|Corfu / Kerkyra (Κέρκυρα / Κορφού)|
172 inhabitants / km²
|Angelokastro fortress in Corfu|
Corfu ( Neugriechisch Κέρκυρα Kérkyra [ kʲɛrkʲira ] ( . F sg. ); Ancient Greek Κόρκυρα korkyra ; albanian Korfuz / Korfuzi ) is 585.312 square kilometers, the second largest in the ionic islands and the seventh largest Greece . It is located southeast of the Italian "boot heel" and, separated by the Strait of Corfu , approaches the Albanian one in the north to within two kilometersCoast. Because of its vegetation, due to a balanced climate for Mediterranean conditions with Mediterranean, sub-Mediterranean and Central European elements, the island is also called "the green island". It is one of the wealthiest regions in Greece.
The island of Corfu is divided into three municipalities, which also include the Diapontian Islands as municipal districts. These municipalities and the municipality of Paxi together form the Kerkyra regional district , which had the status of a prefecture until the implementation of the Kallikratis program . The main town is the city of the same name, Corfu or Kerkyra. The islanders are called Corfiots.
Corfu stretches for around 60 kilometers off the Albanian and Greek west coasts in the Ionian Sea , around 75 kilometers southeast of the Strait of Otranto . The narrowest part of the Strait of Corfu between the northeast of the island and the Albanian mainland is around two kilometers wide (west of Ksamil ). The island is characterized by hills and mountains, two mountain ranges divide the island: in the north the chain of the Pantokrator (up to 911 m above sea level) and in the middle of the Agii Deka with 576 m height.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Corfu (city)
Flora and fauna
Corfu has a microclimate that favors the growth of wildflowers, there are 36 species of orchids on the island. Around four percent of Corfu's animal and plant species are endemic . The wetlands and lagoon areas in the southwest of the island are an important habitat for birds, over 150 species have been counted in the area of the Korrision lagoon alone.
Omnipresent are the approximately 4 million olive trees on Corfu, which have their origins in the 16th century, when the Venetians encouraged planting. Other trees include oak, elm and cypress, as well as the aspen, which blooms purple in spring. In 1846 the dwarf orange tree Citrus japonica was introduced to Corfu . Koum Kouat from Corfu has been a Corfiot liqueur specialty ever since .
About 65% of the island's area is used for agriculture, 55% for olive trees, the rest is mainly used for viticulture and citrus fruits.
Before the community reform according to the Kapodistrias program , the island consisted of 100 often small communities. In 1997 these communities were combined into twelve communities. The 2010 administrative reform united these communities with the three island communities of the Diapontian Islands on January 1, 2011 to form a single community of Kerkyra . The twelve municipalities from 1997 had the status of a municipality, the old 100 municipalities had their own local representations depending on their population as municipal districts (Ez. Dimotiki Kinotita , from 1000 inhabitants) or local communities (Topiki Kinotita) . A revision of the administrative reform was implemented in 2019 and the island was divided into three municipalities. The three Dipontian islands Erikoussa , Mathraki and Othoni were assigned as parishes of the parish of Kendriki Kerkyra ke Diapondia Nisia .
|local community||Greek name||code||Area km²||Residents 2011||Parish||location|
|Kendriki Kerkyra ke Diapondia Nisia||Κεντρική Κέρκυρα και Διαπόντια Νησιά||3201||259.504||68,558||Kerkyra , Achillio , Erikoussa , Feakes , Mathraki , Othoni , Paleokastritsa , Parelii|
|Voria Kerkyra||Βόρεια Κέρκυρα||3203||205.325||17,832||Agios Georgios , Esperies , Thinali , Kassiopi|
|Notia Kerkyra||Νότια Κέρκυρα||3204||145.026||15,681||Korissia , Lefkimmi , Melitia|
Hunters and gatherers populated the island as early as 750,000 years ago. In any case, a chopper was discovered at Gardiki in the southwest near the Korission lagoon in a layer that was dated accordingly. Even Neanderthals have the island, the km at that time only a maximum of 12 was from the mainland, visited.
