Berlin radio tower
Berlin radio tower
|Place:||Exhibition center in Berlin-Westend|
|Use:||Telecommunication tower , restaurant , observation tower|
|Accessibility:||Transmission tower open to the public|
|Owner :||State of Berlin|
|Construction time :||1924-1926|
|Operating time:||since 1926|
|Last renovation (tower) :||1987|
|Total height :||146.78 m|
|Total mass :||600 t|
|Data on the transmission system|
|Last modification (antenna) :||1989|
|Waveband :||FM transmitter|
|Send types:||Mobile land radio , BOS radio , amateur radio service|
The Berlin radio tower is a 146.7 meter high steel lattice tower on the exhibition grounds in Berlin 's Westend district and one of the city's landmarks . The broadcast tower designed by the architect Heinrich Straumer was put into operation in 1926 for the 3rd Great German Radio Exhibition in Berlin and is 43 years older than the Berlin TV tower on Alexanderplatz . The radio tower has been a listed building since 1966 .
The publicly accessible building has a tower restaurant at a height of 50 meters and a viewing area at the top of the tower. He has a prominent position in the history of radio in Germany . Radio broadcasts were broadcast from the Berlin radio tower from 1926 onwards and television test broadcasts from 1929 initially on a trial basis . The world's first television broadcast also came from the Berlin radio tower in 1932. In the course of the 1970s and 1980s, its importance as a broadcast tower decreased and since 1989 it has only broadcast amateur , country and BOS radio . The Berlin radio tower is owned by the State of Berlin , the restaurant and the viewing platform are operated by Capital Catering GmbH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Messe Berlin GmbH .
The radio tower was part of the concept for the building of the house of the German radio industry. In the summer of 1924, the syndic of the Verband der Radio-Industrie e. V., Berthold Cohn, the situation like this:
“Of course, the question of antennas and antenna masts is of particular importance for a house in the radio industry. […] While three masts were originally envisaged, the idea has now been approached of installing a single, particularly high antenna tower. [...] This 120 m high radio tower will be the highest tower in the city of Berlin and, as a symbol of the German radio industry, will protrude far beyond the exhibition grounds and the entire city. "
The plans for a pure transmission tower were based on the demand for an antenna carrier in Witzleben , which was to replace the Vox-Haus and Berlin II transmitters on Magdeburger Platz . The history of radio in Germany only began in the 1920s and the construction of adequate transmission towers was considered pioneering work due to a lack of experience. Since the altitude of the Witzleben area was only overlooked by the Kreuzberg , it was sufficient to hang the antenna about 120-130 meters above the ground. As a result, the tower to be planned was fixed at a height of 138 meters. The original idea of building a steel tower with an aluminum ring was discarded.
However, the then director of the Berlin Exhibition Center, Alfred Schick, pleaded for the expansion of the radio system from a pure transmitter to an observation tower with a restaurant floor. The actual idea for the tower restaurant came from the journalist Karl Vetter , who was also one of the directors of the exhibition office at the time. Vetter later also prevented the demolition of the radio tower, which was discussed after the antenna mast was technically obsolete.
When the construction contract was awarded on November 8, 1924, construction could begin after the end of the 1st Great German Radio Exhibition, which lasted from December 4 to 14, 1924. First, a 120 meter high steel lattice mast was erected to act as a crane. The tower itself was erected until April 15, 1925. Then the further expansion followed, which dragged on until the spring of 1926. The building inspection finally took place on April 26th of the same year.
The architect Straumer was responsible for the design of the two visitor platforms (viewing and restaurant floors) and the reception and waiting room on the ground. The engineers Heiligenthal and Behrens were in charge of construction . In addition to the requirement to guarantee complete operational safety, the tower construction project was also exposed to enormous cost pressure. In order to keep costs as low as possible, decorative decorative elements such as those in the Eiffel Tower were dispensed with. This reduced the mass, but also made the structure appear delicate. All technical details were presented in a total of 140 construction drawings. The interior of the restaurant was designed by the Wiener Werkstätte artist Victor Lurjé. On the paneling of the Caucasian walnut Lurje created elaborate inlaid , the ceiling was in ribs stuck executed.
The construction work could be completed without fatal accidents.
