Ruthenian Voivodeship

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Ruthenian Voivodeship
badges and flags
Coat of arms of the Ruthenian Voivodeship Flag of Ruthenia Voivodeship
Basic data
Capital : Lviv
Bigger cities: Lviv , Chełm , Przemyśl , Sanok , Halicz
Residents : 1,495,000 (1770)
Population density : 24 inhabitants / km²
Area : 55,200 km²
Expansion: North-South: up to 480 km
West-East: up to 300 km
The highest point: 1346 m. ü. NN
Deepest point: 138 m. ü. NN
Administrative division
Independent cities : 21st
Counties : 13
  • Ruthenian Voivodeship
  • The Ruthenian Voivodeship (historically also Rothreußen (Rotrussland) or Rotruthenien ; Latin Palatinatus russiae , Polish Województwo ruskie , Ukrainian Руське воєводство ) was an administrative unit of the Kingdom of Poland (1434–1569) and the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic ( 1569–1569) 1434 to 1772, which was in the Lesser Poland Province .

    Today the area is divided between Poland and Ukraine .

    Administrative division

    The capital was Lemberg ( Polish Lwów , Ukrainian Львів Lwiw ), the seat of the state parliament was in Sądowa Wisznia ( Ukrainian Судова Вишня Sudowa Wyschnja ). The higher courts of law at the following castles were responsible for the jurisdiction, which took place under German law:

    It consisted of five countries: around Lwów , Sanok , Halicz , Przemyśl and Chełm .

    Chełmer Land

    Chełmer Land ( Polish Ziemia chełmska ), capital Cholm ( Polish Chełm , Ukrainian Холм Cholm )

    Halitian country

    Halitscher country ( Polish Ziemia Halicka ), capital Halych ( Polish Halicz , Ukrainian Галич Halych )

    Lviv country

    Lemberger Land ( Polish Ziemia lwowska ), capital Lemberg ( Polish Lwów , Ukrainian Львів Lwiw )

    Banner of the Sanoker-Przemysler Land at the Battle of Tannenberg (1410)

    Przemyśler Land

    Przemyśler Land ( Polish Ziemia przemyska ), capital Przemyśl

    Sanoker Land

    Sanoker Land ( Polish Ziemia sanocka ), capital Sanok

    • Sanok district ( Polish Powiat Sanocki ), main town Sanok



    Originally the borders of Ruthenia were similar to the area between the rivers (Western) Bug and Wieprz. Its Polish name was ziemia czerwieńska, or "Czerwiener Land", named either after Czerwień (red color in Polish), Powiat Hrubieszowski or after the name of the town of Czerwonograd, 300 km to the east.

    This area was first mentioned in 981 when Volodymyr the Great of the Kievan Rus conquered the area on the way to central Poland. In 1018 it belonged to Poland, 1031 again to Rus. From 1340 the Polish king Casimir III. the Great († 1370) gradually part of Red Ruthenia. Since then the name Ruś Czerwona, literally translated Red Ruthenia, has been passed down, which was extended to the Dniester . Under the Polish-Lithuanian King Władysław Jagiełło , Przemyśl became the seat of the voivodeship, after which it was moved to Lviv.

    Voivodeship Ruthenia in the Kingdom of Poland (red) and the Crown Land of Galicia in Austria (blue line)

    As a result of the first partition of Poland , around 80% of the voivodeship came to the Habsburg Monarchy as Galicia in 1772 . The northern part of Ruthenia was added to the Russian Empire . The previous royal seat of Lviv became the capital of the new Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the fourth largest city of the Habsburg multi-ethnic state.

    In the interwar period the area belonged to the Second Polish Republic. Currently this area is divided: the western part around Przemyśl is in Poland and the eastern part around Lviv (Lviv) is part of western Ukraine.

    Red Russians

    The name "Rotreußen" (Old Slavonic, Russian or Ukrainian: Chervona Rus, Polish: Ruś Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) has been used since the Middle Ages, the area was known as Eastern Galicia before the First World War . The city of Halicz gave Galicia its name.

    Population development

    The population increased from 943,000 in 1629 to 1,495,000 in 1770.

    See also


    • Aleksander Jabłonowski: Ziemie ruskie. Ruś Czerwona In Polska XVI wieku pod plus geograficzno-statystycznym , Warszawska drukarnia estetyczna, Warszawa 1902, T. VII. Cz. I. (Polish)
    • Aleksander Jabłonowski: Ziemie ruskie. Ruś Czerwona In Polska XVI wieku pod plus geograficzno-statystycznym , Warszawa 1903, T. VII. Cz. II (Polish)
    • Vitaliy Mychajlowskyj: Russke wojewodsstwo In Entsyklopedija isstoriji Ukrajiny , Naukowa dumka, Kiev 2012, T. 9: Прил - С, ISBN 978-966-00-1290-5 . P. 396. (Ukrainian)

    Web links

    Individual evidence

    1. Vitaly Mychajlowskyj, Russke wojewodsstwo