In addition to Gardiki, an important prehistoric site is the Upper Palaeolithic Agios Mattheos in the southwest, where 870 flint artefacts were discovered in 1966 under an approximately 18 m deep rock overhang . They are similar to the Kastritsa site in Epiros, which is about the same old. Eleven sites from Levallois- Moustérien were already known in the late 1960s , but their dating is controversial. The artifacts on the small island of Diaplo, which were discovered on the beach in 1965, indicate contacts to the sites on the Gargano in Italy.
Due to the rise in sea levels, Corfu became famous between 10,000 and 8,000 BC. Chr. Separated from the mainland again. In the Neolithic , from 6400 to 6300 BC BC, according to other authors as early as 6500 BC. BC, farmers and shepherds settled on the island, as was shown by the Sidari site, which is sterile in the post-Neolithic layers.
The island was repopulated in the Bronze Age ; an important archaeological site is Afiona. The finds on Corfu are closely related to contemporary artifacts from Macedonia and Epiros; In addition to Afiona, western contacts can also be found at the sites of Stalakto, Ermones, Kefali and Sidari. Corfu is already around 1200 BC. Mentioned on a linear B tablet from the palace of Nestor near Pylos , on which there is talk of a "man from Korkyra" ( ko-ro-ku-ra-i-jo ). Corfu did not belong to the Mycenaean culture . However, there were trade connections during the late Bronze Age, as demonstrated by findings of Mycenaean pottery in various places on the island. Nevertheless, the Bronze Age culture of Corfu has a distinctly local character.
Corfu was equated by some ancient authors with Scheria , the land of the Phaiacs from Greek mythology; however, this thesis was already controversial in antiquity, as Homer emphasizes that Scheria was very far away, at the end of the world. In the Odyssey, the land of the Phaiacs is the last stop of Odysseus before his return to Ithaca . According to the Argonautica of Apollonios of Rhodes , Medea and Iason also find refuge with the Phaiaks on their flight from Colchis , who live in this version on the island of Drepane and which corresponds to his information about Corfu. According to legend, they married there in the grotto of the Makris , whose name the island also bore. According to legend , the island got the Greek name Kerkyra from the nymph Gorgyra (also Kerkyra), who was brought to the island by the sea god Poseidon . Phaiax, the child of this connection, was therefore the ancestor of the Phaiacs.
Greek settlers from Eretria founded in the 8th century BC A first colony. Due to its advantageous location on the Strait of Otranto , Kerkyra controlled access to the west and the coasts of the Adriatic Sea . In 734 BC The oikist Chersikrates , who came from Corinth and left the city due to internal unrest, drove out the Eretrian colonists with a force, who then settled in Thrace and founded the city of Methone .
Kerkyra rose very quickly to a sea power. In 664 BC It defeated the mother city of Corinth in the first sea battle in Greece, according to Thucydides, and thus broke away from their supremacy. 480 BC Corfu provided the second largest fleet of the Greeks, 60 ships, but did not take an active part in the war against the Persians. The historian Thucydides sees the conflict between Corfu and Corinth over the city of Epidamnos and the protective alliance that the Athenians granted Corfu as one of the reasons for the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War . During this conflict there was a bloody stasis (civil war) in the Polis Kerkyra in 427 , which Thucydides later described very emphatically. In the 4th century BC BC the Corfiots extended their influence on the mainland. At times they occupied Butrint , an important polis of chaonians .
In the Hellenistic period (from 300 BC) the independence of Corfu was threatened. The island was invaded by adventurers from Syracuse, and Macedonian kings , followed by Illyrian pirates , used the island for raids against Roman merchant ships .
As a result of the war of the Romans against the Illyrian Queen Teuta , Corfu became the first Roman province in Greece. Later Corfu was part of the Roman province of Macedonia, and in Augustan times the island was added to the province of Epiros .
From 395 on, Corfu belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire. The island was conquered by the Saracens and in the 11th century by the Norman Duke Robert Guiscard .