Four days before the opening, soldering caused a smoldering fire that reached the restaurant roof of the radio tower through the elevator shaft. Since the wooden structure was not yet completely clad with zinc , strong winds could fan the fire. However, the construction workers were able to successfully fight the fire with handheld fire extinguishers before the fire brigade arrived, thus averting a disaster.
Construction costs and opening
The construction costs of the Berlin radio tower were originally set at 180,000 marks . For this, on December 8, 1924, the non-profit Berliner Messe-Aufbau GmbH placed an order with Hein, Lehmann & Co. , an iron construction, bridge and signal construction company. Due to the enlargement of the foundations and the mutual, underground anchoring as well as other changes, additional costs arose. Deviating from the order, the upper staircase was given a more favorable gradient, the railing was raised, the diagonals reinforced and horizontal bracing was subsequently laid. The final account resulted in construction costs of 203,660 marks - adjusted for purchasing power in today's currency around 778,000 euros.
On September 3, 1926, the Berlin radio tower was officially opened and opened to the public in the presence of Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Külz , the politicians Johannes Bell and Heinrich Haslinde , the then Mayor of Berlin Gustav Böß and around 1000 invited guests. The chairman of the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft , the high-frequency technician and chief spokesman for the Berliner Funkstunde, Hans Bredow , recited a dedication poem, the first lines of which were as follows:
“High blue from the Berlin sky
Is a steel tower built.
Steep in the Berlin air,
Illuminated by the last summer scent.
In the new Berlin in the Berlin wind
The very youngest child in Berlin !
Berlin years will go: the
storm will come, the tower will stand! "
Like the Eiffel Tower during the World Exhibition in Paris in 1889, the building was an attraction of the 3rd Great German Radio Exhibition in Berlin. The evening edition of the Berliner Tageblatt wrote on the opening day:
“The radio tower, Berlin's new landmark, was opened to traffic today. It was a solemn hour, simple in its outer framework, but significant in the history of the Reich capital, in the development of German broadcasting. [...] "
At 138 meters, the Berlin radio tower was also the first and therefore the highest broadcast and observation tower in the German Empire of the Weimar Republic .
Operation in the first few years
The Berlin Carl Flohr AG installed the first elevator system up to the viewing platform. With a lifting height of 120 meters, it was the highest electric lift in the German Reich . The 20 HP (14.7 kW) electric motor was located at the top of the tower and allowed up to ten people to travel to the observation deck. The speed was relatively low at 1.5 meters per second and was increased to 2.5 meters per second a short time later.
Since in the 1920s the Berlin waterworks could only pump the water up to a building height of about 40 meters, two high-pressure centrifugal pumps had to be installed in the tower house to supply the radio tower with water .
The restaurant floor was originally operated by the low-pressure steam heating system that was tapped from the radio exhibition hall. This ensured a comfortable room temperature even in severe frost. A remote thermometer installed showed the heater on the boiler whether the firing output was sufficient. The ventilation system was also comfortable for the time. The 600 cubic meters of air could be completely circulated five times an hour via two electric centrifugal fans. Vents in the restaurant roof ensured that the cigar smoke did not collect in the dining room. Since the tower should not only be heated, but also cooled, there was initially a 1.3 HP cooling machine in the attic of the restaurant. Concentrated salt water was used as the coolant, which was transported through a pipe system to the kitchen and the counter.
In the years 1926–1930, a Telefunken transmitter was installed as a reserve, as well as two C. Lorenz AG transmitters . Since the power of the transmitters was limited to a maximum of 1.5 kW at the time , additional transmitters had to be set up by changing frequencies. This made frequent changes to the antennas necessary. Albert Einstein's speech on August 22, 1930 at the opening of the 7th German radio display and phono show at the foot of the radio tower, which was broadcast on the radio, became famous .
From its opening until 1928, the Berlin radio tower recorded 500,000 visitors. In the same year , the German engineer and inventor Engelbert Zaschka climbed the top platform of the Berlin radio tower with the first folding car, the Zaschka three-wheeler .
Similar to the Eiffel Tower , the radio tower served as an oversized advertising medium in its early years. On the side facing the Messedamm, on the entrance side of the radio tower restaurant, 4,000 light bulbs formed a matrix display advertising surface that could either display static or continuous lettering.
