A television set or television set , also known as a remote sound cinema in the 1930s , is a device for receiving and reproducing analog and digital television signals . The idea for a first mechanical television set was presented in a patent by Paul Nipkow as early as 1886 . He is considered to be the real inventor of television. The term television receiver is also used for television sets .
In allusion to the flickering of the moving images , which was initially easily perceptible , the television set is often referred to colloquially as a flicker box . More colloquial names for the TV are televisions , goggle , goggle, Pantoffelkino or trouble cinema , tube (for older devices according to the picture tube ), ground glass , armchair cinema , peep , Glotzofon , goggle box , goggle box or Glotze , TV (abbreviation for Television; from Greek tele 'fern' and English vision 'sight' or Latin visio 'sight', 'appearance' ).
The images on the television are displayed on a screen . The use of video projectors as a television set (as a " home theater ") is another option. With a TV card , the computer monitor can also be used as a television set. There are also transmission options via the Internet or broadband cable, where the computer serves as a receiving device.
In addition to the image reproduction system, the most important part of a television set is the tuner , which converts the analog or digital high-frequency signals from the cable connection , the antenna or the satellite input into a video signal. For the connection of other video systems (e.g. DVD player, DVB-T tuner, satellite receiver) there is usually a SCART socket available on European devices , or DVI or HDMI sockets for digital signals . The tones are reproduced via loudspeakers , which can also be placed outside the device.
At the beginning of television history, there were black and white devices that could only reproduce grayscale images, before technical development made color television sets possible. The trend is now towards devices that can also display high-resolution images ( UHD ).
Various different television standards with different image resolutions have been developed around the world for analog television , which are designated with individual letters from A to N. The basic different color broadcast standards are PAL , SECAM, and NTSC . In German-speaking countries, the television standards B for VHF transmitters and G for UHF transmitters as well as the PAL standard for color transmission are currently (today, as of 2012, only in analogue cable television ) ; accordingly, one speaks of PAL-B / G. In the case of digital television , these standard differences are no longer important, apart from the image resolution.
In the so-called 100 Hz television sets, the first field of each picture is stored and only then displayed together with the second field; then both are repeated again while the first field of the next image is being received. As a result, each image is shown twice, which means that the image flicker subjectively disappears completely. In the case of fast-moving images, however, a rather complex digital post-processing of the images in the device (so-called deinterlacing ) is necessary in order to avoid artifacts due to the changed timing of the image display.
Since the late 1970s, the television set was no longer used exclusively for television . With the gradual introduction of the new media on the market , with VCRs and DVD recorders being the most popular, the television set also became a screen for external media.
Types of televisions
In addition to the tube televisions and flat-screen televisions described in detail below, other display technologies are used for televisions.
- Rear projection screen
- Video projector
- With a TV card, the computer can also be turned into a television set and the necessary screen can be used for display. In more recent applications, the television signal transmitted via the Internet is ultimately also a variant of computer use in the sense of a television set.
Up until the 2000s, the term “television set” was basically understood to mean a so-called tube set , the term tube here referring to the main component, the picture tube . According to its construction, this is a Braun tube , named after its inventor Karl Ferdinand Braun . This tube consists of a funnel-shaped glass container under vacuum , in which, depending on the desired brightness of an image point, more or fewer electrons are accelerated from the cathode in the rear of the picture tube neck to the anode (the actual screen) and excite the luminous layer applied there .
The high voltage at the anode is usually obtained from the line generator and by the flyback transformer to depending on screen size 6000-33000 volts transformed up . With its inner and outer Aquadag coating, the picture tube acts as a large capacitor and retains the high voltage for some time after the device has been switched off and can therefore pose a hazard. Because of its low power, this voltage is generally not fatal to humans; however, when it is touched, frightening, strong muscle movements occur, which can result in secondary physical and property damage. Therefore, work inside CRT televisions should only be carried out by trained personnel.
A heated metal tube serves as a hot cathode in the picture tube . A grid (G2) (positive means lack of electrons), positively charged with 400 to 1000 volts, tears electrons loose from this point. A cylinder with a slightly negative charge ( Wehnelt cylinder ) enables the amount of electrons to be controlled, which corresponds to a control of the pixel brightness. Another electrostatic lens system (3 to 4 kV ) regulates the focus (size and sharpness of the pixel). Overall, the compact picture tube-electron system is very similar to an optical lens system with an iris and a light source.
