|Type||optical storage medium|
|capacity||25 GB (single layer),
50 GB (dual layer),
100/128 GB (BDXL; 3 or 4 layers),
under laboratory conditions up to 500 GB (20 layers)
|lifespan||30 to 50 years (industry information)|
|size||Diameter 12 cm / 8 cm|
Data storage ,
high definition movies,
high definition music
|developer||Blu-ray Disc Association (2002)|
|successor||AD , Ultra HD Blu-ray|
The Blu-ray Disc (abbreviated BD ; colloquial abbreviation Blu-ray ) is a digital optical storage medium . It was developed as a high-definition successor to DVD and offers a significantly higher data rate and storage capacity than its predecessor. Films and music (pure audio) can therefore be stored on Blu-rays with a significantly higher resolution. Blu-ray disc players (colloquial abbreviation: Blu-ray players ) are usually backwards compatible with DVDs so that they can also be played. In the format war, BD prevailed over its competitors HD DVD and VMD . The production and further development of the competing HD DVD technology - including the devices - was discontinued in March 2008.
origin of the name
The name Blu-ray Disc is of English origin. Blue ray literally means blue ray, which refers to the violet light beam of the laser used (405 nm ). The spelling without an e in the name was chosen so that it could be entered as a distinctive brand name.
The specifications for the Blu-ray Disc were decided on February 19, 2002 by the nine companies in the Blu-ray Group - Panasonic , Pioneer , Philips , Sony , Thomson , LG Electronics , Hitachi , Sharp and Samsung ; this grouping joined at the end of January 2004 Dell and Hewlett-Packard and in mid-March 2005 Apple and Acer . After some of the suggestions for improvement brought in by Hewlett-Packard had been rejected, HP left the consortium in 2005 and switched to the HD-DVD warehouse. The end of the competition between the Blu-ray Disc and the HD DVD began on February 19, 2008, when Toshiba, the most important HD DVD developer, announced the discontinuation of the further development of the competing format.
In 2009, 450,000 BD players were sold in Germany, which corresponds to an increase of 150% compared to 2008. From 2010, some film titles were offered with a DVD and a Blu-ray in a set (DVD / Blu-ray bundle). Likewise, some editions of new 3D Blu-ray titles are linked to the purchase of a 3D Blu-ray player and / or 3D television, so that these are only available exclusively in combination for the time being (for example " The Chronicles of Narnia III" ).
In 2011, Blu-ray Discs generated sales of 806.80 million euros in Europe. In 2012, 11.55 million people in Germany had a Blu-ray or HD-DVD player. In February 2019, Samsung stopped manufacturing the players after the sharp decline in DVD and Blu-ray sales continued in 2018 as a result of video-on-demand and streaming.
|Distribution of video compression
in around 2,717 Blu-ray titles 2007–2011
|H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC||65.99%|
|Spread of audio data compression
on around 3,371 audio tracks on Blu-ray titles 2007–2011
|DTS-HD Master A.||53.19%|
|Dolby Digital (AC-3)||12.43%|
|2009||106.6||6.2||0.1 (HD-DVD + VHS)|
In 2010, around 2.9 million feature film or series products with an unlimited right of use (so-called electronic sell-through , EST ) were purchased from the Internet by downloading.
Source: Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien e. V.
Source: Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien e. V.
Samsung announced in February 2019 that it would no longer produce any new Blu-ray players. This should apply to both HD and 4K models. Possible reasons for this could be the ever better availability of content via streaming services , as well as the continuing increase in sales of DVDs.
The Blu-ray Disc is available in three versions: as read - only BD-ROM (comparable to DVD-ROM ), as a write- once version BD-R (comparable to DVD ± R ) and as rewritable BD-RE (comparable to DVD ± RW ).
In March 2013, BDs in sizes 25, 50 and 100 GB were available in stores.
TDK has succeeded in accommodating 200 GB on a six-layer disk, with the capacity of one layer increased to 33.3 GB. Pioneer announced in July 2008 that it had prototyped 400 GB on a 16-layer disk; A market-ready version was planned to be developed by 2010. Instead, the BDXL with 100 GB of storage was published in 2010. The company also announced versions with up to 1 TB storage capacity for 2013, but this could not be met. Sony and Panasonic have meanwhile developed the Archival Disc that made that project a reality.