As a result of the 4th Crusade, Corfu came under the rule of the despot of Epiros after 1204 . As a dowry from Helena of Epirus , the island came into the possession of Manfred of Sicily in 1258 . Since then, numerous fiefs have been given to Frankish nobles on the island . After King Manfred fell in the battle of Benevento (1266) against Charles I of Anjou and his wife Helena was captured, his grand admiral and administrator of the property of Helena's dowry, Philipp Chinard (* around 1205; † 1266), fled who had stayed on Corfu, to Karl's father-in-law Michael II. Komnenos Dukas Angelos, despot of Epirus, because it was clear to him that as Manfred’s supporter he could only rely on his own strength and the loss of his fiefs (Corfu, Buthroton, Valona, Dyrrachium) feared. This fear led him to seek an alliance with the despot of Epirus, who gave him his sister-in-law Maria Petralipha as bride, gave Helena's dowry and had him murdered shortly afterwards (before October 1, 1266). After the assassination of Philipp Chinard, the crusader Garnier l'Aleman ( vicar of Philipp Chinard) took over the administration of Corfu. Karl got in touch with Garnier l'Aleman and offered him land in the Kingdom of Sicily with an annual value of 100 ounces , or 1000 ounces of gold in cash, for "the whole island of Corfu with castles with country houses and all the countries of the servants" . In fact, Garnier handed over the island to Charles of Anjou in March 1267, who appointed him captain general on March 20, 1267 and from 1268 gradually conquered the despotate of Epirus. Charles's promise in favor of Garnier could no longer be carried out due to his death. A document dated May 1272 shows that Charles allocated the promised land of the above-mentioned annual value of 100 ounces or 1000 ounces of gold in cash to the son of the late Garnier, Aimone Aleman.
In 1271 Giovanni Clariaco became first vicar of Corfu: "[...] et confirmazione Iohannes de Clariaco tunc vicarii nostri in ipsa insula [...]" Under the Angevin rule, the feudal system of Western European characteristics came to full education. Charles instituted the same civil and military offices that existed in the kingdom; from the captain and treasurer (Camerario) to the Portolan. In 1272, under the second vicar Giordano Sanfelice , Corfu became a separate administrative unit, to which the Buthroton and Subuto (or Subito) castles on the Albanian mainland were also added. In 1294 the island was transferred from Charles II of Anjou to his son Philip , Prince of Taranto , who in 1330 (or shortly afterwards) appointed Guglielmo II Tocco as governor of Corfu. In 1352 Robert von Taranto took control of Corfu. Under Charles III. Corfu fell to the Venetians in 1383 . Besides the capital, Angelokastro and Gardiki were the most important fortresses of the Venetian colonies . The cultural influences of the western feudal lords combined with the native Greek Orthodox traditions to form an independent culture.
16th to 19th century
From the 16th to the 18th centuries, Corfu's history was marked by conflicts with the Ottoman Empire , which ruled mainland Greece and repeatedly tried to conquer and hold the Ionian Islands. The Venetians (Republic of Venice) ordered the removal of the vineyards and the planting of olive trees . In 1716 the Ottoman siege of the island capital by the Venetian army under Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg was lifted and the last Turkish attempt at conquest of the island was finally repulsed.
After the end of the Republic of Venice in 1797, France (under Napoleon ) took possession of the Ionian Islands and Corfu as the Corcyre department . For a short time, from 1798 to 1807, Corfu was a Russian protectorate . This was followed by another French period until 1814.
In 1815 ( Congress of Vienna ), Corfu became part of the Republic of the Ionian Islands under British protectorate . During the British period, a large part of the modern infrastructure emerged, such as the 700 km long road network, which is one of the densest in all of Greece. On May 21, 1864, Corfu was ceded to the Kingdom of Greece , but declared permanently neutral by a treaty with France as the signatory power .
In 1922, Mussolini came to power in Italy . He had great power ambitions; these had also been directed to the Balkans since the 1930s. After the Corfu incident in 1923, Italy briefly occupied Corfu. From April 7 to 12, 1939 , Italy occupied Albania . The Second World War began in September 1939 . When the German Reich had almost won the western campaign in the summer of 1940 , Mussolini entered the war (details here ).
On October 15, 1940, the Italian council of war in Rome decided to attack Greece without consulting the Germans. On the morning of October 28, 1940, Italian troops attacked Greek territory from Albania; the Greco-Italian War began. On November 28, 1940, an Italian squadron shelled Corfu. It was not until the German intervention in the Balkan campaign on April 6, 1941 that the war was decided in favor of the Axis powers , and ended on April 23, 1941. Corfu was annexed by Italy.
