Wiener Werkstätte

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Wiener Werkstätte GmbH

legal form GmbH
founding 1903
resolution 1932 (liquidation), 1939 (deletion from the company register)
Seat Vienna , Austria
management Fritz Waerndorfer (until 1913), Josef Hoffmann , Koloman Moser , Otto Primavesi , Moritz Gallia
Branch Arts , crafts

The Wiener Werkstätte GmbH (WW) was a production community of visual artists.

Founding members in 1903 were Josef Hoffmann , Koloman Moser and the industrialist Fritz Waerndorfer , who made a name for himself as a patron of the arts . On September 2, 1905, WW took Carl Otto Czeschka under contract as another designer. The model was the British Arts and Crafts Movement . The aim of the workshop was to renew the concept of art in the field of applied arts . She worked here with the Vienna Secession and the Vienna School of Applied Arts . Everyday objects as well as jewelry and furniture were produced. At times the artists of the Wiener Werkstätte were so successful that sales outlets were set up in New York , Berlin and Zurich . From 1905 to 1911 Josef Hoffmann built the Palais Stoclet in Brussels and the sanatorium in Purkersdorf . The equipment came exclusively from the Wiener Werkstätte. In the course of the global economic crisis , sales figures plummeted because the target group, the middle class, became impoverished. In 1926, the company was only just able to save itself from bankruptcy through compensation . In 1932 bankruptcy could no longer be averted.


In connection with the Vienna School of Applied Arts and the Vienna Secession, the community sought a renewal of art based on solid craftsmanship. Vienna should become the center of taste culture in the field of arts and crafts. The company, sometimes also referred to as: Wiener Werkstatt, Vienna Workshop, Wiener Werkstaetten or Wiener Werkstätten , had a clear objective: to unite all areas of human life in terms of a total work of art .

This started with creating advanced working conditions for artisans and ended with a desire to redesign everything, whether everyday items or jewelry. The aim was to only produce objects of extraordinary independence and beauty. Great importance was attached to exquisite craftsmanship, following the motto : "Better to work on one object for ten days than to produce ten objects in one day." The Wiener Werkstätte's particular merit was overcoming the rampant Art Nouveau ornaments in Belgian and French Style. Geometric-abstract shapes dominated, which influenced the arts and crafts throughout the 20th century.

The company was based in Vienna- Neubau , Neustiftgasse 32–34, where a commercial building was adapted. In 1907 a shop was opened in the city center, 1. , Graben 15. From 1912, Otto Wagner rented additional space in a new building adjacent to the company headquarters (7th, Döblergasse 12).

In the period after 1907, the Hamburg resident Helga Malmberg (* 1888 † 1967) was lured away from the Miethke gallery by Fritz Waerndorfer for sale in WW . In 1961, she vividly describes in her book how everyday life at the Wiener Werkstätte was.

The occasional great success of the arts and crafts enabled the establishment of several sales outlets in Vienna (from 1916/1917 sales point for fashion, 1., Kärntner Straße 41; from 1917/1918 sales point for fabrics, lace and lighting, 1., Kärntner Straße 31) and the establishment of branches abroad ( Karlsbad 1909, Marienbad 1916 and Zurich ), 1917-1919 headed by Dagobert Peche. In the post-war period, the workshop tried (with little success) to win over foreign customers, as the domestic bourgeoisie bought much less than before. Shops were set up in New York in 1922 and in Berlin in 1929 . The workshop was also represented in Wroclaw . The sales office of the “Wiener Werkstaette America Inc.” in New York at 581 Fifth Avenue / 2nd floor was managed by Joseph Urban, who was born in Vienna in 1872 . Because there was no lasting sales success, the office was closed in 1924.

The duo Hoffmann and Moser complemented each other so well that it was often difficult to distinguish between the designs. Now you could acquire a thorough knowledge of how to handle the various materials in your own workshop. The Wiener Werkstätte's customers were mainly artists and the emerging Jewish upper and middle classes of the monarchy . Josef Hoffmann's acquaintance with Berta Zuckerkandl led to his first major contract: the Purkersdorf sanatorium . Viktor Zuckerkandl , Berta's brother-in-law, planned this west of Vienna.