Furthermore, the new phase change technology should enable twice as high a transmission rate ( data transfer rate ) of 72 Mbit / s when writing instead of the originally specified maximum simple 36 Mbit / s. An important part of the specification is copy protection in the form of a unique identification number. In addition, Blu-ray discs are particularly suitable for full HD videos, which thanks to their high resolution offer better quality than the PAL and NTSC systems, but also require correspondingly more storage space. BD players usually support the high definition AVCHD format first introduced by Panasonic and Sony .
The total data rate of Blu-ray video discs is limited to 53.95 Mbit / s. Of this, 40.00 Mbit / s is reserved for the pure video stream (in the form of MPEG-2 , VC-1 and AVC ), the remaining 13.95 Mbit / s for the sound tracks (in the form of Dolby Digital , Dolby Digital Plus , Dolby TrueHD , DTS , DTS-HD High Resolution Audio , DTS-HD Master Audio and Linear- PCM ).
Another innovation compared to the DVD is the reduced distance between the laser and the data carrier and the shorter wavelength (or different color) of the laser beam. Furthermore, the protective layer on the laser side is significantly thinner at 0.1 mm compared to 0.6 mm on the DVD. Due to the resulting greater susceptibility to scratches and dust, it was initially planned to offer the Blu-ray Disc only in a type of cassette (called a plug-in module or cartridge), similar to the MiniDisc at the time . Instead, however, a coating called " Durabis " was developed, which no longer makes the use of a cassette housing absolutely necessary.
laser spot diameter
|Sectional drawing of the
|CD||Wavelength: 780 nm
Numerical aperture: 0.45
Spot diameter: 2.1 µm Track
spacing: 1.6 µm
|DVD||Wavelength: 650 nm
Numerical aperture: 0.6
Spot diameter: 1.3 µm Track
spacing: 0.74 µm
|Blu-ray||Wavelength: 405 nm
Numerical aperture: 0.85
Spot diameter: 0.6 µm Track
spacing: 0.32 µm
The significantly higher data density and thus increased storage capacity is achieved through the following measures:
- the smaller wavelength of the laser beam compared to DVD: 405 nm compared to 650 nm (DVD) and 780 nm (CD): The minimum possible focus diameter is proportional to the wavelength. The development was only possible with the availability of such short-wave, inexpensive laser diodes.
- the higher numerical aperture (NA) of 0.85 compared to other optical drives , which can only be achieved with aspherical high-precision lenses: the higher the NA, the smaller the focus and the greater the solid angle the beam path to and from the data layer encompasses. The distance between the medium and the laser optics must be smaller, the protective layer is thinner. Thus, writing error and greater scattering will be reduced and it is possible to a Blu-ray Disc, for example, from metal or other stable , opaque materials combined with a thin transparent support layer to build, with considerably higher speeds than a disc of polycarbonate can be operated , which then results in higher transfer rates.
Technical data of the Sony SLD3237VF BDXL laser diode (exemplary):
- Diameter: 3.8 mm
- Optical output power: max. 200 mW ( CW ), max. 400 mW (pulsed, pulse length 30 ns at 50% duty cycle)
- Operating temperature range: 0–85 ° C
Values at 25 ° C:
- Type. Nominal power : 150 mW
- Threshold current : approx. 50 mA
- Operating current ( CW 150 mW): max. 260 mA
- Forward voltage : 5-7V
- Wavelength : 405 nm
- Beam angle (elliptical): 9 ° / 19 °
Video resolution on video players
Any content on a BD-ROM can be used. For playback on a Blu-ray video player (not a computer drive), the maximum resolution of the video material on the Blu-ray Disc may be 1920 × 1080 pixels at a maximum of 59.94 fields per second (interlace method ( i )). In the full-screen process ( p ) a maximum of 24 images per second can be achieved with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels, and up to 59.94 images per second with 1280 × 720 pixels.
