History of television

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Preliminary remark : Although a chronological narrative style predominates in the article History of television , it is primarily structured thematically. A chronological listing of the events can be found under television chronology . In addition, the following article does not present the technical innovations for each country separately. The article mainly deals with developments in German-speaking countries.


The image decomposition

Schematic representation of a Nipkow disk

As early as 1843 , Alexander Bain pointed out the possibility of scanning images point by point and line by line and transferring the brightness values ​​electrically, as well as the benefits of such a technique . The first usable implementation was invented by Paul Nipkow in 1883 . His electric telescope , with the help of a rotating disc with holes arranged in a spiral shape, divides images into light-dark signals or puts them back together again. He applied for a patent for this Nipkow disk, named after him, on January 6, 1884 . According to his ideas, the first television image transmissions arrive at the beginning of the 20th century. Nipkow is therefore called the inventor of the first practical implementation of television.

TV picture on a television with Nipkow disk (vertical line arrangement)
Memorial plaque on the house at Rognitzstrasse 9 in Berlin-Westend

Nipkow himself never realized his idea, there was no suitable amplification option at the time and the only known light-sensitive cell at that time, the selenium cell , was too sluggish for television broadcasts.

Electronic image decomposition and reproduction

In 1897 Ferdinand Braun and Jonathan Zenneck developed the cathode ray tube , also known as the "Braun tube". By means of an electron beam and its control by electrostatic deflection plates or electromagnetic coils, successive image points could be projected onto a glass pane coated with phosphor. The cathode ray tube found its first application in measuring equipment, for example in oscilloscopes . Continuously developed until the early 2000s, it formed the basis for displaying television images for a long time. In 1906 Max Dieckmann used a Braun tube to reproduce 20-line shadowy shadow images in the format 3 × 3 cm. In 1907 the Russian Boris Rosing succeeded in transmitting a shadowy television picture for the first time, for which he received a patent in many countries, including Germany. Even Campbell Swinton used 1,911 a cathode ray tube for image reproduction.

Vladimir Kosmich Sworykin's experiments led to the development of the iconoscope , the first usable image pickup tube . This was the first time that an electronic solution was available for the image decomposition process on the transmitter side. Sworykin, a student of Boris Rosing, applied for a patent for it in 1923.

In the literature it is reported several times that Dénes von Mihály transmitted simple images over several kilometers in 1919. It has not been proven whether he used an optomechanical or an electronic process to break down the image . All that is known is that he regarded Baird's method of dissecting images as a temporary solution. August Karolus developed the Telefunken Karolus picture telegraph named after him. His picture presentations, which he achieved with the help of the Kerr cell , which he improved , were based on the exploitation of the electro-optical Kerr effect . In 1925, Karolus succeeded in transferring images from Berlin to Leipzig.

All of these attempts had in common with the demonstrations made in the 1920s by John Logie Baird in Great Britain and Herbert E. Ives and Charles Francis Jenkins in the USA that mechanical image splitters were used. Baird had further developed Nipkow's invention into a more effective disc. On January 26, 1926, Baird hosted the world's first television screening in London. In 1927 he transmitted a television signal between Glasgow and London and on February 8, 1928, his television technology was already bridging the Atlantic with mechanical image decomposition . The BBC continued his experimental broadcasts in 1931 .

1926 experimented Kenjiro Takayanagi with Baird's kind of image decomposition, but used to play back the images a cathode ray tube . He mapped the previously recorded katakana character on a Braun tube. Philo Farnsworth achieved the first fully electronic transmission of images with cathode ray tubes on the transmitter and receiver side on September 7, 1927.

The Hungarian inventor Kálmán Tihanyi improved the sensitivity of the cathode ray tube and in 1928 he invented the radioscope , a completely electronic television system consisting of a camera, an image pickup tube, which was similar to Sworykin's iconoscope on the receiving side , and a television set.

The inventor Hugo Gernsback is watching a television broadcast. Illustration based on an original photo on the cover of Radio News from November 1928.