Among the employees of the workshop were also around a dozen women, "who were decisive for the style change from Art Nouveau to Art Déco of the 1920s." Mocked by critics as "Viennese women 's economy" or "Viennese women' s arts and crafts", the women ended up doing it some success. Vally Wieselthier, for example, ran her own workshop from 1922 to 1927, the Vally Wieselthier ceramic workshop , and supplied the Wiener Werkstätte with consignment goods before moving to the USA in 1928 . Gudrun Baudisch came to the ceramics department of the Wiener Werkstätte in August 1926 , later switched to the clay industry in Scheibbs and founded the ceramics Hallstatt in 1945 . Other well-known artists were Reni Schaschl , Hilda Jesser and Susi Singer. The establishment of the Tonindustrie Scheibbs in 1923, which specialized in the manufacture of ceramics, led to a lively exchange between the workshops, especially through Vally Wieselthier and Gudrun Baudisch.


Company sign of the Wiener Werkstätte in New York
Bags from the production of the Wiener Werkstätte

The workshop produced jewelry in the first year. This remained the preferred artistic medium. Gustav Klimt's influence was very clear at the beginning: he was the main inspiration for the art of Koloman Moser, who was closest to him of all the artists in the Wiener Werkstätte. His silver creations are known from many pictures in which Emilie Flöge wears Koloman Moser's jewelry to Klimt's clothes. Mainly silver was hammered, chased, patinated and made into collars, chains, rings and brooches. Adolf Erbrich (1874–1940) should be mentioned in particular among the master silversmiths of the WW.

The artists of the Wiener Werkstätte used gemstones such as agates , carnelians , malachites and amethysts , but also lapis , opals , moonstones and corals . Dagobert Peche especially dealt with ivory carving .

The Vienna School of Applied Arts, where Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser's students could develop in the field of jewelry production, did pioneering work for the Wiener Werkstätte. Around 1900 floral ornament dominated jewelry as well as other handicrafts. The French and Asian, especially the Japanese, influence were also very significant.

A brooch designed by Josef Hoffmann for the Wiener Werkstätte in 1908 was knocked down in 2015 by the Viennese auction house “ Im Kinsky ” for € 529,200.


From 1904, a carpentry workshop was connected to production. However, this only produced a small part of the Wiener Werkstätte furniture. Instead, the workshop commissioned the excellent carpenters Portois & Fix , Johann Soulek ( Palais Stoclet , Haus Ast ), Anton Ziprosch and Franz Gloser ( Sanatorium Purkersdorf ), Anton Herrgesell, Anton Pospisil, Friedrich Otto Schmidt and Johann Niedermoser to manufacture the furniture. However, these were considered to have been designed and executed by the Wiener Werkstätte. Some historians therefore believe that there is very little original furniture in the workshop. They assume that when an art object is attributed, the founding idea of ​​the Wiener Werkstätte is decisive: a productive cooperative with equal artists and craftsmen. Another view contradicts this and says that the furniture meets the high standards of the workshop. The pieces were also exhibited and sold in the showrooms of the Wiener Werkstätte. Some copies are signed. In addition to the designs for the Wiener Werkstätte, Hoffmann's importance as a leading industrial designer in his designs for the bentwood furniture industry cannot be overestimated. These are characterized by simple shapes and timeless elegance. It was the Jacob & Josef Kohn company that brought this furniture to an international audience.

Textiles and ceramics

Wiener Werkstätte Museum at the Backhausen company in Vienna

From 1905, the Wiener Werkstätte continued to produce hand-painted and printed silk fabrics and carpets. The company Joh. Backhausen & Söhne was responsible for the machine-printed and woven textiles . In addition to work in leather, enamel or postcards , the Wiener Werkstätte even had a hat department and an important ceramic production facility .