|resolution||Frame rate||Aspect ratio|
|1920 × 1080||59.94i||16: 9|
|1920 × 1080||50i||16: 9|
|1920 × 1080||24p||16: 9|
|1920 × 1080||23.976p||16: 9|
|1440 × 1080||59.94i||16: 9 ( anamorphic )|
|1440 × 1080||50i||16: 9 (anamorphic)|
|1440 × 1080||24p||16: 9 (anamorphic)|
|1440 × 1080||23.976p||16: 9 (anamorphic)|
|1280 ×720||59.94p||16: 9|
|1280 ×720||50p||16: 9|
|1280 ×720||24p||16: 9|
|1280 ×720||23.976p||16: 9|
|720 × 480||59.94i||4: 3/16: 9 (anamorphic)|
|720 × 576||50i||4: 3/16: 9 (anamorphic)|
For the Blu-ray Disc, as for the HD DVD, the Advanced Access Content System (AACS) copy protection from the area of digital rights management is provided. There are programs that are illegal to sell in Germany that circumvent this copy protection. Since around 2010, some Blu-ray discs contain the Cinavia watermark in the sound track . Since February 1, 2012, all Blu-ray players sold must recognize this and switch off the sound or the picture after around 10 minutes. The use of VEIL copy protection was considered in 2006. In addition, BD + technology is used to check authorized playback and for decryption. Since BD + is constantly being developed, continuous updates of the player are necessary. At the moment, all copy protection measures of Blu-ray Discs, even though circumventing them is a criminal offense, are considered to have been nullified.
The largest producers of pre- recorded Blu-ray discs are Bertelsmann , Arvato , Cinram , Sony and Technicolor . The German specialist systems manufacturer Singulus Technologies manufactures automated Blu-ray production systems .
BD players may a. Produced by Denon , Daewoo , Funai , JVC , Kenwood , Lite-On , LG , Loewe , Marantz , Mitsubishi , Panasonic , Philips , Pioneer , Sharp , Sony, Samsung , Onkyo , Oppo , Toshiba and Yamaha . However, both Oppo and Samsung announced at the beginning of 2019 that they would stop producing BD players.
Sony's PlayStation 3 game console also has a BD drive. In addition to games, it can also play films of this format. The new Blu-ray Disc Standard 2.0 is now also possible thanks to a firmware update on the console, which, according to the manufacturer, makes the PlayStation 3 the first BD player to support this standard at all.
The PlayStation 4 , the successor to the PlayStation 3, is also able to play Blu-rays. The Xbox One , which was released at the end of 2013, also has a BD drive, the newer models Xbox One S and Xbox One X already have an Ultra HD Blu-ray drive.
Since 2011, 3D-capable Blu-ray players have also been increasingly produced.
The first recording device available outside of Japan is the Panasonic DMR-BW500, which is sold in Australia and France, where HDTV is broadcast via DVB variants. The French version allows the device-internal recording of the French television program on the built-in 500 GB hard disk, as well as after transcoding / compression, which can be received via two receivers specially designed for the " TNT HD system" (a system based on DVB-T ) Blu-ray discs and DVDs. It is also possible to copy DV videos. Blu-ray recorders available for the Japanese market cannot be used in Europe because they are broadcast there using ISDB , the copy protection Copy Once and the mains voltage . The first Blu-ray recorders with an integrated double HDTV satellite receiver and the ability to receive HD + reception have been announced for Germany in spring 2010 .
In addition to Blu-ray video players and recorders, many manufacturers also offer PC drives. There are read-only drives, combination drives consisting of CD / DVD burners and BD read drives, and Blu-ray burners for writing to BD-R and BD-RE blanks. Like DVD burners, the latter can be used both for storing data and for creating video BDs, which is of particular interest to owners of HD video cameras . Blu-ray discs that you have created yourself can now be played by most current Blu-ray players, provided the more compatible BDMV format (with start menu) is used - BDAV, the second format for end users, which only contains the video data without a menu not read properly by some devices.
Some BD drives can also play HD DVDs in addition to Blu-ray Disc.
All major film studios such as 20th Century Fox , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer , Sony Pictures Entertainment , Paramount , Universal Studios , The Walt Disney Company , Warner Bros. and Constantin Film release HD films on Blu-ray Disc.
Interactive application layer
As part of the Blu-ray Disc specification, an interactive application layer is also defined which, among other things, is intended to replace the previous DVD menu. This application layer is called BD-J and is programmed in a variant of Java that is based on a modification of the Multimedia Home Platform or GEM specification (Globally Executable MHP). With it it is possible to integrate interactive applications such as interactive films (choice of one of several storylines or film endings), overlays, games, web offers or additional multimedia information.