On May 11, 1928, the Hungarian Dénes von Mihály presented the first television broadcast in Germany in a small group in Berlin with his Telehor receiver . In the same year August Karolus also presented his television system at the 5th Great German Radio Exhibition in Berlin ; the reception image of the Telefunken prototype was 8 × 10 cm in size and had a resolution of around ten thousand pixels. With an image size of 4 × 4 cm and only 900 pixels, V. Mihálys Telehor delivered a significantly poorer image quality, but achieved a greater public response. The Telefunken prototype was not for sale, v. However, Mihály tried to sell his device. In view of the only hourly trial broadcasts on some Reichspost (DRP) stations, the rather poor picture quality, the high device prices and, above all, the global economic crisis that began in 1929 , this was a hopeless undertaking. Nevertheless, August 31, 1928 is considered the start date of television in Germany.

At the end of 1929 electronics hobbyists published the first building instructions for television receivers, some of which could even receive picture and sound; These handicrafts had only limited practical use, since the experimental station Witzleben only broadcast television programs with sound from 1934, the British BBC since 1931. The British magazine "Practical Television" , which has been published since 1930, has around 3000 owners in its March 1934 issue of self-made ones TVs and around 1000 TV owners in the UK alone.

In the early 1930s, there was practically only mechanical television . The cathode ray tube was initially considered too complicated and too expensive. However, it was hoped that a fully electronic television system would provide a much higher image resolution. In Germany, Manfred von Ardenne presented fully electronic television with a cathode ray tube to the public for the first time at the German Radio Exhibition in 1931. This is considered to be the world premiere of electronic television.

Even after 1937, mechanical television systems still competed with electronic television. In particular, the televisions with mirror screws from TeKaDe were able to impress with their great brightness and image sharpness. It was only after the number of lines was increased to 441 lines that the mechanical television became uneconomical to manufacture. Only the British company Scophony built mechanical televisions for 405 lines or 441 lines for the USA until the beginning of the Second World War .

In 1929 the radio station Witzleben began with the first regular test broadcasts via the Berlin radio tower . The first television images were transmitted to the Post's television laboratory for testing purposes on March 8th. Shortly afterwards, the Reichspost stipulated the first German television standard: the image was broken down into 30 lines, which corresponds to 1200 pixels, with 12.5 image changes per second. The standard was continuously adapted to technical developments:

year Number of lines Picture change
in Hz
1929 30th 12.5
1931 48 25th
1932 90 25th
1934 180 25th
1936 375 25th
1937 441 25 *
* Introduction of the interlace procedure, 25 image changes or 50 fields of 220½ lines each

Shortly before the start of the first test broadcasts in Germany, John Logie Baird started a regular test program on BBC channels in the UK during the night . The television standard there was 30 lines up to 1935, vertically with an aspect ratio of 3: 7 at 12.5 frames per second. The age of high definition television began in Great Britain in 1936. It was initially broadcast on a trial basis, alternating weekly with the Bairds 240-line system and the 405-line system of the Marconi Company . As early as February 1937, a system with 405 lines and 25 frames per second with an aspect ratio of initially 5: 4 was established. In 1950 the aspect ratio was changed to 4: 3. As television standard A, this remained the sole standard in Great Britain until 1965; from 1965 it was initially supplemented by the European CCIR standard with 625 lines, and from 1985 it was completely replaced. The television program was discontinued after the outbreak of war in 1939 and only resumed in 1946.

"Television in the military hospital", March 1942, German propaganda image
Mirror television from 1937 in operation with a still image from the Paul Nipkow television station

There were also television test programs in other European countries. In the Netherlands, on a private initiative, there was a regular television test service in the British standard with 30 lines from 1934, which remained in operation until the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. In 1949 television was introduced there based on the CCIR standard with 625 lines.

Test television broadcasts were also carried out in France. By 1937, a high-resolution television system ready for series production had been developed, which initially broadcasted with 437 lines. After the occupation of Paris by the Wehrmacht, the transmitter on the Eiffel Tower was confiscated and converted to the German standard with 441 lines. The program could be received with French receivers without any problems. A program was broadcast mainly for wounded soldiers in hospitals in Paris and the surrounding area. France was the only country in Europe where television could be received without interruption even during the war. In Germany, broadcasts had to be stopped after a bomb attack in 1944. From 1948, the broadcast was continued with 800 lines from the Eiffel Tower.

