Frequency band

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A frequency band denotes frequency ranges, i.e. partial ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum of the electromagnetic waves used for technical communication .

Classifications according to frequency , wavelength or use are common. Various designations for the frequency bands are in use internationally, the limits of which have often been determined arbitrarily according to the current state of knowledge in high frequency physics. In a new standardization by the IEEE , the frequency bands are systematically divided according to the different properties of the frequencies with consequently logarithmically increasing band size. In some cases, however, traditional frequency band designations are still used in the literature, which are specified in the following tables.

Radio frequencies


Comparison of the frequency bands
Frequency bands by wavelength
engl. Abbr. English name German abbrev. German
Frequency range wavelength technical use
ELEVEN Extremely low frequency NF Low frequency 3-30 Hz 100-10mm Schumann response
SLF Super low frequency NF Low frequency 30-300 Hz 10-1 mm Power grid , (formerly) submarine communication up to a depth of 300 m
ULF Ultra low frequency NF Low frequency 0.3-3 kHz 1000-100 km
VLF Very low frequency SLW Low frequency, longest waves , myriameter waves 3-30 kHz 100-10 km Submarine communication up to 30 m depth, heart rate monitors
LF Low frequency LW Long waves , kilometer waves 30-300 kHz 10-1 km Long wave broadcasting , time signal transmitters / radio clocks , terrestrial navigation , amateur radio service
MF Medium Frequency MW Medium waves , hectometer waves 0.3-3 MHz 1000-100 m Medium wave radio , partly short wave radio , partly border wave , military aeronautical radio (partly), avalanche search devices , amateur radio service
HF High frequency KW Short waves , decameter waves 3-30 MHz 100-10 m partly shortwave radio , partly border wave , amateur radio service , RFID
VHF Very high frequency VHF Ultra-short waves , meter waves 30-300 MHz 10-1 m Television , radio navigation , aeronautical radio , VHF radio , DAB + , DVB-C , radar , BOS radio , amateur radio service , marine radio , AIS
UHF Ultra high frequency µW UHF frequency band , decimeter waves 0.3-3 GHz 10-1 dm TV , microwave oven , WLAN , Bluetooth , DVB-T , DVB-T2 , DVB-C , DAB + , LTE
SHF Super high frequency   Centimeter waves 3-30 GHz 10-1 cm Radar , directional radio , satellite broadcasting , WLAN , RTLS , short range devices , amateur radio service , electron spin resonance spectroscopy (EPR)
EHF Extremely high frequency   Millimeter waves 30-300 GHz 10-1 mm Radar , radio relay , amateur radio service , wireless gigabit
Limit of the spectrum regulated in accordance with the "Frequency Band Allocation Plan " of the International Telecommunication Union ( VO Funk ).
    IR Infrared radiation 0.3-385 THz 1000-0.78 µm Temperature measurement , amateur radio service
FIR Far Infrared FIR Far infrared / terahertz radiation 0.3-20 THz 1000-15 µm Safety technology, material testing
LWIR / TIR Long Wavelength Infrared /
Thermal Infrared
  long wave infrared /
thermal infrared
20-37.5 THz 15-8 µm
MWIR Mid Wavelength Infrared     37.5-100 THz 8-3 µm
SWIR Short Wavelength Infrared   Short wave infrared 100-214 THz 3-1.4 µm
NIR Near Infrared   Near infrared 100-385 THz 3.0-0.78 µm Photoelectric barriers , remote controls , fiber optics , IrDA
VIS Visible light   visible light 385-750 THz 780-400 nm Lighting, fiber optics


  • Electrical lines that are fed with low-frequency technical alternating currents are very poor emitters due to their short length compared to the wavelength (several 1000 km!). However, due to the high number of turns and very massive magnetic coupling (soft iron or ferrite core), good energy transfer is possible in the transformer .
  • The transition from Hertzian waves (wavelengths between 10 km and 1 cm) to infrared radiation is u. a. shaped by the type of detection. Hertzian waves are detected by antennas that deliver a high frequency . Infrared (and higher frequencies) through its thermal effect or by ionization of molecules and atoms detected.


Abbreviations are usually used for the radio frequency ranges above 30 MHz. These broadcast bands are designated with Roman numerals from I to V. The band limits are defined in various sources and international agreements. Due to historical reasons, these frequency data sometimes differ from one another. Whether the respective frequency range can be used for broadcasting at all and is actually used again differs from country to country.

Terrestrial broadcasting bands and their designations at the ITU and CEPT

Terrestrial broadcasting bands (frequencies in MHz)
Volume I. Volume II Volume III Volume IV Volume V 1.5 GHz band
41-68 87.5-100 162-230 470-582 582-960 - ST61 footnote to Annex 1
47-68 87.5-108 174-240 - - 1452-1492 WI95revMA02 footnote to Annex 2 Chapter 2.2.3
- - - - - 1452-1479.5 MA02
- - 174-230 470-582 582-862 - GE06 Annex 2 Chapter 1.1.2
47-68 87.5-108 174-230 470-582 582-960 - ITU-R V.431-7 Table 3 (for ITU Region 1)

OIRT band

In addition to the bands I to V provided by the ITU for broadcasting, there is also the so-called OIRT band . This has been used for a long time by some member countries of the OIRT in Eastern Europe to broadcast FM radio. It ranges from 65.9 MHz to 73.1 MHz and overlaps from 65.9 MHz to 68 MHz with radio band I. Today it is only used in a few countries (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) .