Without any further deflection, the electron beam would be accelerated by the screen anode towards the center of the screen, leaving only a single bright pixel in the phosphor layer applied to the back of the screen - and the layer would be immediately damaged by a burn-in point. The electron beam is guided over the screen in the desired number of lines and image frequency by means of two sawtooth-shaped deflection signals by means of two deflection units arranged at the neck of the picture tube offset by 90 degrees . Normally, the electron beam is moved line by line from left to right and top to bottom across the screen, thus producing the image from the different brightnesses. The repetition rate of a complete process (for example the image construction) is specified in Hertz (Hz) (example: 100 Hz = 100 times per second). The horizontal deflection is usually coupled with the high voltage generation in the flyback transformer. In the event of a failure, the loss of the picture tube anode high voltage means that there is no harmful burn-in spot; if the vertical deflection unit fails, the characteristic horizontal light line appears on the screen.
In the early days of television (1930s and 1940s), electrostatic image deflection was also used. There are two capacitor plates offset from one another at an angle of 90 degrees in the neck of the picture tube, between which an electrostatic field is built up when a high voltage is applied, which deflects the electron beam. Since - with acceptable deflection voltages - only maximum deflection angles of about 40 degrees can be achieved, electromagnetic deflection with deflection coils later became established, with which deflection angles of over 110 degrees are possible.
In color television sets, there are three slightly offset cathodes for the three primary colors red, green and blue. In this case, a mask in the form of a fine metal grid just behind the ground glass ensures that the electrons from each cathode can only hit fluorescent points of "their" color. The remaining electrons get stuck in the mask. Since most of the electrons therefore never reach the screen, the acceleration voltage in a color television set must be much higher than in a black-and-white set with the same brightness . In this case, the fluorescent layer consists of small dots or strips of the three primary colors lying next to one another. These elements can easily be seen by looking at the screen from a close distance.
Flat panel devices
The conventional tube televisions were increasingly replaced by flat screen televisions in the 2000s . These are based on the flat screens that are also used elsewhere .
In 2006, for the first time, more flat-screen televisions were sold in Germany than conventional tube sets. For the first time in 2007, more flat-screen televisions were sold than tube sets worldwide.
To be HD-ready -compliant, at least 720 image lines are required. HDTV is the world standard for high definition television. It is quite common in North America and East Asia, for example. HDTV-capable tube televisions were available in Germany from JVC, Philips and Samsung. In 2008, almost all manufacturers stopped producing CRT televisions; Philips was considered the last European manufacturer (until 2011).
The picture quality and correct picture adjustment of televisions can be assessed with the help of test images .
A distinction is made according to the technology used for the flat screen
- PDP televisions ( English Plasma Display Panel ) with plasma screens
- LCD televisions with liquid crystal displays (LCD) with traditional fluorescent tube backlighting.
- LED televisions - a misnomer for LC screens with LED backlighting to optimize image and power consumption.
- OLED televisions with OLED screens
- SED televisions with surface conduction electron emitter displays . They combine the advantages of plasma (self-luminous, real black, inertia-free) and LCD (low energy consumption) without taking on their disadvantages. Each pixel consists of a tiny electron source with an accelerator unit, which causes X-rays . There was no market launch.
- FED televisions with field emission screens . Related to SED. The development was stopped due to a lack of funds.
- The main advantage of the flat screen technology is the much smaller device depth of a few centimeters, which is independent of the screen size. In contrast, tube televisions with a larger screen need a depth of up to 60 centimeters.
- The interlacing method used in "tube television" to avoid line flicker is no longer required for flat screen televisions. Flat screen televisions “write” pictures in full screen mode. Interlaced video material is therefore digitally converted to full-screen display ( progressive scan ) before it is displayed on the flat screen . This occasionally results in display problems ( comb effects ).
- Modern flat screen televisions drive a high computing effort for digital image enhancement; on low-priced devices, the image quality is slightly lower for the same reason.