In the Soviet Union , public test broadcasts in the cities of Leningrad and Moscow also began as early as the 1930s, mostly with technology purchased in the USA. The development was only slowed down during the war, after the war it was broadcast again. The television set "Leningrad" was well-known, based on the model of the "Volksfernseher" E1 developed in Germany, which was manufactured in the Soviet occupation zone and later in the GDR for the Soviet market.

In the USA, there were already numerous companies involved in the development of television as early as the 1920s. By 1929 every company had its own standards in which test broadcasts were carried out. The image resolutions were between 24 lines for Charles Francis Jenkins and 30, 45, up to 60 lines. Because of the constant changes and improvements, a standard could not be established for a long time. From 1938 on, trial broadcasts began with resolutions between 441 lines and more than 700 lines. In 1942, the National Television System Committee ( NTSC ) agreed on the standard that is still used today, with 525 lines and 30 frames per second. NTSC does not refer to the color system that did not exist at the time, but is the name of the standardization committee that later also decided on the color standard.

After the war, Germany and most of the neighboring countries switched to the Gerber standard, which is still used today, with 625 lines at 25 frames per second. Exceptions were France with 819 lines at first - it was not completely changed over to 625 lines until 1980, and Great Britain with 405 lines initially, then with 625 lines from 1965. The technical key data for the resolution and the aspect ratio as well as the frame rate of the television picture have remained unchanged for more than half a century.

Development into a mass medium from 1950

TV participants in the FRG
year Attendees
1952 300
1955 100,000
1957 1,000,000
1959 2,000,000
1960 3,500,000
1964 7,000,000

At the beginning of 1951 there were already ten million TV viewers in the USA, 600,000 in Great Britain and 4,000 in France. The medium was not yet a competitor for radio , especially since the program was limited to two hours a day.

Experimental set-up for television broadcasts at Grundig in 1951, left the film scanner with a Mechau projector, immediately to the right of the test imager .
Family watching TV, ca.1958

The number of television participants increased rapidly worldwide in the following years: in 1952 there were already 15 million participants in the USA, 1.45 million in Great Britain, just under 11,000 in France and around 300 in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The first regular German television program of the post-war period was broadcast in September and October 1951 by the Grundig factory transmitter in Fürth . In the GDR, broadcasting began on December 21, 1952. About 60 devices were ready to receive, exclusively in (East) Berlin. In West Germany ( FRG ) four days later, on December 25, 1952, the " NWDR television" went on air.

The first major event to be televised directly was the coronation of Elizabeth II on June 2, 1953. The number of television viewers of 27 million in Britain - out of a population of 36 million at the time - exceeded that of the 11 million radio listeners. The number of television licenses rose from just under 1.5 million in 1952 to over 3 million in 1954. Since Germany and France also broadcast the event, this was the first cross-border European live broadcast.

In 1955 there were 100,000 devices in the FRG and in 1957 the first million television viewers were reached. In the period that followed, the television set became a prestige object . The breakthrough to the mass medium came in West Germany towards the end of the 1950s: in 1959 5,000 devices were sold a day, at the end of the year there were two million, in 1960 almost 3.5 million participants. In 1961 there were finally well over 100 million television viewers in 26 countries around the world.

Both television manufacturers and customers were a thorn in the side of the depth of the tube sets because they hardly matched the interior design of households in the 1950s. In the National Radio Show in London in 1959, a television was presented that could be "hung on the wall like a picture frame". In fact, the device looked relatively flat because it was not tapered from front to back. However, the depth was considerable and the manufacturer therefore advised that the device should only be hung in the corners of rooms.

In 1964 there were already 7 million television viewers in the FRG. Until the early 1970s, the number of television viewers rose by almost 20 percent per year.

Recording in the studio of Südwestfunk, Baden-Baden 1964

Not only the public but also politicians became increasingly interested in television: Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer tried to introduce a privately organized television set under the federal government, the Deutschland-Fernsehen-GmbH . Adenauer was unable to establish himself with his idea of ​​establishing broadcasting as the “political means of leadership of the respective federal government”; With the "television judgment" of the Federal Constitutional Court of February 28, 1961, the autonomy of the states in broadcasting matters was confirmed. As an alternative, another public-law corporation was founded: The Second German Television ( ZDF ), based in Mainz , began broadcasting on April 1, 1963. The ARD set up five regional third television programs between 1964 and 1969 .