Japanese VHF broadcast band

In Japan the FM band ranges from 76 to 90 MHz; the immediately following Japanese television band I ranges from 90 to 108 MHz (three analog channels).

1.5 GHz band ("L-band")

Above band V, the 1.5 GHz band - the so-called L band - is intended for terrestrial broadcasting applications. The above nomenclature has not yet been updated using Roman numerals. Presumably because this frequency range has only been planned for terrestrial broadcasting on a European level ( CEPT ) and not on a larger, international level ( ITU ). The term "L-band" is not an official name for this radio frequency range. It is derived from the radar frequency range "L" (1 to 2 GHz).

Terrestrial use of radio bands in Europe

tape Broadcasting Services (in Europe) other services
Volume I. Analog television (discontinued) Fixed radio service
Amateur radio service , 6 m band
OIRT band Radio (FM) Fixed radio service
BOS radio
amateur radio service , 4 m band
Volume II VHF radio (FM)
Volume III Analog television (discontinued)
wireless microphones
Volume IV DVB-T
wireless microphones
470–494 MHz: non-navigational location radio ( wind profiler )
Volume V DVB-T
wireless microphones
608–614 MHz: radio astronomy service
1.5 GHz band

Frequency use in broadband cable

See cable television .

Microwave range

During the Second World War, high frequencies in the GHz range were used for radar location. The frequency bands were given random letters to keep them secret. Such was L possibly stands for tape-long , S for short , C for compromise between L and S . The abbreviations K and Ku (formerly also written as K u ) go back to the German names short and short-below . Today the letters also indicate the transmission ranges of satellites .

The ITU tries to standardize the frequency assignments to the frequency band names:

Frequency band names
Frequency range
in [GHz]
according to ITU
in [GHz]
L. 1-2.6 1-2
S. 2.6-3.95 2-4
C. 3.95-5.8 4-8
J 5.85-8.2
X 8.2-12.4 8-12
K u 12.4-18 12-18
K 18-26.5 18-27
K a 26.5-40 27-40
Q 33-50
U 40-60
V 50-75
E. 60-90 60-90
W. 75-110 80-110
F. 90-140
D. 110-170
G 140-220
Y 170-260
J 220-325

In contrast, this classification is mostly used in satellite radio. (Some frequencies for research satellites and space probes are still missing.)

Designations for satellite radio with a distinction between services
tape service Frequency range in [GHz]
Downlink Uplink
P 0.23-1
L. 1.53-2.7
S. 2.7-3.5
C. 3.4-4.2 5.925-6.425
X Military - communication satellites 7.25-7.75 7.9-8.4
Research radio note 1 8.4-8.5 7.145-7.235
K u
fixed satellite service 10.7-11.7 12.75-13.25 / 13.75-14.5
BSS 11.7-12.5 17.3-18.1
SMS 12.5-12.75 12.75-13.25 / 13.75-14.5
K u
FSS 11.7-12.2 14-14.5
BSS 12.2-12.7 17.3-17.8
K a Radio data transmission via satellite 17.7-21.2 27.5-31

Military designations

The designations for frequency bands that are binding in NATO Europe are published in the ARFA manual. These are also used for cross-border frequency uses with neighboring countries or UN missions with NATO participation. In addition, these names are largely compatible with the US armed forces.

US military names
tape Frequency range
A. 000-250 MHz
B. 250-500 MHz
C. 0.5-1 00GHz
D. 001-2 00GHz
E. 002- 003 GHz
F. 003-4 00GHz
G 004- 006 GHz
H 006-8 00GHz
I. 008-10 0GHz
J 010-20 0GHz
K 020-40 0GHz
L. 040-60 0GHz
M. 060-100 GHz
N 100-200 GHz
O 200-300 GHz
Note: May be helpful when civil organizations / NATO work together.

Amateur radio

Frequencies and services (selection)