Postcard “ Krampus with child” auctioned for 11,000 euros in 2003 ;
Artist postcard number 542 of the Wiener Werkstätte, anonymous artist, around 1911

Over 1000 different artist postcards were published, of which Oskar Kokoschka designed thirteen postcards . Other artists were Mela Köhler , Egon Schiele , Fritzi Löw and Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel . They were designed by a total of 48 different artists. These cards were numbered consecutively from 1908 and are now highly valued by collectors. The estimated editions were between 200 and 1000 copies. The cards were printed from 1908 to 1915. The central point of sale for the postcards was the Wiener Werkstätte, built in 1907, at Graben 15 and across from Graben 16, but the branches in Zurich and Marienbad also sold the cards. One of the most expensive postcards sold in Central Europe ( Krampus with child ) comes from the Wiener Werkstätte and was auctioned on October 12, 2003 for 11,000 euros.


A large part of the objects manufactured in the Wiener Werkstätte or laid by it were provided with the Wiener Werkstätte logo, the monogram of the designer and the craftsman who carried out the work. Until the beginning of the 1920s, the rose brand and, on silver work, the silver fineness were also imprinted.

In 1905 the Wiener Werkstätte had around 100 employees. 37 of them were master craftsmen .

Stoclet Palace

1905–1912 the Palais Stoclet in Brussels was built based on designs by Josef Hoffmann , which was entirely executed by the Wiener Werkstätte. In this context, Gustav Klimt was commissioned to create a frieze (so-called stoclet frieze ) for the dining room of the palace to be executed in the Wiener Werkstätte , whose transfer drawings are now kept in the Museum of Applied Arts (Vienna) . It is considered one of the few total works of art from the first half of the 20th century.

Contrast between Wiener Werkstätte and Adolf Loos

The Viennese architect Adolf Loos stood in stark contrast to Josef Hoffmann and the Wiener Werkstätte's view of the “total work of art”, which combined art and craft on one level . In his articles ( Ornament und Verbrechen , 1908, Die Potemkinsche Stadt ), he opposed Art Nouveau, the Wiener Werkstätte and Josef Hoffmann, whose wealth of forms he continually scourged. One of the most decisive differences of opinion between Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann is the clear distinction between a work of art and an object of daily use , as represented by Loos. Regardless of this, it can be said that this controversy was subsequently rated higher. If one compares the moderate works of Adolf Loos with his radical words, one can see that his hostility towards the ornamenters was predominantly polemical in nature.


At the beginning of 1914, the Wiener Werkstätte almost went bankrupt, although Waerndorfer, as commercial director, spent a large part of his own fortune in order to maintain it (Bonyhady) and therefore had to file for bankruptcy privately in 1913. Artists, designers and patrons around Josef Hoffmann contributed to the refinancing. Otto Primavesi and his wife Eugenie (portrayed by Klimt) invested 100,000 crowns in 1915, and Primavesi took over the chairmanship of the supervisory board. Moritz Gallia , whose wife Hermine was also portrayed by Klimt, invested 20,000 crowns and became deputy chairman of the supervisory board. Waerndorfer felt pushed out.

From the war years 1914–1918 , a new generation of artists provided impetus for the Wiener Werkstätte. Because of the dreary economic situation, however, the splendor of the furnishings was repeatedly criticized. Since the men fought and / or fell on the world war fronts, the artistic development of the Wiener Werkstätte during the war years was primarily shaped by female handwriting. The special exception was Dagobert Peche , who was an artistic employee of the workshop from 1915 and managed the branch in Zurich from 1917 to 1919. As the “genius of the century of ornament” (Moser) he incited the displeasure of the critic Loos. Allegedly, Peche, who died in 1923, contributed to the decline of the Wiener Werkstätte , as his late works with their baroque appearance no longer corresponded to contemporary tastes.

The end of the Wiener Werkstätte

Waerndorfer's passion for the Wiener Werkstätte and the beginning of the First World War cost all of his fortune. The same fate was to overtake the Primavesis. The company's economic problems in the period after the First World War coincided with the enormous inflation in “the rest of Austria ”. In 1922 the Wiener Werkstätte and Oskar Strnad took part in the German Trade Show in Munich with the Austrian Noble Room .