The radio provided the increasingly attractive range of programs of television the technical innovation of the Bilingual contrary. FM stereophony was introduced for VHF transmitters ( FM ) in Germany at the 25th Great German Radio Exhibition in Berlin on August 30, 1963 .

Color television

Color television was introduced in the Federal Republic of Germany on August 25, 1967. The first color television test image had already been broadcast in 1963. On October 3, 1969, the German television broadcasting service of the GDR started broadcasting its second color program. While the PAL color television system was chosen in West Germany, SECAM was introduced as the color television system in East Germany .

First Telefunken color television PAL Color 708 (1967)

First experiments with color television pictures were based on the division of the color spectrum into basic colors; John Logie Baird used a Nipkow disk with "spiral arms" for the colors red, green and blue ( RGB ) in the late 1920s . The process was improved in 1930 by E. Andersen and taken up by the research institute of the Deutsche Reichspost in 1935 when they began to develop a color television process. A bisequential process was used which was based on the Kinemacolor two-color film and enabled a two-color image with 2 × 90 lines and 25 rasters per second. The Second World War interrupted German color television development.

From June 1951, the first color television program in the world was broadcast in New York by Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), which was also based on the bisequential method. It was discontinued after a few months because it had various serious disadvantages: Among other things, the system was incompatible with black and white television, the frame rate had to be increased from 60 Hz to 140 Hz in order to avoid flickering; this in turn required a reduction in resolution due to the limited frequency bandwidth.

Color television systems


In order to avoid further costly failures, a technically more efficient solution was developed with considerable effort by the specially founded National Television Systems Committee (NTSC). The committee consisted of scientists from all well-known electronics companies. It developed the NTSC standard, which was declared binding on December 23, 1953. It is characterized by three properties:

  • Compatibility : Color television programs can be viewed with black and white receivers without any loss of sharpness.
  • Recompatibility : Black and white TV programs can be viewed in color TV receivers as well as with black and white receivers.
  • Unchanged bandwidth : The additional color information is incorporated into the previous black and white signal and therefore does not require any additional space on the frequency band.

One of the decisive disadvantages of NTSC is the unstable color signal, which can lead to "drastic color shifts [...], for example from blue to green" even during transmission. The cause is the link between the phase of the color subcarrier and the color. Mockers therefore interpret the abbreviation NTSC as "Never the Same Color". Therefore, every NTSC television has a so-called "Tint" control (Tint for "color tone"), with which the color reproduction can be adjusted.

Around 1955 the idea of ​​introducing a uniform color television system across Europe emerged. In a conference convened by the Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications (CCIR) it was found that the different line standards posed considerable problems in terms of standardization: in the USA a 525 line standard was used, in England 405 lines, in France 819 and in the other European countries 625 lines.

With black and white television, only one signal was sent: a brightness signal. The development of color television was based on the idea of ​​continuing to send only a single signal. In the studio area, however, RGB signals are used , which theoretically could also be sent; to do this, however, each of the three colors would have had to be modulated onto its own wave, which required an enormous bandwidth and was uneconomical. The color television systems NTSC , SECAM and PAL are used to reduce the three RGB signals to a single signal to be transmitted.


In France, the SECAM color television system was developed with massive support from the French government. SECAM stands for Séquentiel couleur à mémoire . Due to technical inadequacies, it had to be revised several times; the variants SECAM 2, SECAM 3, SECAM 3a and finally SECAM 3b were created. While the PAL inventor Walter Bruch saw the need for constant modifications as a conceptual weakness of SECAM, the then WDR television engineer Franz Josef In der Smitten said: “I admired the brilliant achievements of the French engineers, who have succeeded time and again, SECAM -System to further improve [...] ".


In Germany, Walter Bruch studied NTSC and SECAM at Telefunken in Hanover in order to learn from the errors in these systems. Based on NTSC, he designed the color television system PAL ( Phase Alternating Line , "phase change per line"). The main difference was an integrated color compensation, which prevented color distortion; the "PAL process [is] the most stable process compared with NTSC and SECAM". In the test phase, PAL signals could not be recorded magnetically; all television programs from that time were broadcast live. Feature films were projected using optical systems (16 mm / 35 mm film transmitter and slide bar) and then broadcast live from this projection.