Band / service Band limit in MHz comment
below above
LW radio 0.1485 0.2835 Only used for broadcasting in Europe, North Africa, the CIS countries and Mongolia.
Upper LW band 0.2000 0.5260 for non-directional (flight) radio beacons ( non-directional radio beacon , NDB)
MW radio 0.5265 1.6065 in the USA up to 1700 kHz, also in Europe some stations outside the regular band
KW radio 5.9 26.1 in several bands, with other applications in between, for example amateur radio service
CB radio 26,565 27.405 11 m tape
RC model making 35.1 35.9 35 MHz for model aircraft
Wireless microphones 36.7 37.1 First generation wireless technology, outdated, currently still for tour guide systems
RC model making 40.4 40.6
ISM 40.665 40.695
Broadcasting Volume I 47 68 formerly analog television
OIRT band 65.9 73.1 FM radio in Eastern Europe (except the former GDR), expiring
4 meter tape 66 87.49 BOS radio (Germany)
Broadcasting Volume II 87.5 108 VHF FM radio (in Europe)
Navigational radio service 108 117.975 VOR (Very High Frequency omnidirectional radio range, VOR) and localizer (Localizer) of the instrument landing system (Instrument Landing System, ILS)
Aeronautical service 118,000 137 Aeronautical radio
Amateur radio service 2 m 144 146 (VHF)
Mobile maritime service 156 162 Mobile marine service (ultra-short wave)
Broadcasting Volume III 174 230 analog television (only via cable ), DVB-T , DAB , radio microphones
UHF 328 336 Glideslope transmitter
GSM 400 380.2 496.0 Digital BOS radio + civil or commercial radio
Amateur radio service 70 cm 430 440 (UHF)
ISM 433.05 434.79 SRD
KDR 444,600 444.875 Short range radio (in Scandinavia)
PMR 446,000 446,200
LTE uplink 703 733 E-UTRA Volume 28 after Digital Dividend II
Duplex gap unspecified 733 758 after digital dividend II
LTE downlink 758 788 E-UTRA Volume 28 after Digital Dividend II
LTE downlink 790 814 E-UTRA Volume 20 after Digital Dividend I
Duplex gap for wireless microphones 822 832 after digital dividend I
LTE uplink 838 862 E-UTRA Volume 20 after Digital Dividend I
SRD 863 864.5 analog audio transmissions (wireless headphones, wireless speakers, etc.)
SRD 868 MHz band 868 SRD , wireless outdoor thermometer
GSM 850 824 894 GSM networks America
GSM 900 870.4 960.0 D networks , GSM networks Europe (mobile communications)
Mode S 960 1164 for example ADS -B on 1090 MHz
GPS 1227.60 1227.60 Satellite navigation
1.2 GHz band 1240 1300 Amateur radio service 23 cm
1.5 GHz band 1452 1492 DAB , conversion to Volume III planned
GPS 1575.42 1575.42 Satellite navigation
iridium 1616 1625 Satellite telephony
DCS 1800 1710 1880 E networks
PCS 1900 1850 1990 GSM networks America
DECT 1880 1900 Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (cordless phone)
Land mobile service 1885 2025 UMTS
2110 2200
ISM 2400 2500 Bluetooth , WLAN , RC model making , RFID , wireless MIDI , radio microphones , in USA: DECT
WLL 3400 3600 WiMAX
ISM 5725 5875 WLAN , U-NII , wireless microphones
Satellite broadcasting service 10700 12750 DVB-S and still analogue PAL / SECAM
802.11ad WiFi 57000 66000 License-free, only a few meters range, but high bandwidth

Optical and infrared astronomy

in µm
0.36 U-band
0.44 B-band
0.55 V-band
0.65 R band
1.00 I-band
1.25 J-band
1.65 H band
2.20 K band
3.45 L-band
4.70 M-band
10 N band
20th Q band
450 Submillimeter

Optical data communication

tape designation Wavelength range
O-band original 1260-1360 nm
E-band Extended 1360-1460 nm
S-band Short wavelength 1460-1530 nm
C band Conventional 1530-1565 nm
L-band Long wavelength 1565-1625 nm
U-band Ultralong wavelength 1625-1675 nm

See also

Other frequency ranges can be found in

Web links

Commons : Radio spectrum  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. IEEE Standard 521-2002: Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands, doi : 10.1109 / IEEESTD.2003.94224
  2. Radio Regulations, Edition of 2012
  3. Vfg No. 14/2005: Conditions of use for the amateur radio service in the frequency ranges above 444 GHz. (PDF) Federal Network Agency, February 15, 2013, accessed on August 26, 2014 .
  4. ^ ITU: final acts of the European Broadcasting Conference in the VHF and UHF bands Stockholm, 1961
  5. CEPT: FINAL ACTS of the CEPT T-DAB Planning Meeting (3) Maastricht, 2002
  6. CEPT: FINAL ACTS of the CEPT T-DAB Planning Meeting (4) Maastricht, 2002
  7. ^ ITU: Final Acts of the Regional Radiocommunication Conference for planning of the digital terrestrial broadcasting service in parts of Regions 1 and 3, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (RRC-06) Geneva, 15 May – 16 June 2006
  8. a b c ITU: Recommendation ITU-R V.431-7: Nomenclature of the Frequency and Wavelength Bands Used in Telecommunications
  9. Source unknown
  10. ^ A b Meinke, Friedrich-Wilhelm Gundlach : Pocket book of high frequency technology , 4th edition 1985, Springer-Verlag: page A2
  12. ^ A b Whitaker: Handbook of Broadcast Engineering . McGraw-Hill, 2005
  13. a b c d e 3GPP TS 45.005: GSM / EDGE Radio Access Network: Radio transmission and reception (Release 8) ( ZIP ; 798 kB)
  14. Frequency assignment PMR-446