The specification "1 ×" corresponds to a data rate of 36 Mbit / s. The data is read about four times as fast as a DVD with the same rotation speed (once). Drives for use in film players are operated at up to 1.6 times this speed, i.e. 54 Mbit / s, whereby the maximum data rate of a content stream including all camera perspectives and sound tracks is limited to this value. The AV bit rate is limited to 48 Mbit / s. Drives for computer use (or for later game consoles ), however, already manage 8 times the speed (i.e. 288 Mbit / s; approx. 36 MB / s).
|Data rate||Write time for a Blu-ray Disc
(in minutes in CLV mode)
|Mbit / s||MByte / s||Single layer||Dual layer|
- Professional Disc for Data (PDD): professional version from Sony with more robust processing and a different file system; available in Japan since May 2004, discontinued in 2006.
- Professional Disc for Broadcast (PDB): professional version from Sony with more robust processing and a different file system, is used in XDCAM camcorders and recorders as a video and sound recording medium for the MPEG2-IMX format.
These variants do not correspond to the products for consumers. They are intended exclusively for professional use and were only produced in small numbers.
Stereoscopic variant (3D)
In December 2009, the Blu-ray Disc Association published a specification for stereoscopic videos that uses the MPEG-4 MVC standard, an extension of the MPEG-4 AVC standard that is already in use . Playback of corresponding 3D Blu-ray discs is also possible monoscopically on previous players that do not support stereoscopic video output.
In addition to the 12 cm diameter Blu-ray Disc, there is also an 8 cm Blu-ray Disc. The 8 cm version can store 7.5 GB as a single-layer BD-RE or BD-R. This reduced size is intended to be used in small cameras, among other things, and is currently used by Hitachi's DZ-BD7H and DZ-BD70.
The Mini-Blu-ray Disc is a red laser-based DVD with Blu-ray data structure and content, which is why the name BD-9 is also used, a mixture of BD (for Blu-ray Disc) and DVD-9 . These discs are aimed at the normal user who does not yet have a Blu-ray burner but already wants to play his films with a Blu-ray player. Although the disks have the same data structure, they cannot yet be provided with AACS encryption. The disks should rotate at least three times the speed to achieve a data rate of 30.24 Mbit / s, which is why they are not played back properly by many Blu-ray players (which are usually only designed for single speed).
Blu-ray small formats or versions with a special design, such as star, saw blade or heart shape, cannot be used with slot-in drives such as those built into the PlayStation 3 (large and slim version) . The use with a super slim version of the PlayStation 3 is again possible, since a top loader is used here instead of a slot-in drive.
As a medium for video and computer games
Blu-rays also serve as a storage medium for both video and computer games . The game consoles PlayStation 3 , PlayStation 4 and Xbox One have a Blu-ray drive and can use it to read films and games from Blu-ray discs. Nintendo's Wii U uses a special Blu-Ray format that does not allow you to play films or use double-layered media. Blu-ray discs as a medium for games are used on the one hand because of the higher memory requirements for high-quality textures and game graphics, but they also serve as indirect copy protection, since until the mass market of Blu-ray burners and blanks, illegal copying by home users only in can happen on a small scale. The Blu-ray can also be used for games in the PC sector, but has so far only been used by a few providers.
The Blu-ray specifications contain requirements for playback devices, which are summarized in so-called profiles.
|1.0||Initial||The profile defined when the Blu-ray Disc was presented. Secondary audio and video decoders are optional, as are local permanent storage and network connectivity.|
|1.1||Bonus view||The newer profile with the necessary secondary audio and video decoder for picture-in-picture. At least 256 MB of local permanent storage is required.|
|2.0||BD-Live||BD-Live requires at least two secondary decoders, 1 GB of local permanent storage for updates and content, and an Internet connection.|
|3.0||BD audio||an additional profile for pure BD-Audio players , free of all video and BD-J requirements|
|5.0||BD3D||Supports stereoscopic 3D content. The maximum data rate increases from 48 Mbps to 72 Mbps.|
|6.0||Ultra HD||Supports Ultra HD content.|
The memory required for BD-Live does not necessarily have to be built into the device, but can also be made available via a USB stick or a memory card . This method is particularly common with cheaper devices without a recording function.