The first industrially manufactured recording systems for PAL signals came from the US company Radio Corporation of America (RCA). The systems were first delivered at the end of 1966, about three quarters of a year after the prototype had been successfully tested at the Cologne Carnival.

General development

Walter Bruch behind the "Olympic cannon" at the 1936 Olympic Games

At the conference of Study Group XI of the CCIR on the standardization of the color television system, held in Vienna from March 24 to April 7, 1965, in which representatives from 39 countries took part, 21 spoke in favor of the French SECAM, 11 for the West German PAL and 7 for the US NTSC color television system. The USA and the Federal Republic of Germany planned to combine their systems PAL and NTSC under the designation QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). France and the Soviet Union tentatively agreed to use the SECAM procedure.

The first live color television broadcasts were transmitted to the broadcasting house by cable. The WDR received the first color broadcasting car in the spring of 1967, at that time only NDR and ZDF owned other mobile broadcasting studios. Until the 1970s, not all state broadcasters had color transmission cars; instead there was a pool that was shared by some television companies. Between 1967 and 1970, television in the Federal Republic of Germany switched to color.

The television picture was reproduced by a color picture tube based on a patent filed by Manfred von Ardenne in 1931 : three microscopic strips of closely spaced phosphors in the three primary colors were arranged in such a way that, when scanned with an electron beam, they complemented each other to form white light; The patent did not contain a method for the separate control of the three colors.

Color television is based on the idea of ​​replacing the colored lights from photographic projection using the Raphael Eduard Liesegang 1896 hole-straightening raster method with electron beams. This early shadow mask tube was further developed by Werner Flechsig into a shadow mask color picture tube and patented in 1938. AN Goldsmith and Harold B. Law from the American RCA brought further improvements to the process . The breakthrough came with the competition; For the first time, CBS-Hydron constructed a color tube like the one that was finally used on German post-war television from the 1960s.

Significant improvements in image sharpness and color reproduction were achieved by using a shadow mask tube with elongated slots. With this method, all three electron guns are combined side by side (inline) in one system, instead of in a triangle, as was previously the case with Delta tubes. Such inline tubes were offered in Germany from 1972. The Sony company went its own way in the late 1960s with the Trinitron tube, in which, unlike the shadow mask, the projection onto the color strips is separated with wires attached to a tenter frame. Due to this strong frame, a Trinitron tube is always significantly heavier than an inline tube with a slit mask.

Major international sports events were of particular importance for the development of television as a mass medium; this had already happened in 1936 at the games of the XI. Olympiad shown in Berlin, where a direct television broadcast took place for the first time . With the television broadcasts from the XVIII. The 1964 Olympics in Tokyo made it possible for the first time to carry out current global reporting via the Syncom 3 satellite.

In 1971 the first ultrasonic remote controls were demonstrated. Nordmende presented wireless "remote listening" via infrared headphones. In 1981 stereo sound was introduced to television.

Forms of transmission

Satellite television

The beginnings of satellite television are in 1962, when for the first time television programs between the United States (ground station Andover) and France via the satellite Telstar were transferred. On April 6, 1965, the first commercially used communications satellite was put into operation; the Intelsat I F1 ("Early Bird") enabled the transmission of long distance calls, telex and television programs.

In efforts to use a geostationary position discovered by Herman Potočnik and published as early as 1928 for direct television reception in Europe , the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) in Geneva in 1977 decided on a worldwide radio satellite plan . As of January 1, 1979, an agreement with a term of 15 years was in effect, which provided that each country could broadcast five TV programs or several radio programs directly from the satellite to the participants. Each country had to share the position with up to eight other countries (and thus satellites). For each geostationary position, 40 transponders were envisaged with a transponder spacing through frequency overlap of 19.18 MHz to 27 MHz. The Direct Broadcasting Satellites (DBS) should be positioned at an altitude of 36,000 km with a distance of 6 ° (approx. 4000 km) above the equator. A common orbit position (19 ° west) was assigned to Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, Austria and Switzerland. The so-called overspill is one of the characteristics of satellite technology ; this describes the overlapping of the areas in which the beams ( directional rays ) can be received. This phenomenon is advantageous for the end user, who can receive programs from neighboring countries with his satellite reception system, but it posed copyright and sovereign problems in the state plans for satellite television.