Fire disaster and wartime
On August 19, 1935, around 8:30 p.m., a fire broke out in the old exhibition hall 4. The fire spread under the influence of the wind. The installation of the radio tower suffered a short circuit due to the development of heat; but also the east side of the restaurant area caught fire. At the same time, the wind kept the fire in check, preventing worse damage. The radio hall burned down completely. At around 10 p.m., the fire fighters who had moved in with 50 fire engines were able to circle the fire and prevent worse. Since the fire broke out after the fair had closed and only the stand personnel were in Hall 4 at this time, only three people were killed in this major fire.
After the fire, the 80-meter-high makeshift mast was removed and a simple inclined wire antenna was stretched from the top of the radio tower to a bushing insulator on the roof of the transmitter building. With this measure, the Witzleben broadcaster was hardly available in the city center of Berlin , and no longer at all in the eastern part . However, when the Tegel station went into operation, the transmitter had become dispensable.
During the Second World War it served as a military warning and observation post. During the Battle of Berlin in 1945 he was hit by a grenade and the tower restaurant was damaged again. Another hit at a junction of a supporting pillar at a height of 38 meters left the tower practically standing on only three pillars.
After the end of the fighting, the damage was repaired by installing 7.2 tons of steel and 800 kilograms of screws, thus saving the radio tower from the demolition that was considered at the time. The angular ticket booth at the foot of the tower was replaced by a rounded new building with a glass facade.
post war period
In the post-war period , the Berlin radio tower was given a new top to accommodate the NWDR's VHF antennas . This increased it by twelve meters to a total height of 150 meters. At the same time, yellow warning lights were installed on the tip to provide orientation for the Berlin Airlift aircraft when approaching Tempelhof Airport . During the Berlin blockade in 1948/1949 , the radio tower served as a guide for the cherry bombers . The lights turned 25 times per minute and could be seen up to 60 kilometers away due to their 3000 watt output. Since all wired communication routes ran through the territory of the Soviet occupation zone , in 1948 the British occupying forces tried to establish a radio link to West Berlin from Bocksberg in the Harz Mountains , 177 kilometers away, to the Berlin radio tower.
The tower restaurant reopened in 1950. Berlin television was operational from October 1, 1951, and daily broadcasting from the post studio in Tempelhof began at 7 p.m. on October 29 of the same year . The television signal was broadcast by a one kilowatt (kW) transmitter on the top of the radio tower with a quadruple butterfly antenna. The sound transmitter power was 0.25 kW. The installation received additional antennas for television and radio programs and also served the radio service of the fire brigade and taxi radio. In 1952, the ARD began to broadcast its program from the radio tower. For the fundamental renovation of the building in 1953, the entire tower structure was freed from rust and the old paint with the help of a sandblasting fan. In 1958, the system was reinforced by a Siemens transmitter with outputs of 10 or 2 kilowatts.
Since the 1960s
For the 35th anniversary in 1961, the radio tower was placed under monument protection. However, its importance as a transmission tower decreased in the following decades, as new transmission towers such as the transmitter in Britz were built in Berlin . On May 15, 1963, radio and television broadcasting in the radio tower was stopped. Since this year the SFB has been using a 230 meter high transmitter mast on Scholzplatz . The telecommunications tower on the Schäferberg was completed just one year later . Since then, the radio tower is only Berlin's fourth tallest building .
The tower received a new elevator in 1964, with which the trip to the top took only 34 seconds. The repainting carried out in the same year required five tons of paint. While in December 1966, the resumption of FM transmission operation followed with the new frequency 98.2 MHz for the SFB4 called guest workers program. In 1973, the regular broadcasting operations at the radio tower were finally stopped and the corresponding frequency was also taken over to Scholzplatz. From then on, the radio tower only served as an operating reserve. A comprehensive renovation was carried out in 1987 on the occasion of Berlin 's 750th anniversary . The dismantling of the transmitter at the top of the radio tower in 1989 reduced its height from 150.06 to 146.78 meters; the era of the radio tower as a transmission tower ended for good. Today it only serves as a relay station for non-public land radio services.