- An improvement in the picture quality in modern flat screen televisions increases the frame rate from 50 Hertz (50 fields in the interlaced process result in 25 full pictures) to 100 Hertz, 200 Hertz or an even higher frequency.
- Digital device technology offers numerous possibilities for increasing the utility value. For example, the disturbing ambient light in LCD televisions can be measured with a sensor in the screen frame and used to readjust the image intensifier and thus contribute to image improvement (increase in contrast). Tube devices are not suitable for such manipulations and were not equipped with such features because of the expense associated with tube technology.
- Plasma technology, on the other hand, is particularly suitable for large-format flat screens. Plasma televisions handle short pixel switching times better than LCD TVs. Therefore (as of 201x) plasma 3D screens can display the spatial 120 Hz 3D video signals as with 3D Blu-ray discs with significantly less left-right crosstalk ( ghosting ) than 3D LC screens.
- The low weight, which also enables it to be mounted directly on the wall and fulfills the earlier vision of the future of a television set “that can be hung on the wall like a picture”.
- Flat screen devices often have a higher displayable image resolution and are also able to receive HDTV signals, while with tube sets this only applies to a few models until recently.
- Flat screen devices offer less resonance space for the sound (more precisely: the speaker membrane of the woofer). The sound quality of many devices is worse than that of tube televisions with good loudspeaker chassis.
- LCD televisions still have a certain dependence of the picture impression ( brightness , contrast , color ) on the angle of the viewer to the television; Plasma TVs never had and never have.
- With many LC screens - especially those with a cold cathode lamp - it is not possible to display a black level comparable to the usual television picture , so instead of real black (no light), only a dark gray (often with a bluish tinge) is possible. A remedy is provided by LED backlighting , which can be dimmed or switched off in the dark areas of the image.
- Shorter lifespan. Individual television technicians believe that some manufacturers artificially limit the life of flat-screen televisions to less than 10,000 operating hours ( planned obsolescence ).
Until about 2007, most flat screens had some disadvantages compared to conventional CRT monitors:
- In the case of fast-moving images, LC screens (but not plasma screens) showed blurring, which are referred to as trailing effects or movement artifacts , sometimes also referred to as cometary tails . This was due to high pixel switching times of more than 20 ms compared to cathode ray tubes . Nowadays pixel response times of 2–8 ms are common, so the problem is no longer a problem.
- Bright, stationary image areas such as station logos tended to burn in , especially with plasma screens .
- Flat screens have a fixed pixel grid ( image resolution ; e.g. HD or Full HD); When displaying images that deviate from this grid, a conversion (scaling) must be carried out. In the past, this resulted in artifacts and a loss in image quality. Today the scaler chips are better and have more computing power.
- Plasma screens used to consume a lot of electricity compared to LCD technology.
100 Hz tube TV
As a result of falling prices for memory modules ( RAM ), 100 Hz televisions could be offered at an acceptable price from around 1988. By temporarily storing a video field and reading out the image information at twice the speed (100 Hertz instead of 50 Hertz), it was possible to eliminate the troubled flickering of the image, which is problematic with normal television sets (see also: 100 Hz technology ). However, the price for the now flicker-free 100 Hz picture was the complex deinterlacing technology required in all such television receivers , since the interlacing process could no longer be used analogously on the phosphor layer of the picture tube and in the eye of the beholder.
100, 200 and 600 Hz flat screen TVs
The 100 Hz technology that is used in flat screen televisions differs fundamentally from that in tube devices despite the identical name: A processor in the device calculates additional intermediate images, so that ultimately up to 100 images per second (with 100 Hz technology and Input signals with 25 frames per second) (see also motion interpolation ). This is intended to ensure smoother motion sequences , especially when there are fast movements in the picture (for example during sports broadcasts or action scenes ). The 200 Hz technology works in the same way and is intended to increase the advantages of the 100 Hz technology. What is criticized with these technologies, however, is that the intermediate image calculation can lead to image errors in the form of artifacts and image tremors. In addition, some viewers perceive the smoothing of movement to be unnatural (so-called “ soap opera effect ”). Some manufacturers offer plasma televisions with 600 Hz technology, but this is not a "real image frequency" of 600 Hz. Instead, a black image is inserted between the images (original and additionally calculated) and thus the number of 600 " Images "per second.