Otto Primavesi saw the economic problems of the GmbH, but his wife Mäda wanted to keep the company's elitist lines; Otto transferred his shares to her, which amounted to about seven-ninths of the GmbH, and subsequently also parted privately with Mäda. On June 25, 1925 Otto Primavesi resigned as managing director; He died in February 1926, and in April 1926 his bank went bankrupt . In May 1926 Wiener Werkstätte GmbH had to apply for compensation ; Hermann Trenkwald , director of the Austrian Museum for Art and Industry , was appointed as compensation administrator .

When the creditors waived 65 percent of their claims on July 1, 1926, the GmbH was able to continue working with Kuno Grohmann as the new managing director. As in the post-war period, however, there was already a lack of financially potent clientele. The bourgeoisie, the potential buyers of the Wiener Werkstätte, had lost a large part of their wealth in the years of inflation.

In the years 1926 to 1929 it was not possible to offer products oriented to the changed market and to run the company according to its financial possibilities; Performances abroad did not bring any lasting improvement in the situation. They constantly suffered from losses and therefore decided in the summer of 1932 to give up operations. The remainder of the Wiener Werkstätte, around 7000 objects, were auctioned off from September 5 to 10, 1932 at the Glückselig auction house for antiquities, usually with very little proceeds. In October 1932 the company was liquidated.

Artistic staff

Architecture, interior design and furniture: Carl Breuer, Carl Otto Czeschka , Mathilde Flögl , Oswald Haerdtl , Philipp Häusler, Josef Hoffmann , Richard Luksch , Victor Lurje, Emanuel Josef Margold , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Otto Prutscher , Lilly Reich , Gustav Siegel , Josef Urban , Carl Witzmann .

Metalwork: Carl Otto Czeschka , Karl Hagenauer , Josef Hoffmann , Berthold Löffler , Franz Metzner , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Otto Prutscher , Max Snischeck, Josef Urban , Valentinzeileis , Julius Zimpel .

Ceramics: Gudrun Baudisch , Josef Hoffmann , Hilda Jesser , Eduard Klablena , Johanna Künzli, Dina Kuhn , Bertold Löffler , Richard Luksch , Dagobert Peche , Ida Schwetz-Lehmann , Jutta Sika , Susi Singer and Vally Wieselthier . Many of the ceramists also designed models for other Viennese manufacturers such as Friedrich Goldscheider and Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten .

Glass: Josef Hoffmann , Robert Holubetz , Hilda Jesser , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Michael Powolny , Otto Prutscher , Ena Rottenberg , Gertrud Weinberger and Julius Zimpel .

Wood and miscellaneous: Josef Hoffmann , Fritzi Löw , Dagobert Peche , Richard Teschner and Vally Wieselthier .

Fashion, jewelry and accessories: Lotte Calm, Christa Ehrlich, Trude Hochmann, Josef Hoffmann , Mela Köhler , Maria Likarz , Berthold Löffler , Fritzi Löw , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Jossy Podboy-Grasel (Hutdirektorice), Ena Rottenberg , Reni Schaschl , Agnes ("Kitty") Speyer, Amalie Szeps and Eduard Josef Wimmer-Wisgrill .

Textile: Mathilde Flögl , Lotte Fochler-Frömel , Josef Hoffmann , Hilda Jesser , Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel , Maria Likarz , Rita Luzzatte, Wilhelm Martens , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Kitty Rix, Max Snischek and Franz von Zülow and Martha Alber.

Graphics and prints: Carl Otto Czeschka , Franz Karl Delavilla , Josef Diveky , Anton Faistauer , Remigius Geyling , Heddi Hirsch , Emil Hoppe , Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel , Hans Kalmsteiner, Rudolf Kalvach , Mela Köhler , Oskar Kokoschka , Rudolf von Larisch , Maria Likarz , Berthold Löffler , Moriz Jung , Editha Moser , Koloman Moser , Dagobert Peche , Kitty Rix, Alfred Roller , Egon Schiele . ( Ver Sacrum ; Beethoven exhibition catalog and "Kachelalmanach")

Fine arts: Leopold Forstner , Heddi Hirsch , Josef Hoffmann , Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel , Gustav Klimt , Oskar Kokoschka , Max Kurzweil , Berthold Löffler , Koloman Moser , Emil Orlik and Egon Schiele .

