|Area :||38.15 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||38-500 to 38-512|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 13|
|License plate :||RSA|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK28 Medyka - Przemyśl - Jasło - Nowy Sącz - Wadowice - Zator|
|Next international airport :||Rzeszów-Jasionka|
|Gminatype:||Township & Country Community|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Community number ( GUS ):||1817011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Tomasz Adam Matuszewski|
The city is located in the extreme southeast of Poland, on the San in the Carpathian Forest . The border with Slovakia in the south is 30 km away (Radoszyce- Palota ), the border with Ukraine in the east is 60 km away (Krościenko). The closest major city is Rzeszów (approx. 68 kilometers northwest). Nearby medium- sized towns are Jasło (approx. 70 kilometers to the west), Biecz (approx. 100 kilometers to the west), Lesko (approx. 18 kilometers to the southeast) and Medzilaborce (approx. 45 kilometers to the south).
Already 1600 to 1400 BC At the site of today's Sanok there was a settlement from the early Bronze Age ( Alföld-Linearkeramik ). Later, around the 2nd century BC. BC to the 2nd century AD during the Latène period , the Celts ( Púchov culture ) settled on the site of today's city. The Hasdingen era lasted from around the 2nd to 4th century AD .
Already between the late 3rd century BC. BC and 8th century there was a castle on the site of today's Sanok, in the 12th century it was " the gateway to Hungary ". The castle was first mentioned in 1150, at that time the area was part of the Kievan Rus . It records the conquest of the castle and its surroundings by the Hungarian King Géza II .
In the middle of the 12th century, a castle was built on the site of today's Sanok; it also served as an administrative center for the surrounding area. In 1205 the Hungarian King Andrew II met here with Anna, a princess of Russia. In 1231 the area of the city was united with a Rus principality to form the Principality of Sanok-Volhynia .
Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Times
The city's heyday began in the 14th century and continued into the 16th century. In 1344, during the expansion of Poland under Casimir the Great , Sanok also became part of the Polish kingdom. On April 25, 1366, Casimir confirmed the town charter. At that time, the city became the capital of the Sanok Land , which stretched from the sources of the San to the cities of Błażowa and Krosno . This area is in turn part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship . The castle was the seat of the regional and district court and other administrative authorities.
In 1368 the city was given the right to hold an eight-day fair every year from the Friday before Pentecost . In 1377, Wladislaus II of Opole invited Franciscans to Sanok, who finally founded a monastery within the city walls in 1384 . At the beginning of the 15th century, the place received the right to another fair on the day of the birth of Mary on September 8th. On May 2, 1417, the Polish king Władysław II. Jagiełło married in the parish church of Sanok Elisabeth von Pilitza . After Wladyslaw's death in 1434, his last wife, Sophie Holszańska , retired to Sanok Castle.
The first great fire raged in 1470. In 1487 a hospital was donated that uses the Franciscan buildings. In 1498 another fire raged in the city and destroyed large parts. In 1514 it burned again. In the same year Sigismund the Elder exempted the city from some taxes and approved another fair.
In 1523–1548 the Gothic castle was rebuilt in the Renaissance style . In 1549 another fire struck the city. In 1566, a great fire broke out and eventually left almost the entire city to rubble and ashes. Only the castle, the Franciscan monastery , five houses and the upper part of the city were spared.
In 1624 the city was attacked by Tatars . In 1640 a Franciscan monastery was built in the baroque style. During the Swedish-Polish war , Sanok was also attacked by the Swedes. Shortly afterwards, in 1657, the army under George II Rákóczi from Transylvania reached the city.
Around 1845, Walenty Lipiński and Mateusz Beksiński founded a boiler shop in Sanok, which was expanded into a factory in 1886. From 1894 to 1895 a boiler and mechanical engineering factory was built in the Posada Olchowska district .
Karol Pollak founded a printing company in 1848 , the first issue of the Biblioteka Polska (Polish Library) was printed here in 1855 under the editing of Kazimierz Józef Turowski . Karol Pollak also set up the town's first library in 1861.
In the 20th century
Until the end of the First World War , in which Sanok was badly destroyed, the city was a garrison of the Austro-Hungarian army . The III. Battalion of the kuk Inf.Rgmt. No. 45 and the III. Battalion of the kk Landwehr Inf.Rgmt. No. 18.
In the course of the German invasion of Poland at the beginning of the Second World War , Sanok was occupied on September 9, 1939. The city was initially a border town between the Soviet-occupied part of Poland and the Generalgouvernement . In 1940 the Polish underground movement began to form. Courier routes to Hungary ran here until 1942, and the Polish Home Army ( Armia Krajowa ) carried out some disruptive maneuvers on site.
