||Germany||1989|
Inactive or blank
- Corning, New York , since 1987
- Eskilstuna , since 1994
- Grozny , Chechnya , since 1998
- Rishon LeZion , Israel , since 1993
- Samarkand , Uzbekistan , since 2000
- Saint Petersburg , Russia , since 2006
- Whitstable , UK
In addition to the actual city, which is divided into 6 Stadtrajone, the municipality also includes the city of Wynnyky (Винники) and the two urban-type settlements of Brjuchowytschi (Брюховичі) and Rudne (Рудне).
The Stadtrajone are:
- Franko Rajon (with the districts Na bajkach / На байках, Bohdaniwka / Богданівка, Kulparkiw / Кульпарків / Goldberghof, Kasteliwka / Кастелівка and Wulka / Вулька)
- Halych district (with the districts Seredmistja / Середмістя, Zytadel / Цитадель, Sofijiwka / Софіївка and Snopkiw / Снопків)
- Rayon Lychakiv (with the districts Lychakiv / Личаків / Lützenhof, Velyki Krywtschyki / Великі Кривчиці, Lysynytschi / Лисиничі, Majoriwka / Майорівка / Meier, Pohuljanka / Погулянка, Snesinnja / Знесіння, Kajserwald / Кайзервальд / Kaiserwald, Zetneriwka / Цетнерівка and Jaliwez / Ялівець)
- Rayon Salisnyzja (with the districts Rjasne / Рясне, Lewandiwka / Левандівка, Bilohorschtscha / Білогорща, Klepariw / Клепарів / Klopperhof, Sknyliwok / Скнилівок, Syhniwka / Сигнівка and Bohdaniwka / Богданівка)
- Shevchenkivskyi district (with the districts Holosko / Голоско, Samarstyniw / Замарстинів / summer Steinhof, Sbojischtscha / Збоїща, Rjasne / Рясне, Klepariw / Клепарів / Klopperhof, Hawryliwka / or Гаврилівка Pidsamtsche / Підзамче)
- Rayon Sychiw (with the districts Sychiw / Сихів, Passiky / Пасіки, Pyrohiwka / Пирогівка, Koselnyky / Козельники, Bodnariwka / Боднарівка, Nowyj Lwiw / Новий Львів, Persenkiwka / Персенківка and Snopkiw / Снопків)
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Lviv
Source: wetterkontor.de , reference period from 1961 to 1990
- List of the Archbishops of Lviv of the Roman Catholic Church
- List of Metropolitans of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
- Lviv air conference accident
- Battle of Lviv
The relevant reference work is the Lemberg encyclopedia , which will appear in Ukrainian from 2007 .
Further literature in the order of appearance:
- Hugo Weczerka : Origin and ethnicity of the new citizens of Lviv in the 15th century (with 2 cards). In: Journal for East Central Europe Research . Issue 1-4, Marsberg 1955, pp. 506-530.
- Philipp Ther : Chances and Downfall of a Multinational City. Relations between nationalities in Lviv in the first half of the 20th century. In: Philipp Ther, Holm Sundhaussen (Ed.): Nationality Conflicts in the 20th Century (= research on Eastern European history. Volume 59). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-447-04494-2 , pp. 123-146 ( preview in Google book search).
- John Czaplicka (Ed.): Lviv. A City in the Crosscurrents of Culture (= Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Volume 24). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2005, ISBN 0-916458-97-0 .
- Hermann Simon , Irene Stratenwerth , Roland Hinrichs: Lemberg. A trip to Europe. Ch. Links, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86153-459-4 (volume accompanying the exhibition of the New Synagogue Foundation - Centrum Judaicum Berlin: “Where is Lemberg”? From September 2 to December 2, 2007).
- Alexandra Binnenkade , Ekaterina Emeliantseva, Svjatoslav Pacholkiv: Familiar and strange at the same time: Jewish-Christian neighborhoods in Warsaw - Lengnau - Lemberg (= Jewish Modernism. Volume 8). Preface by Heiko Haumann . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-412-20177-7 .
- Christoph Mick: War experiences in a multiethnic city. Lemberg 1914–1947 (= German Historical Institute Warsaw: Sources and Studies. Volume 22). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-447-06193-3 (also habilitation thesis, University of Tübingen, 2004; review by Felix Ackermann ).
- Tarik Cyril Amar: The Paradox of Ukrainian Lviv. A Borderland City between Nazis, Stalinists, and Nationalists. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 2015, ISBN 978-0-8014-5391-5 ( preview in Google book search, review by Karl Schlögel ).
- Lutz C. Kleveman: Lemberg. The forgotten center of Europe. Structure, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-351-03668-3 ( review notes on Lemberg at perlentaucher.de ).