Digital image signal enhancement
Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL) presented a new type of digital television set under the name "Digivision" in the autumn of 1983. Based on an idea by the Yugoslav engineer Lubo Micic, Intermetall Freiburg had developed new types of integrated circuits over a period of 10 years, which for the first time enabled fully digital image processing on a television set. For this purpose, an analog video signal received in the television set was digitized, digitally improved, and then converted back into an analog signal for output via the still analog picture tube. In addition to digital image enhancement, it was also possible to digitally set various other parameters of a television set, such as image geometry or color rendering. Above all, the concept should guarantee constant image quality over the entire service life of the device.
Since the reception path was still analog and therefore error-prone as well as wasting resources, at that time intensive thought was given to digitizing the reception path.
Digital television reception
The first steps on the way to digital television reception were TV-SAT and D2-MAC . With this European 16: 9 format, the picture was still analogue, but the sound was already digitally multi-channel. Due to the relatively low distribution of receivers and high additional costs for production and broadcasting via satellite, distribution gradually came to an end after a trial phase, even with the high-resolution version HD-MAC, in the mid-1990s.
Since then, television has been digitized in two parallel, separate areas.
Televisions with digital processing as well as (digital) flat displays are considered standard today. Fully digital television sets - in addition to digital reception and digital internal processing, they also have a digital display - are called IDTV .
High definition television
Since the mid-2000s, higher-resolution flat screens for television reception have become increasingly popular. HD-capable devices (receivers, recorders, players) and program material produced in HD are required to enjoy sharper images. Most of the newer flat screens already offer built-in receivers for digital television reception from HDTV stations. The home system is usually supplemented with a Blu-Ray player , which can generally also play DVDs in better quality.
3D films have been in cinemas since the 1950s . The background to the development was the increasing popularity of home television. The film industry was looking for innovations in order to increase the attractiveness of the cinema for the audience again. For this purpose, polarization or color anaglyph methods were used. It was only with the advent of color television that the color anaglyph method could also be transferred to television. In the 1980s, the method was used for experimental 3D broadcasts in the third TV programs. The narrow bandwidth of the analogue PAL TV color channel reduced the necessary resolution and sharpness of the received 3D image so much that the spatial impression was not satisfactory and the tests were discontinued.
TV manufacturers worked on 3D playback devices for home theater using digital "high-definition" technology with the "Blu-ray disc" as the data carrier. In early 2010, several companies launched televisions and video projectors that can be used to watch 3D digital movies at home. Active 3D LCD shutter glasses are required for this, which synchronize with the fast image change cycle of the 3D screen (100 or 120 Hz) by means of infrared or radio signals. Some providers also offered end devices with passive polarization glasses . At the IFA 2010 , a cinema screen-sized display consisting of LED arrays was presented, which was circularly polarized by means of special foils .
Also at IFA 2010 several manufacturers showed 3D screens that do not require special glasses, so-called autostereoscopic displays . For this purpose, the screen is provided with vertical strips of microprisms - as with wobbly images - so that different images reach the two eyes. To do this, however, the viewer has to sit still; any movement can disturb the impression. Some providers can serve not just one line of sight, but several. At the CES trade fair in Las Vegas in January 2011, three companies presented commercially available, autostereoscopic 3D screens. Some of the devices presented were able to “operate” up to seven visual axes simultaneously with 3D images. The first commercial uses are in particular in the field of outdoor advertising, i. H. Digital signage , gaming as well as demanding PC applications such as CAD. The screen size varied between 56 cm (18 inches) and 165 cm (65 inches). Since July 2012, the Toshiba 55 Zl2g, the first television with this glasses-free 3D technology, has also been available outside of Japan as a high-volume device. The screen diagonal is 140 cm (55 inches); the resolution "4K" (four times more pixels than Full HD).
As with the first 3D video cameras (Fujifilm, Sony), glasses-free 3D technology - autostereoscopy - is already used in the portable Nintendo 3DS video game console , which, according to the manufacturer, should also enable viewing of 3D films on the palm-sized screen. As a precautionary measure, the manufacturer issued a health warning for children under six years of age and older people. Some ophthalmologists said that there was no scientific evidence that 3D images could be harmful.
