As ISM bands ( I ndustrial, S cientific and M edical band) are frequency ranges designated by the high frequency can be used without a license and usually require approval devices in industry, science, medicine, domestic and similar areas. Corresponding ISM devices such as microwave ovens and medical devices for shortwave radiation only require a general allocation of frequency management , for example in Germany.
Some ISM bands are also used, for example, for audio and video transmissions or data transmissions such as WLAN or Bluetooth without the need for individual frequency allocation for this use . However, these are not ISM applications and are subject to their own regulations. Shared use can easily lead to interference between different devices in the particularly frequently used bands, such as the 433 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands.
The use of these frequency ranges both for ISM purposes and for radio applications is regulated in so-called general assignments. In addition to general assignments for other frequencies and purposes, these can be viewed on the Federal Network Agency's website.
The following frequency ranges are designated as ISM bands worldwide by VO Funk :
|6.765 MHz||6.795 MHz||A.||Short Range Devices (SRD)|
|13.553 MHz||13.567 MHz||B.||SRD|
|26.957 MHz||27.283 MHz||B.||SRD|
|40.66 MHz||40.70 MHz||B.||SRD|
|433.05 MHz||434.79 MHz||A.||SRD, region 1 only (Europe, Africa, successor states of the USSR and Mongolia)|
|902 MHz||928 MHz||B.||Region 2 only (North and South America)|
|2.4 GHz||2.5 GHz||B.||a variety of uses and a. in mobile entertainment electronics|
|5.725 GHz||5.875 GHz||B.|
|24 GHz||24.25 GHz||B.|
|61 GHz||61.5 GHz||A.|
|122 GHz||123 GHz||A.|
|244 GHz||246 GHz||A.|
- Type a
- Applications in these ISM bands require the approval of the respective regional authorities. These can contain restrictions, for example with regard to cooperative radio protocols. The approval can also be given as a lump sum.
- Type B
- Individual countries also show other areas. In the Federal Republic of Germany, for example, the 9-10 kHz range and the 150 MHz frequency (149.995-150.005 MHz) are also approved as ISM bands. Legally different, but often confused with an ISM band, the SRD band from 863 to 870 MHz, which has been reserved Europe-wide exclusively for short-range radio communication. For international use, devices are therefore often offered that work either on 433 MHz (ISM band region 1), 868 MHz (SRD band Europe) or 915 MHz (ISM band region 2).
In general, ISM and radio applications have the lowest priority in these bands. The frequency ranges are usually assigned to radio services on a primary or secondary basis. For example, the entire 433 MHz ISM band is within the 70 cm amateur radio band in which the amateur radio service has primary status. Primary and secondary users must not be disturbed by ISM radio applications, while ISM users have to accept disturbances from other radio services.
Examples of uses
The ISM bands are used by a wide variety of ISM and other applications:
- Excitation of CO 2 gas discharges for carbon dioxide lasers (13.56 MHz, 2.4 GHz)
- ANT (2.4 GHz)
- Baby monitor (27 MHz, 433 MHz)
- Radar motion detector (2.4 GHz and 24 GHz)
- Bluetooth (2.4 GHz)
- dielectric heating and plastic welding (13.56 MHz)
- wireless video transmission systems (2.4 GHz, 5 GHz)
- Electronic Shelf Label , an electronic label replacement on retail shelves (433 MHz)
- Wireless alarm systems (433 MHz, 868 MHz)
- Wireless headphones or wireless loudspeakers (expiring at 433 MHz)
- Radio switches , such as car keys , radio sockets or radio bells (433 MHz)
- Wireless thermometer (433 MHz, 868 MHz)
- Radio networked smoke alarm device (433 MHz)
- Handheld radios with the lowest power, see Short Range Devices (mainly 433 MHz)
- IEEE 802.15.4 (for example with ANT , Bluetooth , ZigBee ) (2.4 GHz)
- Microwave ovens (worldwide: 2.455 GHz; industrial in some areas, e.g. in the USA also around 915 MHz)
- Short-range radar for cars (24 GHz) (not to be confused with 24 GHz UWB radar )
- Model making - remote controls (27 MHz, 35 MHz for model aircraft, 40.6 MHz, 2.4 GHz, partly outside the ISM bands according to German general allocation)
RFID applications ( radio tags ) - security-relevant applications and smart tags often at 13.56 MHz, door openers often at 433 MHz or 2.4 GHz; In general, the following frequencies are also used:
- Long wave (LF, 30-500 kHz), in particular 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 250 kHz, 375 kHz, 500 kHz, 625 kHz, 750 kHz, 875 kHz.
- Shortwave (HF, 3-30 MHz), especially 13.56 MHz.
- UHF at 433 MHz (USA, DoD) and 865–869 MHz (EPC and others), especially also 868 MHz (Europe) or 915 MHz (USA) and 950 MHz (Japan).
- SHF at 2.4–2.5 GHz, especially 2.45 GHz, and 5.8 GHz
- UWB Automotive Short Range Radar (24 GHz)
- WLAN (according to IEEE 802.11b / IEEE 802.11g , IEEE 802.11a or IEEE 802.11ad ) (2.4 GHz, 5 GHz or 60 GHz)
- ZigBee (2.4 GHz)
- Federal Network Agency - general allocation of ISM frequencies
- Federal Network Agency - general assignments
- Frequency plan of the Federal Network Agency
- Frequency usage - Ordinance of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, Republic of Austria
- National Frequency Allocation Plan, Federal Office of Communications OFCOM, Switzerland
- Short-range device footnotes to the international table of frequency allocations (engl.)
Carsten Meyer, Dusan Zivadinovic: Not at all bored. In: c't. Edition 2/2005, Heise Verlag, p. 122.
Not drilled at all ( Memento from January 28, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
- BNetzA: General allocations. Online at Bundesnetzagentur.de, accessed on December 17, 2016.
- Federal Agency: general allocation of the frequency 150.00 MHz for ISM applications in the context of high-frequency magnetic field therapy for use by the general public. Vfg No. 05/2016, (PDF; 12.8 kB), online at Bundesnetzagentur.de, accessed on December 18, 2016.
- CEPT ECC: ERC Recommendation 70-03 Relating to the use Short Range Devices (SRD). ( Memento of the original from August 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 498 kB), online at erodocdb.dk, accessed on December 18, 2016.
- BNetzA: general allocation of frequencies for use by radio applications with short range for unspecified applications; Non-specific Short Range Devices (SRD). Vfg. 5/2018. In: General assignments. On Bundesnetzagentur.de ( PDF ; 72 kB), accessed on January 1, 2019.
- Ministry of Industry and Information Technology: 24 GHz band short-range equipment for car radar with frequency plan published. November 19, 2012, online at srrc.org (Chinese), accessed December 18, 2016.
- BNetzA: General allocation of frequencies in the frequency sub-ranges in accordance with the Frequency Range Allocation Ordinance (FreqBZPV), Part B: Conditions of use (NB) D138 and D150 for use by the general public for ISM applications. Vfg. 76/2003. Online at Bundesnetzagentur.de, accessed on December 18, 2016.
- BNetzA: General allocations. Online at Bundesnetzagentur.de, accessed on December 18, 2016.
- Frequency plan of the Federal Network Agency, as of Oct 2019 Online at Bundesnetzagentur.de, accessed on July 12, 2020.