SES ASTRA SA (Société Européenne des Satellites) was founded in Luxembourg at a time when the rapidly advancing technical development in LNB technology was allowing private households to use relatively handy satellite dishes with a diameter of just 1.2 meters to receive direct reception from underperforming ( 20 watts per transponder) to practice telecommunications satellites. It was a logical conclusion of the private SES that through the use of modern satellites with an EIRP of 51 dBW, the necessary dish size could be reduced to a format of 75 cm and less that was really suitable for the masses for the first time. Due to bad planning by the state, the transmission power of Astra's competitor TV-SAT had been set at 230 watts per TV channel due to years of delay, which only allowed four TV channels, while Astra's lean concept provided for 16 TV channels with full ecliptic protection.

Due to the failure of TV-Sat 1 on November 21, 1987, the time bonus of the state direct satellite was lost and the way for the market success of the Astra 1A launched on December 11, 1988 was clear. TV-Sat 2 started on August 8, 1989, but too late, as the private project Astra had beaten the billion-dollar state TV-Sat project.

Cable television

Under the administration of the Federal Post Minister Christian Schwarz-Schilling , the aim was not satellite technology, but area-wide cabling of all households with broadband coaxial cable networks. The broadband communication cable network laid by the Deutsche Bundespost in 1983 enabled the simultaneous transmission of a maximum of 29 television programs and 24 stereo radio programs using the frequency range up to 300 MHz. The "wired radio", the cable television , was initially tested in four pilot projects , which were tendered as model tests in Ludwigshafen am Rhein , Munich , Dortmund and West Berlin . The Ludwigshafen cable pilot project also marked the birth of private television , which began broadcasting on January 1, 1984 with PKS (today Sat.1 ).

Video recorder

In 1954, the RCA launched a device that could record and play back television images; this "world's first video device" devoured 21,600 meters of magnetic tape per hour and did not yet work according to the helical-track recording method used today , but was based on patents from the German companies Telefunken and Loewe . In conjunction with additional licenses from an American manufacturer of professional equipment, the company Ampex , managed the Japanese companies Sony and JVC (Japan Victor Company), the clunky and expensive professional magnetic tape recording and playback devices to a manageable and cost-effective mass production of consumer electronics to do. The recording of television broadcasts meant the release of time dependencies of fixed broadcast dates. At the radio exhibition in 1971, Philips and Grundig presented the first video cassette recorders based on the VCR system .

Deregulation, convergence, digitization and interactivity

From the 1980s onwards there were massive changes in the German media landscape. Harbingers of development were the so-called new media , such as the based on fiber optic technology BIGFON , the "Broadband, integrated fiber optic telecommunications local network," the satellite pilot project satellite TV , on-screen text (BTX) and teletext (VTX ) and cable television , although it was merely a matter of "new distribution techniques, different forms of organization and larger program quantities".

With the introduction of the dual broadcasting system as a result of the 4th broadcasting judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court of November 4, 1986, there was a paradigm shift that has decisively shaped the German media landscape to this day. From the mid-1980s onwards, terrestrial frequencies were also awarded to private providers. Here are FM radio frequencies in the range of 100 to 104MHz in the field of aeronautical radio navigation service used, which had been released by the Geneva Convention of the 1984th

In addition to the deregulation of the German media landscape, there were also signs of technical changes. After the digitalization of broadcasting via DVB-S (satellite), DVB-C (cable) and the DSR , ADR and DVB standards , which were set back in 1999, began in the 1990s , the nationwide introduction of terrestrial digital broadcasting DVB- T and the DAB digital radio standard in preparation for the future discontinuation of analog transmission .