From 1967 to 1997 the German Broadcasting Museum was located at the foot of the tower . On March 26, 1999, the Berlin Motorbike Days were opened by a campaign by motorcycle acrobat Christian Pfeiffer . He drove up the 287 steps towards the restaurant with his special machine. In 2007 the radio tower was nominated for the title of Historic Landmark of Civil Engineering in Germany .
During the renovation break in summer 2011, the lighting in the tower was switched to economical and low-maintenance LED technology. In the summer of 2012, the radio tower was closed for nine weeks due to renovation work. By then, a total of more than 17 million guests had visited the radio tower. Viewed over the past few decades, the number of visitors has declined significantly. While around 136,000 visitors to the tower were counted in 1995, only around 60,000 guests a year climbed its viewing platform in the early 2000s.
Location and surroundings
The Berlin Radio Tower is in the eastern courtyard area of 26 halls and 550,000 sqm of exhibition space comprehensive exhibition center in the district of Westend . The western inner courtyard is a partially greened area of 10,000 m², which is known as the summer garden and is based on a design by architects Hans Poelzig and Martin Wagner for the 1931 German Building Exhibition. The summer garden is one of the most important garden architectural designs of the 20th century.
Hall 17 is to the north of the tower, to the south is Hall 12 and to the west is the Palais am Funkturm and the George C. Marshall House , both of which were built in the 1950s based on plans by Bruno Grimmek and are also listed buildings . To the north is the radio tower lounge, a nearly 300 m² multifunctional conference room.
To the east of the tower, separated by Messedamm, is the International Congress Center (ICC). To the south runs the radio tower triangle named after the structure , which connects the city expressway with the AVUS ( A 115 ).
The 146.78 meter high Berlin radio tower stands on a foundation with a square cross-section and an edge length of 24.5 meters. The four inclined foundation bases are also square and each have an edge length of 5.7 meters. The elevator shaft runs inside the tower, which is around four meters wide at the level of the restaurant and tapers to 2.4 meters up to the observation floor.
Two areas of the radio tower are open to the public: the restaurant and the viewing platform. The cantilevered restaurant floor with strongly outwardly sloping windows at a height of 51.65 meters is located above the simple kitchen floor for commercial purposes at 48.12 meters. The structure thus forms a clear contrast to the tapering steel lattice shaft. The restaurant floor has an edge length of 15 meters and is covered by a protruding roof with an edge length of 18.7 meters. The kitchen floor does not protrude that far and is 9.1 meters long in cross-section. After its restoration and conversion, the restaurant offers space for 116 guests on over 200 m² of floor space - it was originally designed for 180 people.
A closed, 4.4-meter-wide viewing platform in the form of a lantern is available at a height of 121.5 meters for the view . Above this is the open-air platform at 124 meters, which protrudes slightly over the pulpit with a width of 7.9 meters and is barred for safety reasons. Above that there is a smaller maintenance platform with the antenna carrier as a conclusion. There is space for around 45 people in the public viewing area. In good weather conditions you can see about 30 kilometers from the radio tower.
400 tons of steel were installed above the ground. With all the installations, the tower , which was founded on Brandenburg sand , has a mass of 600 tons. The foundation weighs in at 220 tons. Each of the four corner pillars can withstand a pressure of 300 tons and a pull of 100 tons. In storms, the tip can reach up to 38 centimeters. An influx of visitors that could increase the total mass by another 40 tons was statically taken into account, as was wind pressure of the equivalent of 105 tons. Originally 1216 light bulbs traced the outline of the tower at night.
At the beginning of the tower there was an electrically operated spotlight with a mirror diameter of 60 centimeters and an output of 3000 watts. It was powered by a one-third HP electric motor and could be driven at 25 revolutions per minute. In clear night weather it could be seen up to 60 kilometers away and at that time served as a signpost for arriving and departing air traffic.
The Berlin radio tower is the only observation tower in the world to have its four feet connected to the concrete foundation using porcelain insulators . Horn-like flashover spark gaps are arranged on these porcelain feet , which establish an automatic grounding and thus protect against the risk of lightning. In addition, the structure was connected to the water pipe network at two points by an earth ring.