Just as with DVD , a regional code is implemented on Blu-ray Disc , which is intended to prevent, for example, a Blu-ray Disc purchased in the USA from being used on European players. However, the codes are different from those of the DVD. In practice, many film production companies partially or completely forego an implementation of the regional code (e.g. Time Warner ). This means that at the moment around 70 percent of the films available on Blu-ray Disc have no regional restrictions.
|North and South America (excluding Greenland and French overseas territories ), Japan , Korea , Republic of China (Taiwan) , Hong Kong and Southeast Asia|
|Europe (including Greenland and French overseas territories, excluding Russia), Western Asia , Africa , Oceania , Australia|
|India , People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong), Russia , Central and South Asia|
Unlike the DVD region code, the Blu-ray region code on computers is only checked by the playback software, not by the drive or operating system. It is stored in a file in the player software or in the registry (in standalone players it is part of the firmware). Some Internet forums publish hacks to reset the Blu-ray region counter, and sometimes it is recommended to uninstall and reinstall the player.
A newer variant of the Blu-ray region code checks not only the region, but also the country code of the playback software or the player. But that means z. B. that - although the USA and Japan are both in Region A - some US discs cannot be played in Japan and vice versa, because the two countries have different country codes (Japan: 19024 [Hex: 4A50], USA: 21843 [ Hex: 5553]).
In addition to the extended interactive capabilities of BD-Live (programmability), which run transparently for the user, it is possible that usage profiles can be created without the knowledge of the user, which can then be transmitted from the player to the manufacturers via the Internet. Thus it is possible that the manufacturer of a Blu-ray receives, unnoticed by the user, statistics on how often a film (or parts of it) was played with which settings (language, subtitles, etc.). Privacy advocates see this as a problem, especially since the user is neither informed about this when purchasing nor does it have to consent to its use.
- Optical Disc Comparison - Comparison of CD, DVD, HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc
- Hartmut Gieselmann: Blue memory. Professional data backup of the next generation . In: c't . No. 6 , 2004, ISSN 0724-8679 , p. 196 ff . (deals with UDO and PDD and also shows relevant differences to MO and DVD-RAM).
- Hartmut Gieselmann: Burner in blue . In: c't . No. 15 , 2006, ISSN 0724-8679 , p. 114–121 (relevant differences to HD DVD with regard to the technical measures for data security).
- W. Wunderlich: Digital television HDTV, HDV, AVCHD for beginners and those switching . 1st edition. Hohen Neuendorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-023484-2 .
- blu-raydisc.com - Official website of the Blu-ray Disc Association (English)
- Application Definition Blu-ray Disc Format. (PDF; 1.5 MB) Blu-ray Disc Association, March 2005, accessed on June 1, 2016 (English).
- bluray-disc.de - Official website of the Blu-ray Group Germany
- Blu-ray Disc FAQ FAQ on the subject on Hardwarejournal.de
- The prefixes are used here for storage capacities in the decimal sense: 1 kB = 1000 B (Byte), 1 GB (GByte) = 1000 MB (MByte), analogous to the manufacturer's specifications.
- Specification available for BDXL: 128 GByte on a plastic disk at heise.de, June 26, 2010
- BDXL - Definition, Explanation & Meaning. Blulife GmbH & Co. KG, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- The Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc is coming. Heise Medien GmbH & Co. KG, May 13, 2015, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- General Info. (No longer available online.) Blu-ray Disc Association, archived from the original on May 30, 2016 ; accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- Format Specifications. Blu-ray Disc Association, accessed June 5, 2016 .
- FAQ: History and Association. Blu-ray Disc Association, accessed June 5, 2016 .
- Toshiba officially buries HD DVD. Heise Medien GmbH & Co. KG, February 19, 2008, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- DER SPIEGEL, 1/2010, p. 53
- The Blu-ray conquers the market. News from blu-rayler.de, accessed on January 18, 2013.
- heise.de from April 2019, MPAA report: Blu-Ray and DVD are giving way to streaming services , accessed on June 11, 2020.
- Blu-ray - Sales Quadrupled. John Mc Donald, February 8, 2010, accessed June 5, 2016 .