In July 1943 Italy switched sides (Mussolini was arrested; Pietro Badoglio became Prime Minister). On September 24, 1943 parts of the 1st Mountain Division of the Wehrmacht landed on Corfu. They came from the neighboring island of Kefalonia , where they had committed war crimes. On the 25th they captured the commander of the Italian troops there, Colonel Luigi Lusignani . After brief negotiations, he ordered his 8,000 men to lay down their arms. Of the 280 Italian officers on the island, 28 were shot shortly after their capture, and the next day, on the orders of Hubert Lanz , the other officers were shot as well. On the orders of Lanz, the corpses were “taken out to sea by ship and sunk weighted down in several places”.
Western allied bomber groups carried out numerous air raids on Corfu. It was Corfu Town partially destroyed in June 1944th On 11 and 15 June 1944 took place under German control, the deportation of 1700 the 1,900 Jews of Corfu after Auschwitz ; only 122 of them survived the extermination camp. Numerous Albanians were murdered or driven to Albania.
Unlike the Ionian islands of Kefalonia, Zakynthos and Ithaka, Corfu was spared the earthquake on August 12, 1953 .
The Ionian University was founded in 1984 as the successor to the Ionian Academy . In June 1994, Corfu hosts of the Summit EU - Member States , in which among other things the candidate has been decided some states to the EU and signed.
The majority of the population belongs to the Greek Orthodox denomination. There are around 600 larger and smaller churches on the island, around 20 of them in Corfu Town.
In 1310 Karl von Anjou founded a Catholic diocese , which has existed to the present day as the Archdiocese of Corfu, Zakynthos and Kefalonia with its seat in Corfu Town . Orthodox and Catholics celebrated Easter together until 1923 ; However, this changed with the calendar reform in Greece, and since 1964 Catholics in Greece have been celebrating Easter at the same time as the Orthodox. The proportion of Corfiot Catholics on the island is around 3% or 3800 people. The St. Jakobus and Christophorus Cathedral in the old town was badly hit by a bombing by the Wehrmacht air force in 1943 and rebuilt in 1970. The following Roman Catholic church buildings are listed on Corfu:
- Cathedral of St. James and Christopher
- Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
There is also a British cemetery in the city of Corfu, where the British were buried during the Protectorate. Since then, the Protestants have continued to use the cemetery.
On Corfu are the bones of Spyridon , the island's patron saint . His relics are kept in the church of Agios Spyridonas consecrated to him in the capital Kerkyra . Many men on the island have been baptized with the name Spyros, which is the male short form of Spyridon. Several processions are held annually in honor of Spyridon ; a particularly splendid one takes place on Holy Saturday morning. Afterwards, the relics are exhibited for a few days for worship in the church before they are put back in a silver coffin.
Culture and sights
- The Achilleion , a palace in the Pompeian style, which the Empress Elisabeth of Austria ("Sisi") had built on her "favorite island" Corfu and which was bought in 1907 by the German Emperor Wilhelm II .
- The monastery Pondikonisi ("Mouse Island ") and the monastery island Vlacherna, on which Val Lewton shot the film Die Toteninsel , which was inspired by the painting of the same name by Arnold Böcklin .
- The bay with the monastery of Paleokastritsa .
- The lookout point "Bella Vista" near Paleokastritsa.
- The Angelokastro castle ruins on the northwest coast overlooking the Ionian Sea. The neighboring town of Lakones is also known as the "balcony of the Ionian Sea".
- The bay of Agios Georgios Pagon in the northwest with the viewpoints “Prokima” and “Chelidoni” (southern foothills) as well as the mountain village Afionas and the twin bay “Porto Timoni” (northern foothills).
- The hiking trails to the Pantokrator with a traditional tavern three kilometers from the summit.
- The summit of Pantokrator with a monastery, tavern and a view of the entire island and Albania.
- Glyfada Beach.
- The Nymfes waterfall, which is located near the place of the same name in the north of the island.
- The north coast with the sandstone cliffs at Sidari and Peroulades.
- The Koméno peninsula near Gouvia and Dassia with the small church of Ypapandi.
- Perithia , the oldest mountain village on the island.
- The Serbian war mausoleum from the First World War on the island of Vido , where 3,000 soldiers were buried; another 20,000 Serbian soldiers are resting in the sea around the island.
- The west coast with the Monastery of Panagia Mirtiotissa (Moni Myrtidion).
- The small port of Kouloura in northeast Corfu and the neighboring town of Kalami, where Lawrence Durrell once lived.