The isolators were manufactured by the Königlich-Prussische Porzellan-Manufaktur (KPM) and each withstand a pressure of 1400 tons. It has been proven that the isolation of the radio tower was a requirement of the Telegraphisches Reichsamt, which considered electrical grounding to be necessary for every antenna . So the porcelain insulators had to be subsequently placed under the feet of the radio tower. However, the insulating function was thwarted by the central shaft of the tower, in which the elevator leads to the restaurant and the platform, as well as the supply lines. This isolation principle therefore turned out to be a technical error in retrospect.
Elevator and stairs
The radio-controlled elevator system from 1962, last renovated by Flohr-Otis in 1990 , can carry up to eight people or 750 kilograms. The lift running through the center of the steel framework transports passengers up to the platform at a height of 135 meters. It travels at a speed of 4 meters per second and is equipped with a viewing glass front. A 1.3-meter-wide staircase in 610 steps leads around the elevator from the base to the visitor platform. For safety reasons, only the 287 steps up to the restaurant floor are open to visitors.
The Berlin radio tower is assigned to the architectural style of early modernism . Since the Berlin of the 1920s (" Golden Twenties ") was able to compete with Paris , a structural comparison with the Eiffel Tower , which is also a steel framework construction, is obvious .
The Paris Eiffel Tower played a decisive role model function for the construction of steel lattice towers, also for the Berlin radio tower. However, this is not only half as high, but also uses a far less close-meshed latticework than its French counterpart, which makes it over 16 times lighter. The entire footprint of the radio tower would almost correspond to that of a single one of the four pylons of the Eiffel Tower. In a direct comparison, it is also remarkable that the Berlin radio tower has a ratio of edge length to total height of around 1: 6, whereas the Eiffel Tower has a ratio of 1: 2.6.
In contrast to the Eiffel Tower, its lines in the side profile are not curved, but straight. This more contemporary interpretation has resulted in a minimalist further development with an economical use of materials, the shape of which follows the necessity of the construction even more closely .
Media and society
The Berlin radio tower quickly became a symbol of Berlin in the 1930s, and since it wrote German radio and worldwide television history , it also became a symbol of the emerging media technology era . As early as its inauguration in 1926, the writer Hans Brennert called the radio tower an "Iron Roland of the new Berlin" and with this reference to the famous Bremen Roland already assigned it the function of a new Berlin landmark.
Despite the destruction of its transmission systems in 1935, the National Socialists also used the “Berlin Eiffel Tower” as a symbol of technical progress, at the feet of which they presented the people's receiver and the first television sets , which in turn served as propaganda instruments. The name "Langer Lulatsch " in Berlin vernacular for the radio tower, which was in use until the 1970s, is still used in the media and used by tourism advertising, even if this name is said to have become unusual among locals. Some Berlin-based companies used the symbolic power of the building as an advertising medium.
The strong symbolic character was largely lost in the course of the decades and after German reunification - also accelerated by the construction of the Berlin television tower, which was more than twice as high in the eastern part at the end of the 1960s, and its political de-ideologization - together with the declining importance of the radio tower as a transmission tower. This development is also reflected in the appreciation of the radio tower in Germany on postage stamps: The building is depicted there a total of ten times, for the first time in 1953 in the series Berlin Buildings by Deutsche Post Berlin and for the last time in 1987 in a motif for the 750th anniversary of the city, where the tower can be seen in the city silhouette with other Berlin buildings. Nevertheless, the radio tower has been preserved as a landmark and was often mentioned in connection with the Berlin Exhibition Center or events that took place there. The designation “Messegelände am Funkturm” or “Messegelände under the Funkturm” first appeared in 1927 and established itself as a fixed term and synonym for the Berlin trade fair, which is still used today.
Radio and television significance and broadcasting operations
Since the radio tower built for the medium-wave transmitter Berlin-Witzleben with its comparatively low height could not deliver the necessary power, an additional 80-meter-high transmission mast was built about 160 meters beyond the Messedamm - on the current site of the congress center - in parallel was available before completion of the radio tower. Another 120 meter high mast held the antenna before the radio tower was erected. With the construction of the radio tower, the mast on the current location of the radio tower was converted into its construction crane and even became part of its skeleton. For this reason, the radio tower was able to start broadcasting on the medium wave frequency 520.8 kHz even before its official opening on September 25, 1925. A ten meter wide and 68 meter long multiple T antenna made of five wires was suspended between the two transmission towers at a distance of 50 meters from the radio tower . This construction, which was state-of-the-art at the time, did not quite meet the expectations placed on the transmission capabilities, but it remained in place until the radio exhibition hall caught fire in 1935. Although the transmission power had been doubled compared to the transmitter on Magdeburger Platz, the range of the transmitter was worse, especially to the east, so that from 1929 an additional transmitter was operated in Boxhagener Straße .
