Vladimir I. Swjatoslawitsch (called Vladimir the Great , Old East Slavic : Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse : Valdamarr Sveinaldsson, Russian Владимир Святославич ; Ukrainian Володимир Святославич ; Belarusian Уладзімер Сьвятаславіч * to 960 ; † 15. July 1015 in Berestovo) was from 978/980 to 1015 Grand Duke of Kiev . He is considered the most important prince of the Kievan Rus, who initiated the Christianization of the Rus , among other things .
Vladimir is venerated as an apostle-like saint in the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church . Remembrance day is July 15th (day of death, Catholic, Orthodox), and also July 28th (day of baptism, in Russia).
Beginning of rule
Vladimir was a son of Grand Duke Svyatoslav I of Kiev and Malusha , a servant of Princess Olga . His year of birth is unknown, probably around 960. After his father's death in 971, Vladimir became prince of Novgorod , the second most important center of Russia, despite his unsuitable origins. His uncle Dobrynja supported him as a voivode. In 972, Olav Tryggvason , the future King of Norway, came to Novgorod with his mother. Their brother Sigurd served there as a Varangian .
977 a dispute broke out between his half-brothers Oleg and Jaropolk I. from. Yaropolk conquered Novgorod, where Oleg was killed. Vladimir fled to Norway to Håkon Jarl . He returned with a Varangian army and took back Novgorod. Then he conquered Polotsk , killed the local Prince Rogwolod and took his daughter Rogneda as his wife.
The capital Kiev fell into his hands without a fight . He then invited his half-brother Jaropolk to negotiations and had him killed, making him the sole ruler of the Kievan Rus.
The recruited Varangians, who had to be paid, presented a huge problem. He sent some of them to Byzantium , where they formed the core of the Varangian Guard . He used other Varangians, however, as administrators in the castles of his empire.
Vladimir consolidated his power through further campaigns. In 981 he conquered Tscherwen Castle and the Tscherwen Burgenland . On the southern borders of his country he settled "auxiliary peoples" who protected the empire (for example the Turkic Torki and Berendei). He led further campaigns against Vyatiches , Radimitschen , the Baltic Yatwingers and Aestians , the Volga Bulgarians and the Pechenegs .
Christianization of the Rus
The most important event of the reign of Vladimir was the Christianization of the Kievan Rus in 988 on the occasion of his marriage to Princess Anna of Byzantium , daughter of the Byzantine emperor Romanos II. For this he was nicknamed the saint and after his death became a saint of the Orthodox Church raised. Before his baptism , the legend of the saint describes him as a libertine with seven main wives and 800 mistresses. He had idols set up everywhere and was an avid follower of paganism . According to tradition, reason brought him to the Christian faith. Allegedly he sent scholars from all religions and chose the best. (Reply to the Muslim envoy: "Rus is the friend of the drink, we cannot be without it".)
In fact, Vladimir's baptism was a diplomatic move: the goal was to establish ties with the Byzantine imperial family. Emperor Basil II needed help against the Bulgarians , the common enemies of Vladimir and the Eastern Roman emperor. Vladimir sent an army of 6000 Rus to Constantinople . He also exerted pressure on the emperor by attacking the Byzantine Chersonese in the Crimea . Eventually he agreed: If Vladimir were baptized, Basil II would give him his sister Anna as his wife for military support . So it happened, and Vladimir I was the first European ruler to have a purple-born wife. The baptism of the Knjasen was celebrated in Kiev as a big act: after the pagan images of gods had been torn down, a mass baptism took place in the Dnepr . There does not seem to have been any open resistance to Christianization, although paganism was able to persist for a long time, especially in rural areas. Nonetheless, the church quickly began to build a network of churches and monasteries, which contributed significantly to the consolidation of the Kiev Empire. In addition, the region also developed culturally through the new faith. The orthodoxy had thus finally achieved a dominant position in the Rus. At the same time, Vladimir had become a figure of diplomatic importance through the acceptance of Christianity and the marriage connection with the Byzantine imperial family.
The end of the rule
Secured in this way, he advanced the internal expansion of his territory. In new castle towns along the Dnieper tributaries, he settled Ilmenslawen (Slovenes), Kriviches , Vyatiches and Tschuden who were supposed to repel attacks by the Pechenegs . He entrusted the administration of the individual regions of the Kievan Rus to his twelve sons. However, this de facto division weakened the empire. A first serious conflict broke out during Vladimir's lifetime over the rich trading city of Novgorod. The heir to the throne Yaroslav , who was designated heir to the throne (after the death of his older brother Vysheslav), received this most important city after Kiev. In 1014 Yaroslav refused to pay tribute to his father. There was no more campaign against his son because Vladimir died on July 15, 1015.