Some of the 3D televisions and 3D Blu-ray players on offer can convert 2D television images to 3D in real time. The method is based e.g. B. ensure that the device detects what the camera was focused on during the recording. The 3D impression is not comparable to that of cinema films shot in digital stereo 3D. For example, the 3D effect is limited to the rear, and the events seem to take place in different image planes instead of appearing steplessly spatially.
The manufacturers of television sets warn in their manuals against excessive consumption of 3D films. This corresponds with the recommendation of doctors that children under ten years of age should not watch 3D films if possible, and children of school age should not watch 3D films for more than half an hour, because their sense of sight is only developing. Doctors fear permanent damage to spatial perception. Accordingly, children with visual defects such as strabismus are particularly susceptible . Further consequences of excessive 3D consumption can be malaise and nausea, in individual cases even an epileptic seizure in models with active 3D technology (shutter glasses).
There are 3D Blu-Ray players, digital satellite receivers and multimedia players as feeders for 3D material. All satellite receivers can reproduce the broadcast 3D signal, as they work in the SBS (side-by-side) process. Current multimedia hard drives play 3D Blu-Ray ISO files; This means that backup copies of 3D Blu-Ray discs can be played back without any problems.
SES Astra broadcast a 3D demo channel during IFA 2010, broadcasting reports and information from the International Consumer Electronics Fair.
There are now different 3D HD demo channels on several European TV satellites, all in side-by-side mode. The Sky pay TV chains in Great Britain and Germany each have a 3D event channel with sports, shows and movies.
After an initial “ hype ” about 3D films, which was triggered by the success of the movie Avatar - Aufbruch nach Pandora 2009, sales of 3D televisions fell again from 2012 onwards. According to the American market research institute NPD , 3D-capable televisions made up 23 percent of sales in 2012, compared to just eight percent in 2016. Several TV manufacturers had announced that they would phase out the production of 3D televisions. Sun offered Samsung from 2016 as well as LG and Sony in 2017, no 3D models more. As of the beginning of 2018, 3D televisions were still available from several manufacturers and brands traditionally geared towards the German market, such as Loewe , TechniSat and Metz . Instead of 3D, other new technologies such as Ultra HD and HDR have come to the fore.
TV set as media center and internet connection
In the course of the advancing digitization of technology, television receivers are growing more and more in the direction of fully functional all-in-one computers . For the mostly Asian manufacturers of conventional televisions, this means falling sales and years of consecutive losses.
Modern televisions have connections for USB storage devices and the most common memory cards and can play back data from these media, for example in DivX , Xvid , MP4 , Nero Digital or WMV9 format. In addition, they often have an Ethernet connection or WLAN antenna with which, for example, video streams can be received and played.
Modern devices often have an additional optical or coaxial digital output for optional sound output . With the appropriate digital cables, they can be connected to a suitably equipped AV receiver , which enables, among other things, surround sound reproduction.
About Wi-Fi Internet connection is realized often, which allows any website with an integrated web browser access or different provided by the television provider TV - Apps and Widgets to use. These applications can also be suitable for web radio , as a streaming client or as a DLNA client. Such television sets, which are designed to be increasingly interactive and equipped with Internet functions, are often referred to as smart TVs .
There is a clear trend towards convergence in technology of television receivers and personal computers. Existing computers and modern televisions can be connected to one another with the VGA and HDMI interfaces.
In terms of personal computers , too, there are more and more devices that have been made “suitable for living rooms” in the all-in-one construction in terms of design and media center software and which in this way provide the full range of functions of a television set and a PC. Another option for adding Smart TV functions to televisions is to connect so-called HDMI sticks via the existing HDMI interface.
Image resolution of the individual device generations in the German-speaking area
- Beginning of the television age in Germany with the first news broadcast on October 29, 1929. Resolution 30 lines at 12.5 frames per second.
- Black and white television: First official standard in 1935 with 180 lines without interlacing , from 1937 to 1945 with 441 lines in interlacing.
- Since 1952 (trial broadcasts) until today 625 lines (Germany) in the so-called " Gerber standard ", which corresponds to a maximum of 768 × 576 visible points.