There were two main reasons why the radio tower did not meet the expectations placed on the transmission power despite the costly workaround with the second transmission mast. On the one hand, despite its porcelain insulators, it was electrically grounded both by the elevator leading to the platforms and by the supply lines leading up to it . On the other hand, its fundamental number happened to correspond to the electromagnetic wavelength of the emitted high-frequency signal .
While the broadcast as medium wave transmitter was unsatisfactory, the broadcast of VHF from the Berlin radio tower worked perfectly. In 1929, two round antennas were installed on the top of the tower as a test arrangement for broadcasting the television program. On the night of March 9, 1929, the radio tower broadcast a TV picture from 11:10 p.m. to 12:30 a.m. for testing purposes, still without sound. The first VHF television broadcast took place in 1932. On March 22, 1935, an additional antenna on top of the tower broadcast the world's first regular television program. It was the TV station "Paul Nipkow" of the German TV broadcaster , then broadcast with 180 screen lines.
Technical and non-fiction literature
- Karl Vetter , Berlin fair office (ed.): The Berlin radio tower. Words and pictures to become and work. On the occasion of his consecration on September 3, 1926 . Exhibition office, Berlin 1926 ( ).
- Hugo Meise: The landmark of Berlin. The inn between heaven and earth . Otto Elsner, Berlin 1927.
- Archives for the postal and telecommunications system . Vol. 25, No. 5/6 (September), Bonn 1973, pp. 668-671 and 778-794, .
- Archives for the postal and telecommunications system . 29 vol., No. 5 (September), Bonn 1977, pp. 392-421, .
- Berlin exhibitions (ed.): The Berlin radio tower . Self-distribution, 1957.
- Jürgen Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . Freund, Berlin 1976, ISBN 3-921532-04-3 .
- Messe Berlin GmbH (Hrsg.): 65 years of the radio tower - a landmark does not go into retirement . For the 65th birthday of the radio tower. Berlin 1991.
- Jürgen Mudra: From antenna mast to landmark. Berlin radio tower turns 70! In: Funkamateur 6/1996, , pp. 972-973.
- Gerd Klawitter: 100 years of radio technology in Germany Radio stations around Berlin . Science and technology, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-89685-500-X .
- Harald Lutz: The isolated Berlin radio tower . In: Funkamateur 10/2003, , pp. 996-997.
- Harald Lutz: radio transmission systems. Radio towers, masts, antennas . Siebel, Baden-Baden 2005, ISBN 3-88180-645-8 , pp. 22-26.
- Klaus Breitkopf: The radio tower starts broadcasting . In: Klaus Breitkopf (Hrsg.): Rundfunk. Fascination with radio . Hüthig, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 3-7785-3986-8 , pp. 14-16 ( online at: lehmanns.de , PDF).
- Ingrid Schneider: Three under the radio tower . Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart 1968
- The radio tower - Berlin's landmark on the exhibition grounds . Documentary, Germany 2009, 88 minutes
- Berlin radio tower. In: Structurae
- Entry in the Berlin State Monument List
- Website Capital Catering GmbH (Messe Berlin GmbH) operator of the radio tower restaurant
- berlin.de: radio tower .