A digitization of conventional analog telecommunications networks based on IP technology in the so-called Next Generation Network (NGN) enabled another technological revolution in broadcasting. In addition to the transmission of telephony and Internet data, a digitized telecommunications network also enables the transmission of digital television signals ( triple play ). The transmission via Internet protocol also includes a return channel, which is why Internet TV or IPTV as well as P2PTV as interactive television are possible for the first time without a separate return channel. In addition, there is no restriction to a certain number of available channels; the Internet as a transport channel also enables new parallel television products such as media libraries or on-demand television.


Teletext (also known as teletext or teletext) is a process in which text and block graphics characters are transmitted. Because the names are identical, there may be confusion with the screen text system. The first teletext was broadcast on Japanese television. Initially, only 1/6 of the population of Japan could receive and display teletext.

Television museums

Since June 1, 2006, there has been the Berlin Film Museum in the Filmhaus at Potsdamer Platz with a focus on television films.

Because of the complex, multi-part television technology , its story contains elements of many other technologies, particularly radio , film , radio and space technology . The history of television is associated not only with technical, but also with social and political developments. It's part of media history .

Chief Postal Director Gerhart Goebel has written two extensive books on the historical chronology of radio and television technology.

See also


  • Albert Abramson and Herwig Walitsch: The history of television . ISBN 3-7705-3740-8 .
  • Knut Hickethier, with the assistance of Peter Hoff: History of German television . Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01319-7 .
  • Erwin Reiss: We send happiness. Television under fascism . Berlin 1979, ISBN 3-88520-020-1 .
  • Leif Kramp: television memory machine. Volume 1: Television as a factor in social memory. Volume 2: Problems and Potentials of Television Heritage Management in Germany and North America . Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-05-004977-9 .
  • Klaus Forster and Thomas Knieper: 50 years of television broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany ; In: Anne Cooper-Chen (Ed.): Global Entertainment Media: Content, Audiences, Issues . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah 2005, pp. 59-79.
  • Jeff Kisseloff: The Box. An Oral History of Television, 1920-1961 . Viking / Penguin Books, New York 1995, ISBN 0-670-86470-6
  • RW Burns : Television. An international history of the formative years Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1998, ISBN 978-0-85296-914-4
  • Albert Abramson : The History of Television, 1880 to 1941 McFarland & Company, Inc. 2009, ISBN 978-0-7864-4086-3
  • Albert Abramson and Christopher H. Sterling : The History of Television, 1942 to 2000 McFarland & Company, Inc. 2007, ISBN 978-0-7864-3243-1

Web links

Commons : History of Television  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

supporting documents

  1. heise.de: 125 years ago: The "television" principle is patented
  2. RW Burns, "The Birth of Television" . In: British television: The formative years, Science Museum, London. Page 15, ISBN 978-08634-1079-6 .
  3. Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz, "Mihalys Tele-Cinema" , In: Magazin Television of the Royal Television Society , April 1929, p. 59
  4. BBC History John Logie Baird (1888-1946), BBC publications
  5. Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television, publications of the NHK ( memento of the original from January 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.nhk.or.jp
  6. Virginio Cantoni, Gabriele Falciasecca, Giuseppe Pelosi: Storia delle telecomunicazioni Volume 1. Firenze University Press. Florence , 2011. p. 446. ISBN 978-88645-3243-1 .
  7. Finally television! , He is a young German physicist from Hamburg who launched television in 1930 - Manfred von Ardenne , DRadio Wissen from December 14, 2014, accessed on December 14, 2014
  8. Deutschlandfunk: "We didn't see too much" , asked on March 8, 2009
  9. a b Development of television licenses in Great Britain
  10. cf. z. B. "Nürnberger Nachrichten" v. September 28, 1951, p. 3: "Television premiere in Fürth"; The station broadcast a feature film every day at 11 a.m., 2 p.m. and 4 p.m., which could be received in Nuremberg and Fürth.
  11. Research of the German Broadcasting Archive on a television report Archivlink ( Memento of the original from June 21, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.dra.de
  12. 50 facts about The Queen's Coronation , Official Website of the British Monarchy, May 25, 2003, accessed on August 22, 2012.
  13. The Times : Television Sets to Hang on Wall , August 26, 1959. The manufacturer of the flat screen television is not mentioned in this article.
  14. The history of German broadcasting up to 1950 on the website of the HiFi Museum
  15. The history of television in Germany up to 1945 on the pages of the television museum