- PAL system: Extension of the standard for color reproduction. The resolution is reduced from 5 MHz to a good 3 MHz in order to make room for the color signal. Introduced in Germany at the International Radio Exhibition Berlin (IFA) on August 25, 1967.
- From 1991, television sets with a landscape format screen (16: 9) were offered for the first time in Germany.
- HDTV system: HDTV television started on October 26, 2005. The ProSieben broadcaster in Munich also broadcast its programs (mostly upscaled from SD) in HDTV parallel to standard broadcasting. The maximum resolution was 1,920 × 1,080 points; this offer was discontinued in spring 2008. From the 2006 soccer World Cup in Germany, the pay-TV channel Premiere broadcast a regular HDTV program with “native” HD content (original 1920 × 1080 pixels) throughout.
- On December 3, 2007, Swiss television (SF) HD suisse , one of the first public broadcasters in Europe, was launched in the 720p standard.
- The first German television announced after the setting of the broadcast by ProSieben Full HDTV offering in the spring of 2008, a high-definition launch of the public broadcasters in the recommended by the EBU for HDTV standard 720p.
- The Austrian Broadcasting Corporation started regular HDTV broadcasting with 720p on Monday, June 2nd, 2008 for the European Football Championship in Austria / Switzerland in 2008 with ORF1-HD.
- Since the start of the Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver on February 12, 2010 (it was switched to HD on February 11), Das Erste and ZDF have broadcast their programs in parallel in 576i and 720p (native HD share around 25 percent).
- The Plus X Award Night on May 27, 2010 will be recorded for the first time in HDTV and stereo 3D. Anixe HD will broadcast the event throughout Europe and free to air from June 4th at night as a spatial HD experience in the "side-by-side" 3D standard (two 3D partial images next to each other 2: 1 compressed in one HDTV channel).
- Sky Deutschland (earlier premiere ) will be showing 3D television on a special “3D event channel” in the “side-by-side” 3D standard from October 2010. H. Free-to-air movie trailers and demo loops during the day and encrypted in-house productions, Bundesliga football or feature films in the evening.
Viewing distances and screen ergonomics
Although television and additional services such as the Internet can be displayed on television sets as well as on computer workstations and the two applications merge and can no longer be clearly separated, different recommendations apply here for the most favorable viewing distance.
Television also differs from reading in that the viewer or viewer (television) does not only focus on a small detail of a representation, but mainly on an overall picture. This is usually moved in television. In contrast to reading, a minimum viewing distance from the screen is recommended when watching TV. This minimum distance was originally (when there were only 4: 3 screens) based on the selected screen diagonal and resulted among other things from the otherwise annoying line structure of the image. Since the existence of 16: 9 screens and the predominantly existing digital television, minimum distances based on the height of the picture have been recommended. This avoids the otherwise necessary distinction between 4: 3 and 16: 9 screens. For normal definition television ( SDTV , PAL), minimum distances of six times the picture height are recommended, and for HDTV minimum distances of three to four times the picture height. This means that the human eye can, on the one hand, follow an entire picture impression without exertion while watching TV and, on the other hand, enjoy a cinema feeling (with HDTV).
On a computer workstation (optimized for reading) , other criteria apply, which are mainly based on the font size displayed. If such a workstation is used for television, the viewer should increase his distance from the screen or open a correspondingly smaller program window for the video display on the computer screen.
An alternative for the legibility of texts on the screen at the usual viewing distance from the television set is to display them in large fonts, as with teletext . Commonly formatted web pages require higher resolution and / or larger screens.
Non-seizure in Germany
According to Section 811, Paragraph 1, No. 1 of the German Code of Civil Procedure, a television set cannot be seized, even if there is a radio set next to it (BFH NJW 1990, 1871). The reason for this is that, without a television set, the debtor would be deprived of the possibility, which is fundamentally protected, to obtain information on world events from generally accessible sources. Exceptions can, however, occur in the context of the so-called exchange attachment.
Well-known manufacturers of television sets
In the past few decades, television production has increasingly shifted from Europe and North America to Southeast Asia (particularly South Korea and China). Even companies like Philips, which are still based in Europe, have their products manufactured in China. In particular, a number of German companies filed for bankruptcy.
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