- Berlin radio tower in operation . In: Kalenderblatt.de
- Information and pictures about the Berlin radio tower with a historical station table
- The Berlin radio tower. A landmark of Berlin. Witzleben broadcasting station, radio tower
- The summer garden on 100 years of landscape architecture
Radio broadcasts and films
- Jens Brüning : The long Lulatsch . Broadcast in: Deutschlandfunk , September 3, 2009
- Birgit Wolske: Mysterious Places - The Radio Tower . Film in: RBB , first broadcast on November 25, 2008
- Ingrid Nowel: Berlin: the new capital: Architecture and Art, History and Literature . DuMont, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-7701-5577-7 , p. 292
- tower: facts and figures ( Memento from February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 3, 2015
- Der Deutschen Rundfunk , No. 30, July 27, 1924, p. 1662
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- Berlin exhibitions (ed.): The Berlin radio tower . P. 9
- Walther Kiaulehn : Berlin. Fate of a cosmopolitan city . C. H. Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-41634-9 , p. 30
- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 13
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- Mudra: From antenna mast to landmark. Berlin radio tower turns 70! P. 972
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- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 19
- Invoice from Hein, Lehmann & Co. Actiengesellschaft to Messegesellschaft Berlin dated June 25, 1926, Kom.Nr. 431/24
- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 26
- Gerd Klawitter (ed.): 100 years of radio technology in Germany . Volume 2, Verlag Wissenschaft und Technik, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89685-511-5 , p. 131.
- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 8
- Quoted from Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 7
- 65 years of the radio tower - a landmark is not going into retirement . P. 2
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- Breitkopf: Rundfunk. Fascination with radio . P. 16
- Sound document by Albert Einstein , accessed on July 7, 2013
- 65 years of the radio tower - a landmark is not going into retirement . P. 3
- Not according to my plans . In: Der Spiegel . No. 6 , 1950 ( online ).
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- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 58
- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . Pp. 59/60
- The Berlin radio tower / restoration and changed face ( memento from February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: funkturm-messeberlin.de , accessed on December 1, 2014
- First attempt radio link BRD / West Berlin . In: Bayern-Online.com , accessed on July 9, 2013
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- Gerd Klawitter (ed.): 100 years of radio technology in Germany . Volume 1. Funk Verlag B. Hein, 3rd edition 2004, ISBN 3-936124-65-5 , p. 243.
- Harald Lutz: The isolated Berlin radio tower . Funkamateur, H. 10/2003, pp. 996-997
- b-like-berlin.de: The radio tower is shrinking ( Memento from March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on December 3, 2014)
- Wheels on and under the radio tower . In: Berliner Zeitung , March 26, 1999, accessed on July 17, 2013 ( picture of the campaign )
- radio tower celebrates and feasts . In: n-tv .de , September 13, 2011, accessed on August 6, 2013
- tower closed for nine weeks . In: Berliner Zeitung . July 9, 2012, accessed July 6, 2013
- Mudra: From antenna mast to landmark. Berlin radio tower turns 70! P. 973
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- Markus Sebastian Braun (ed.), Haubrich, Hoffmann, Meuser, van Uffelen: Berlin. The architecture guide . Braun Publishing, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-03768-051-3 , p. 119.
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- Berlin radio tower closed for ten weeks . ( Memento from July 10, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) In: RBB Online . July 8, 2013, accessed July 8, 2013
- Long Lulatsch. In: The time . September 3, 1976, accessed July 9, 2013
- Michaela Frankl: The "Lange Lulatsch" is fifty . In: Berlin '76. The year in the rearview mirror. Reports and pictures of people and events , Berlin 1976, pp. 170–177. The usage in parlance at the time particularly confirms this statement, because it is aimed at Berliners: “And who doesn't know the warm feeling for the 'long Lulatsch' when you see it again after the holiday weeks of the Berlin abstinence? “(Ibid., P. 176). Further evidence: "And exactly 1216 light bulbs beautify the 'long Lulatsch' at night." (Ibid.); "In the final battle for Berlin, however, the 'long Lulatsch' had a hard time, the entire structure almost threatened to collapse." (Ibid., P. 177)
- pictures "Eiffel Tower Berlin" or "Langer Lulatsch" - The Berlin radio tower . In: n-tv.de , accessed on October 22, 2012
- Holger Wild: Kose-Muckel . In: Die Welt , July 17, 2000
- Exhibition grounds under the radio tower (Messe Berlin) . In: Berlin.de , accessed on May 22, 2013
- The Berlin radio tower. A landmark of Berlin. In: Welt-der-alten-Radios.de , accessed on July 9, 2013
- Dobberke: How to become a landmark: 1926 to today, a chronicle of the Berlin radio tower . P. 15