- The small port town of Kassiopi in the northeast, which was built at the time of the Roman occupation after 230 BC. Next to Kerkyra was the most important city on the island.
- The old town of Corfu Town.
- Mon Repos Castle, near the old town on the Kanoni Peninsula , where Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh was born in 1921.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Ionian Islands and above all Corfu have been travel destinations since the late 18th century. In the 20th century the island developed into a holiday destination for package and individual tourists. Most visitors come from Great Britain, with the number of visitors from Europe declining for a number of years, while visitors from Russia and the Middle and Far East are increasingly coming to Corfu. The main season is from May to October.
The Corfu airport has links to the national and international air traffic. There are daily internal Greek lines to Athens . There are numerous charter flight connections with Northern, Western and Central Europe in the months from May to October. When arriving by ferry from Italy, you can choose between different routes, e.g. B. from Venice, Ancona or Bari. The Greek mainland (Igoumenitsa) can be reached by ferries from Corfu Town and Lefkimmi. The ferries also go from Corfu Town to the small neighboring island of Paxos . There is a marina in Gouvia, about seven kilometers north of Corfu Town. Up to 1,000 boats with a length of up to 80 m and a draft of 6 m can moor there on floating and fixed jetties . The berths accommodate boats. The road network on Corfu is very dense in different stages of development. In particular, paved roads away from the main traffic routes are in a poor state of preservation in some cases (as of 2017). A motorway or a motorway-like network of roads does not exist. In the area of the island's capital, Corfu City, the arterial roads to the north and west are four-lane, but not free of intersections.
Cricket was introduced to Corfu at the beginning of the 19th century and is probably the oldest modern sport on the island, played on the esplanade in the capital Corfu.
The only golf course (18-hole par 72 course) on the island was designed by the well-known golf course architect Donald Leslie Harradine and is located in the Ropa Valley 17 kilometers west of the capital.
AO Kerkyra is the Corfiot football club.
Once upon a time, the city of Corfu was the capital of the Republic of the Ionian Islands . With the accession to the Kingdom of Greece , extensive powers were transferred to Athens. It was only after 1982 that competencies were again transferred to regions.
It is therefore still relatively difficult for the Greek local administrations to cope with the newly assigned tasks (such as building and managing kindergartens, water supply or garbage disposal and their financing). Many areas of local government are already regulated by European-wide laws . The land registry offices in Greece are currently under construction and so far only exist in a few areas, for example on Kos, Corfu and in some districts in Athens.
- Issuing a tax number
- Processing of a business registration
- Certificate that the Greek state is not owed any taxes; this is the prerequisite for registering a car or purchasing property in Greece .
- Francesco Lismanini (~ 1504–1566), Calvinist reformer in Poland
- Matthaeus Devarius (approx. 1505–1581), Greek philologist
- Matthias Johann von der Schulenburg (1661–1747), Field Marshal of the Republic of Venice, successfully defended Corfu against the Ottoman Empire
- Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776–1831), diplomat, politician, the first head of state of Greece
- Nikolaos Mantzaros (1795–1872), Greek composer and music teacher
- Dionysios Solomos (1798–1857), Greek nobleman and poet
- Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie (1837–1898), 1888–1896 Duchess of Bavaria, 1854 Empress of Austria, Apostolic Queen of Hungary; see also: The Achilleion in Corfu.
- Spyros Samaras (1861–1917), Greek composer and creator of the Olympic anthem
- Albert Cohen (1895–1981), French-Swiss writer
- Lawrence Durrell (1912–1990), Anglo-Irish writer, lived in Corfu for a few years
- Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh (1921-2021), Prince Consort of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain .
- Gerald Durrell (1925–1995), Anglo-Irish zoologist and author, lived in Corfu for a few years
- Vicky Leandros (* 1952), German-Greek singer and politician
- Mario Frangoulis (* 1966), Greek tenor
- Sakis Rouvas (* 1972), Greek singer and presenter
In 1980 the James Bond film In A Deadly Mission was filmed in Corfu . The filming locations were the old town, the esplanade and the old fortress of Corfu Town, the Vlacherna monastery at the Mouse Island, the Achilleion as well as the bay of Kalami and the small village Pagi in the northwest of Corfu.
- Diana Siebert: All gentlemen outposts. Corfu from 1797 to 1944 . Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-00-052502-5 .