- Doubled Blu-ray sales bring another plus to the video industry. (PDF; 36 kB) Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV, February 10, 2011, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- Significant growth in the Blu-ray and Video on Demand (VoD) formats ensure record levels in the retail market. (PDF; 35 kB) Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV, February 9, 2012, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- The video market 2012. (PDF) Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV, p. 30 , archived from the original on June 12, 2013 ; accessed on September 3, 2018 .
- Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV The video market in 2015 (PDF; 1.4 MB), GfK on behalf of the FFA , page 27.
- Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV The Home Video Market in 2016 (PDF; 338 KB), GfK on behalf of the FFA , page 23.
- Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien eV The Home Video Market in 2017 (PDF; 2.5 MB), GfK on behalf of the FFA , page 37.
- heise online: Samsung no longer makes Blu-Ray players. Retrieved February 26, 2019 .
- Discontinued model. Accessed February 26, 2019 .
- Blanks → Blu-ray Pioneer Intros 128 GB Blu-ray Drive on heise.de, March 9, 2013
- Esther Shein: Pioneer Intros 128 GB Blu-ray Drive on informationweek.com, December 15, 2010
- Pioneer Intros 128 GB Blu-ray Drive. informationweek.com, December 15, 2010, accessed July 28, 2012 .
- Blu-ray Disc prototype with up to 1 TB: New Blu-ray Disc with capacities up to 1 TB on gamestar.de, December 12, 2008
- Optical Disc Archive G2: Sony's disc stack reaches 3.3 Tbytes and needs eight lasers - Golem.de . ( golem.de [accessed August 1, 2018]).
- The next-gen Blu-ray with 1TB storage from Sony announced. Webedia Gaming GmbH, March 10, 2014, accessed on June 5, 2016 .
- SLD3237VF, SLD3237VFR, 400 mW Output Blue-Violet Semiconductor Laser Diodes Support BDXL. (PDF; 169 kB) (No longer available online.) Sony Electronics, 2010, archived from the original on June 5, 2016 ; accessed on June 5, 2016 (English, data sheet): "Sony has now developed the industry's first 400 mW pulsed optical output laser diode"
- Gerald Himmelein: Big Brother Is Muting You. c't 12/2013.
- BD +: Avatar on Blu-ray: Copy protection BD + causes problems on www.golem.de, April 27, 2010
- BD +: Avatar with new copy protection: Numerous Blu-ray players need an update on www.verbübers-icher-online.de, April 27, 2010
- Scenepirat: Blu-ray copy protection Cinavia cracked. In: tarnkappe.info . May 26, 2014, accessed June 5, 2016 .
- BD players: List of current and upcoming Blu-ray players at www.blu-ray.com, January 4, 2008
- BD players also from Toshiba: Toshiba announces Blu-ray players , July 19, 2009
- SCEI.co.jp: Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Introduces Playstation 4 (English) ( Memento from February 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 386 kB)
- One for all: Microsoft introduces Xbox One. Heise online , May 21, 2013, accessed May 22, 2013 .
- First short test on 01net.com
- Panasonic: Two new Blu-ray recorders with HDTV receivers and hard drives
- 16x Blu-ray Disc Burner with SATA connector , LG Electronics
- 3D specifications for Blu-ray Discs are ready
- Blu-ray Disc Association Completes Ultra HD Blu-ray Specification and Releases New Logo. Business Wire, May 12, 2015, accessed May 17, 2015 .
- Steve May: 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray on course for Xmas launch, as final specification is confirmed. (No longer available online.) In: Inside CI. May 13, 2015, archived from the original on May 15, 2015 ; accessed on May 17, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- 8 cm Blu-ray Disc: World's First 8 cm BD / DVD Drive Supporting BD and DVD ( Memento of April 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) on av.hitachi.com
- Mini-Blu-ray Disc: Tutorial: Instructions for mini-Blu-ray Disc authoring by Hollydoy on HDTVTotal.com, August 19, 2007
- Profile: New Bluyray v2.0 spec makes the PS3 the most future-proof player , accessed January 25, 2008
- Whitepaper Blu-ray Disc http://www.blu-raydisc.com/assets/Downloadablefile/BD-ROM_Audio_Visual_Application_Format_Specifications-18780.pdf PDF file
- Blu-ray Disc License Office FAQ. Retrieved March 27, 2018 .
- Stop Blu-ray discs from phoning home with AnyDVD HD. On zdnet.com (English)