The large minorities of the Boyken, Lemken and Ukrainians living in the region around Sanok and within the city were in some cases forced to collaborate with the German occupiers. In 1943 the German occupation forces and the SS authorities ordered the establishment of the Waffen SS Division Galicia . Ukrainians, Lemks and ethnic Germans joined it. On August 3, 1944, the city was captured by the Red Army . The Ukrainian underground army ( UPA ) fought in Bieszczady south of Sanok until 1948. In 1947, the Vistula action led to the forced relocation of the Boyken and Lemken to western Poland.
Due to an administrative reform, Sanok fell on June 2, 1975 under the sovereignty of the Krosno Voivodeship .
On September 29, 1980, an independent trade union was founded in the Autosan bus factory , which marked the beginning of the Solidarność movement in Sanok.
Today Sanok has about 40,000 inhabitants. A park with an area of approx. 12 hectares, the scenic mountain regions of the Słonne Mountains and numerous sports and leisure opportunities offer recreational opportunities. Tourists who are enthusiastic about icons and wooden Greek Orthodox churches can set off from Sanok on the so-called icon route. One of its attractions is the largest museum of folk architecture in the country, which shows objects of wooden architecture. There are 120 sacred and secular buildings from the 17th to 19th centuries. Your path forks at two rivers and leads along them - the northern part along the San River, the southern part along the Osława River - to the Slovakian border. From here you can take the train to Medzilaborce , Prešov and Budapest .
The city of Sanok forms an independent municipality ( gmina miejska ).
Rural community of Sanok
The automotive, chemical and machine industries have a long tradition in Sanok. The bus manufacturer Autosan is continuing the 182 year old tradition of the machine industry in Sanok and is currently producing special vehicles. It was the first company in the machine industry, founded in 1832 by Mateusz Beksiński and Walenty Lipiński as a boiler and tank manufacturer. In the period up to July 1944, 5000 pieces of brand new freight wagons and 180,000 stretchers for the Wehrmacht soldiers were also manufactured. Armored vehicles and self-propelled howitzers were repaired, and Panzer IV was also repaired there. In 1970 the company employed 7,000 people in the automotive industry. Privatization and the crisis in industry and administration have driven the factory into bankruptcy. Autosan is currently bankrupt and has around 380 employees.
The place with the surroundings from Lesko to Gorlice is one of the oldest places in the Sanok lowlands, where the roots of the world oil industry lie. In the forests of the Beskids northwest of the foothills near Sanok, the world's first oil field in Galicia was created by the Galician chemist Ignacy Łukasiewicz and opened in 1854. Oil is still produced there today. The Warsaw energy company PGNiG in the Sanok district runs the business.
The company Stomil has the longest tradition in the production of technical and industrial rubbers in Poland . The Stomil rubber factory was founded in 1932 by the Austrian chemist and entrepreneur Dr. Oskar Schmidt (1902–1976) was founded as the Polish Society for the Rubber Industry - Sanok and, as a plastic and vulcanized rubber, was involved in the manufacture of a wide variety of industrial items, especially for the automotive industry and consumer goods. In 1938 the company had 2000 employees. Stomil continues to produce profile seals for steel and plastic pipes, rubber belts and seals for windows and doors. The company was renamed to Stomil Sanok SA in 1991. In 1994 the company ( SNK ) was listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The rubber plant currently employs more than 1750 people.
|1.||Stomil Sanok AG||Sanok||1,750||2,800|
|2.||Pass-Pol GmbH||Sanok, Schwelm||2,500|
|3.||Ciarko fume extractors||Sanok||400|
|7th||Auto body shop||Sanok||230|
|9.||PGNiG -Sanok||Sanok, Warsaw||1700||33,071|
|12.||BUKSAN textile manufacturer||Sanok||55|
|13.||HERB auto parts||Sanok||50|
Culture and sights
- Local history museum (with Zdzisław Beksiński collection and icon museum)
- The Museum of Folk Architecture ; the ethnographic park of the museum shows the traditional way of life and work of the Polish and Ruthenian population of the Sub-Carpathian region as well as the Lemken and Bojken .
- City park ; In the middle of the city is a single mountain in the city district Inner City 2., on which the city park is now located. From here we can admire the Selp Forest on the San River and a new part of the city in the north .
- Renaissance style castle , completely rebuilt in the 16th century.
- The main guard building (end of the 18th century), seat of the local history museum
- Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity built in 1784 with numerous icons
- Franciscan monastery built in the early 17th century
- Neo-Gothic town hall on the market square built in the 18th century
- Catholic parish church of the Transfiguration of the Lord on Michaelplatz, a church with two towers, built in 1874–1887 on the site of a previous building. In the church, on the side wall, there is an epitaph of the Starost by Sanok Sebastian Lubomirski. This monument was found on the site of the first church from the 14th century.