- Lawrence Durrell : Black Olives . Corfu, island of the Phaeacians . Rowohlt , Reinbek bei Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-499-11102-0 (Original title: Prospero's cell . Translated by Peter Bermbach, Herbert Zand, a travel report from 1937).
- Mike Gerrard, Donna Dailey, Rebecca Snelling: Corfu . Magazine, information & tips, tours, travel atlas. In: National Geographic Spirallo . 2nd, updated edition. MairDumont , Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-8297-3259-8 (Original title: Corfu . Translated by Joachim Nagel, Dagmar Lutz).
- Γενική Γραμματεία Εθνικής Στατιστικής Υπηρεσίας της Ελλάδος Γ.Γ.ΕΣΥΕ. [General Secretariat for Statistical Services of Greece] (Ed.): Concise Statistical Yearbook of Greece, 2009 . 2010, ISSN 1106-059X , p. 51 (Greek, English, viotiachamber.gr [PDF]).
- Olaf Borkowsky: Overview of the flora of Corfu. P. 16.
- Law 4600, Greek Law Gazette of March 9, 2019 ( ΦΕΚ Α / March 9, 2019 , Άρθρο 154, Τροποποίηση του άρθρου 1 του ν. 3852/2010 ), p. 1164. PDF Online (Greek)
- Results of the 2011 census at the National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ) (Excel document, 2.6 MB)
- A. Darla, P. Karkanas, O. Palli, A. Papadea: Paleolithic excavation in the Korissia lagoon , in G. Arvanitou-Metallinou (ed.): Prehistoric Corfu and Its Adjacent areas: problem-perspectives. Proceedings of the conference dedicated to A. Sordinas, December 17, 2004 , 2007, pp. 77-84.
- Helen Dawson: Mediterranean Voyages. The Archeology of Island Colonization and Abandonment , Routledge, 2014, p. 124.
- Augustus Sordinas: Investigations of the Prehistory of Corfu during 1964-1966 , in: Balkan Studies 10,2 (1969) 393-424, on this 6 pages of Plates , here: p. 399 ( online , PDF).
- Graeme Barker: The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory. Why did Foragers become Farmers? Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 349.
- Eric H. Cline: The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford 2010, p. 687, cites approx. 1180 BC. For the destruction of the palace. The clay tablets come from the months before the destruction.
- Christina Souyoudzoglou Haywood: The Ionian Islands in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age 3000-800 BC. Liverpool University Press 2000, p. 11 ff.
- This is how Strabo localized it in or on the Atlantic, see Strabo, Geography 1, 2, 18.
- Homer, Odyssey 6, 202 f .; 9, 18.
- Apollonios of Rhodes, Argonautika 4, 981 ff.
- Plutarch : Quaestiones Graecae XI.
- Thucydides I 13.4.
- Thucydides III 79 ff.
- Peter Herde: Carlo I d'Angiò, re di Sicilia. In: Treccani.it. Retrieved April 16, 2018 .
- Camillo Minieri Riccio: Genealogia di Carlo I di Angiò: prima generazione . Vincenzo Priggiobba, Naples 1857, p. 50 (Italian, archive.org ).
- Robert Elsie: A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History . IB Tauris, London, New York 2012, ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3 , pp. 81 f . (English, online preview in Google Book Search).
- Domenico Forges Davanzati: Monumenti . In: Dissertazione sulla seconda moglie del re Manfredi e su 'loro figlioli, Filippo Raimondi . Filippo Raimondi, Naples 1791, p. XLVI, number XLIX (Latin, archive.org ).
- Domenico Forges Davanzati: Dissertazione sulla seconda moglie del re Manfredi e su 'loro figlioli, Filippo Raimondi . Filippo Raimondi, Naples 1791, p. 38 (Italian, archive.org ).
- Heinz A. Richter: History of Greece in the 20th Century. Mainz 2015, ISBN 978-3-447-10396-1 , p. 65.
- Hannes Heer , Klaus Naumann (ed.): War of extermination. Crimes of the Wehrmacht 1941–1944. Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-930908-04-2 , pp. 195 f. Josef Remold was also responsible.
- Gerhard Crispin, Claudia Christoffel-Crispin, Konrad Dittrich : Corfu, Ionian Islands. P. 20.