Marriages and offspring
- Vysheslav (around 977-1010 / 14), prince of Novgorod
- Boris (-1015), Prince of Rostov , saint
- Gleb (-1015), Prince of Murom , saint
- Svjatopolk I (978 / 979-1019, probably stepson), Grand Duke of Kiev (1015-1016, 1018-1019)
- Svyatoslav (around 978-1015), prince of the Drewlyans
- Isjaslav (around 979–1001), Prince of Polotsk
- Yaroslav the Wise (around 979-1054), Grand Duke of Kiev (1019-1054)
- Mstislav von Tschernigow (around 983-1034 / 36), Prince of Tmutarakan and Tschernigow
- Vsevolod (983/984 – before 1013), first prince of Volhynia
Another, iconographically similar monument was erected on the Kremlin wall in Moscow in 2016 . The bronze sculpture, which shows Vladimir with the sword on his belt and the cross in his raised right hand, is twelve meters high (with the cross 16 meters) and was created by the sculptor Salavat Scherbakow.
The main outer belt asteroid (2967) Vladisvyat is named after him.
- Alexander Fjodorowitsch Hilferding : An unedited testimony of a contemporary about Vladimir the saint and Bolesłav the bold. In: Journal of Slavic Literature, Art and Science. Volume 2, Heft 3, 1864, , pp. 179-206 ( full text ).
- Theodor Ediger: Russia's oldest relations with Germany, France and the Roman Curia. Hohmann, Halle 1911 (Halle, University, dissertation, 1911).
- Wolfgang Heller: Vladimir / Volodymyr (Svjatoslavic). In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 17, Bautz, Herzberg 2000, ISBN 3-88309-080-8 , Sp. 1506-1507.
- Semen Skljarenko: Vladimir. Novel about the Kievan Rus. Verlag der Nation ua, Berlin et al. 1989, ISBN 3-373-00336-9 .
- Michael von Taube : An enigmatic clan mark of the Vladimir des Heiligen family , publication point of the Prussian Secret State Archives , Berlin-Dahlem 1938.
- Vladimir Volkoff : Vladimir, the Russian Viking. 3rd printing. Overlook Press, New York NY 1998, ISBN 0-87951-234-2 .
- Federal Agency for Civic Education: Dossier Russia - Rise to European Great Power
- St. Vladimir in heiligenlexikon.de
- St. Vladimir in the Catholic Church Encyclopedia
- Maren Gottschalk : July 15, 1015 - Anniversary of the death of Vladimir I, the holy WDR ZeitZeichen from July 15, 2015. (Podcast)
- > http://www.heiligenlexikon.de/BiographienW/Wladimir_von_Kiew.html Wladimir von Kiew ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Dictionary of saints)
- This story tells the saga of Olav Tryggvason . Essentially historically possible.
- Jean-Paul Demoule: Archaeological Cultures and Modern Nations - considers baptism an opportunistic act - In: Peter F. Biehl, Alexander Gramsch, Arkadiusz Marciniak (ed.): Archaeologies Europe. History, methods and theories. Tübingen Archaeological Pocket Books Vol. 3 (2002). Waxmann Münster ISBN 3-8309-1067-3 pp. 133-146
- The “second South Slavic influence” refers to the influence of Bulgarian culture and in particular Bulgarian literature as well as the adoption of Church Slavonic , which was accomplished in the 14th century by scholars such as the later Metropolitan Kiprian .
- Svyatoslav Ssemenjuk: Istorija ukrains'koho narodu . Apriori, Lemberg 2010, p. 233. (Ukrainian)
- A memorial for Prince Wladimir , Deutschlandfunk, November 4, 2016, accessed on November 5, 2016
- Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on September 27, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1977 SS 1 . Discovered 1977 Sept. 19 by NS Chernykh at Nauchnyj. "
Grand Duke of the Kievan Rus
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Владимир Святославич; Vladimir I. Svyatoslavich; Vladimir the Saint; Vladimir the Great; Vladimir the apostle equals|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Prince of Kiev|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 960|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 15, 1015|
|Place of death||Berestovo|