- Gregor Gatscher-Riedl : Lemberg: kuk place of longing and cosmopolitan city in Galicia. Kral, Berndorf 2019, ISBN 978-3990247778 .
- City administration homepage (Ukrainian)
- Liebermann: This empty shell that is left over ... In: Die Zeit . December 31, 2004, No. 1/2005 (interview with the Lviv literary scholar Jurko Prochasko about Galicia today; beginning of the article freely available)
- Iris Radisch : World lost beauty of Ukraine. In: The time . No. 18/2003 (report on Lemberg)
- Lviv photo blog - photos and galleries about the ancient and modern city of Lviv (Ukrainian)
- Lwów . In: Filip Sulimierski, Władysław Walewski (eds.): Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich . tape 5 : Kutowa Wola – Malczyce . Walewskiego, Warsaw 1884, p. 496 (Polish, edu.pl ).
- 1945. The end of Polish Lwów (article by RADIOdienst POLSKA , freely available).
- The population of the Lviv region on March 1, 2015 , Головне управлiння статистики у Львівській області (Institute of Statistics in the Lviv Region; PDF).
- Hermann Simon, Irene Stratenwerth, Ronald Hinrichs (eds.): Lemberg. A trip to Europe. P. 96 ff. In the Google book search
- World Heritage List L'viv (Ukraine) No 865. (PDF; 327 kB) L'viv - the ensemble of thehistoric center. In: unesco.org. June 30, 1997, archived from the original on June 27, 2006 ; Retrieved on November 14, 2018 (English, French, description of the world heritage site Old Town Lviv with detailed information).
- The documents and files of the regional and upper bailiffs. B.III. in Google Book Search
- Monumenta Poloniae Historica. III 200.
- The documents and files of the regional and upper bailiffs. The volumes and files for the period from the 14th century to 1772.
- Armenia. 5000 years of art and culture. Ernst Wasmuth, Tübingen 1995, p. 466.
- Andreas R. Hofmann, Anna Veronika Wendland: City and the public in East Central Europe 1900-1939. Contributions to the emergence of modern urbanity between Berlin, Charkiv, Tallinn and Trieste (= research on the history and culture of Eastern Central Europe. Volume 14). Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-07937-8 , p. 158; Illustration of the town in 1617 in Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg .
- Isabel Röskau-Rydel: Culture on the periphery of the Habsburg Empire. The history of the education system and the cultural institutions in Lemberg from 1772 to 1848. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1993, p. 80 in the Google book search
- gazettes in detail at the Austrian National Library .
- NN: The corps life at the University of Chernivtsi in Buchenland. Memories of a Chernivtsi Corps student. In: then and now . Volume 8, 1963, pp. 151-157.
- Martin Pollack: To Galicia. Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1984 and 1994, ISBN 3-85447-075-4 , p. 194.
- Mission of The United States to Poland, Henry Morgenthau, Sr. Report in the English-language Wikisource .
- F. Czarnoski, quoted by Roger Moorhouse: The Devil's Alliance: Hitler's pact with Stalin. 1939-41. Bodley Head, London 2014, p. 50.
- Roger Moorhouse: The Devil's Alliance: Hitler's pact with Stalin. 1939-41. Bodley Head, London 2014, p. 49.
- Hannes Heer : Bloody Overture. In: Zeit Online . June 2001 (about the invasion of the Wehrmacht in Lemberg in June 1941).
- Lvov Ghetto. In: DeathCamps.org , last updated on July 22, 2006 (English).
- Walter Grode: German "euthanasia" policy in Poland during the Second World War. In: Psychology and Social Criticism . Volume 16 (2), 1992, pp. 5–13, urn : nbn: de: 0168-ssoar-266493 (PDF; 674 kB; accessed on November 14, 2018).
- Willi Dreßen , Volker Riess: Exploitation and Destruction. Health policy in the General Government. In: Norbert Frei (Ed.) Medicine and Health Policy in the Nazi Era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991 (= writings of the quarterly books for contemporary history. Special issue), ISBN 3-486-64534-X , p. 157–171, here: p. 170 f.
- Erich Maschke (Hrsg.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- Roman Szporluk: Russia, Ukraine, and the breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Institution Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8179-9542-0 , p. 304 in the Google Book Search; Національний склад Львівського воєводства за переписом 1931 року. In: etno.uaweb.org. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010 ; Retrieved November 14, 2018 (Ukrainian). ; Населення Східної Галичини за переписом 1900 року. In: etno.uaweb.org. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010 ; Retrieved November 14, 2018 (Ukrainian).
- Crimean crisis: OSCE sends 100 observers to Ukraine. In: Spiegel Online . March 22, 2014.
- Results of the censuses of the KK Statistische Central -ommission u. a. at Anson Rabinbach : The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. In: Austrian History Yearbook. Volume 11, 1975, pp. 44-54, here 46 f. (Table III).
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