- Ulica 3 Maja , promenade and shopping street.
- The Central Cemetery on Rymanowska Street.
The most famous hockey club in the city is the KH Sanok , which has won the Polish championship several times. The former car club KH Sanok plays its games in the Sanok Arena, which has a capacity of over 3,000 spectators. There is an ice rink in the city. At the ice rink in front of the Sanok Arena in 2013, the final runs for the ice speedway world championship took place.
Through the region leads:
- The cycle and long-distance hiking trail "In the footsteps of Schwejk" begins in the Czech Republic and continues to Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland / Sanok to Ukraine.
- The oil and gas museum hiking trail . The trail begins in Jasło and leads through Bóbrka, Krosno , Sanok , Lesko , and Ustrzyki Dolne to Ukraine .
- Sanok - Biała Góra - Orli Kamień / Adlerfels 517 m - Słonna / Salzig 639 m - Przysłup - Rakowa - Chwaniów to Przemyśl
- Sanok - Orli Kamień / Aldlerfels 517 m back to Sanok
- Hiking trail in the Beskid Subcarpathian region from Holzkirchen via Sanok to the village church of Bączal Dolny and on to Międzybrodzie - Mrzygłód - Ulucz - Dobra - Hołuczków back to Sanok.
- Sanok - Załuż - Przysłup 658 m back to Sanok
- Sanok - the educational trail in the nature reserve of Polanki (salt mountains)
Education and Research
The schools of Sanok:
- The State University of Applied Sciences
- I. General secondary school
- II. General secondary school
- Vocational college for technical colleges
- Vocational college for mechanical technical schools
- Vocational college for construction schools
- Middle schools (Polish gimnazjum ) No. 1 to 5
- Foreign language teaching college
- Institute for practical education
Born in Sanok
- Josef Herzig (1853–1924), chemist
- Broncia Koller-Pinell (1863–1934), painter
- Juliusz Kühl (1913–1985), consular officer and rescuer of the Jews
- Zdzisław Beksiński (1929–2005), performing artist
- Orest Lenczyk (* 1942), football player and coach
- Dominik Wania (* 1981), jazz musician
Associated with Sanok
- Wincenty Pol (1807–1872), poet
- Sebastian von Felsztyn (* between 1480 and 1490, † after 1552), composer and music theorist
- Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego ( Geographical Lexicon of the Kingdom of Poland ) sv Sanok , Volume 10 (1889), Volume 15 (1902)
- Adam Fastnacht: Osadnictwo Ziemi Sanockiej , 1946
- Jerzy Kwiatek, Teofil Lijewski: Leksykon Miast Polskich , Warsaw 1998, ISBN 83-7079-926-4
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- “It is possible to separate a group from the Latène culture (Celtic settlement in the Upper Tisza Basin). Around 160 sites have been registered so far. They can be subdivided into different categories, which include the following: settlements, production facilities, burials, such as burial grounds and individual graves, and hoards (deposit of coins and tools). There are also three oppida: Zemplin, Bückszentlászló and Galish-Lovacka. This group is classified chronologically in LT B1-LT D1 / D2. Of particular interest is the problem of the relationship between this group and the group of sites in south-east Poland. Material connections are also documented in old written sources. These allow the group of the Upper Tisza to be identified as the Anarti tribe and those of southeast Poland as the Anartophracti, the latter being part of the former tribe. ”Marek Olędzki: La Tine culture in the Upper Tisza Basin = La Culture de la Tene dans le Bassin de la Haute Tisza. In: Ethnographic-Archaeological Journal ,
- Cassius Dio . LXXI, 12th I.
- the San group of Latène Culture In: Acta archaeologica Carpathica T . 37 - p. 80, 2002
- porta Galiciae que vocatur Ungarica in: Polish agricultural annual . Monograph, Volume 94-95, PWN 1961, p. 16
- town privilege in Latin - source texts. [In:] Digital Library of AGAD, No. 7,226th ( Memento of 31 October 2008 at the Internet Archive )
- Autosan. Praca zbiorowa. Adam Orłowicz. Edit. LSW, Warszawa 1982, p. 19.
- Panzer-Instandsetzung-Kraftfahr-Werken, repair group "South" (K-Werk for short). In: Lukas Friedli, The Panzer Repair of the Wehrmacht. Verlag Wolfgang Schneider, Uelzen 2005, p. 207. ISBN 3-935107-08-0 .
- The company was founded in 1990 as "Pass-Stomil" GmbH. founded
- KH Sanok (Polish)
- Petroleum and Natural Gas Museum Hiking trail through the Sanok lowlands ( Memento of the original from February 2, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ścieżka dydaktyczno-przyrodnicza "POLANKI" ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.