The Wiener Werkstätte worked as a publisher or commission agent for products from the following companies: Wiener Keramik, Eduard Klablena , Kaulitz , Bachmann , Cloeter , Lobmeyr , Meyr's Neffe , Moser-Karlsbad, Oertel Kristallglas , Schappel, Loetz Witwe, Tiroler Glashütte, Pfeiffer & Löwenstein, Böcke , Kaiser , Petzold , Berger , Rosenbaum , Schmidt , Backhausen , Portois & Fix , Johann Soulek (Palais Stoclet, Haus Ast), Anton Herrgesell, Anton Pospisil, Friedrich Otto Schmidt , Johann Niedermoser, Anton Ziprosch and Franz Gloser (Purkersdorf).

The women of the Wiener Werkstätte

There were numerous women among the artists of the Wiener Werkstätte:
Mathilde Flögl , Lilly Reich , Gudrun Baudisch , Hilda Jesser , Johanna Künzli, Dina Kuhn , Ida Schwetz-Lehmann , Jutta Sika , Susi Singer , Vally Wieselthier , Gertrud Weinberger, Fritzi Löw , Lotte Calm, Christa Ehrlich, Trude Hochmann, Mela Köhler , Maria Likarz , Jossy Podboy-Grasel, Reni Schaschl , Agnes ("Kitty") Speyer, Amalie Szeps Lotte Fochler-Frömel , Rita Luzzatte, Kitty Rix, Martha Alber, Heddi Hirsch , Editha Moser , Therese Trethan.

The manual workers

The following Wiener Werkstätte employees had their own monogram as executors (status 1905)

Goldsmiths: Eugen Pflaumer (master), Josef Berger, Karl Ponocny, Anton Pribil, J. Sedlicky

Silversmiths: Josef Hossfeld (master), Karl Kallert (master), Josef Czech, Adolf Erbrich, Augustin Grötzbach, Josef Husnik, Alfred Mayer , Josef Wagner

Metalworkers: Konrad Koch (master), Johann Blaschek, Franz Guggenbichler, Josef Holi, Karl Medl, Theodor Quereser, Konrad Schindel, Stanislaus Teyc, Adolf Wertnik, Valentinzeileis

Bookbinders: Karl Beitel (master), Ludwig Willner

Leather workers: Ferdinand Heider (master), Anton Ders, Franz Fischer , Paul Ruckendorfer

Carpenters: Franz Bonek, Alois Hoppe, Vinzenz Soukup, Wenzel Urbann, Josef Weber

Painting master: Adolf Roder

Painter: Therese Trethan

Museum of Applied Arts, MAK Vienna

The MAK Vienna keeps the largest collection of WW objects in a museum and thus covers the entire creative period of the Wiener Werkstätte. Among other things, the MAK owns the most comprehensive inventory of furniture, objects and designs by Josef Hoffmann worldwide. The MAK is also the owner of the Wiener Werkstätte archive. It includes 16,000 design drawings, 20,000 fabric samples, drafts for postcards, model books, photo albums and business correspondence. To mark its 100th anniversary in 1964, the MAK organized a comprehensive exhibition on the Wiener Werkstätte, in 1967 it was entitled Die Wiener Werkstätte. Modern handicrafts from 1903 to 1932 and in 2003 for the 100th anniversary of the Wiener Werkstätte another show entitled The Price of Beauty - on the 100th birthday of the Wiener Werkstätte . The entire archive of the Wiener Werkstätte is publicly accessible online at the MAK Collection .

Legal dispute over the brand name

In 1969 the Viennese furniture manufacturer Harry Jodlbauer sen. the no longer protected brand Wiener Werkstätten . In the mid-1980s, the Wiener Werkstätten encountered economic problems, whereupon the Styrian furniture manufacturer KAPO took over the company and the trademark rights in 1986. In the 2000s, there was a legal battle over the brand name. The company, which does not manufacture its furniture according to the old model of the Wiener Werkstätte, renamed itself the Neue Wiener Werkstätte .


  • Stefan Üner: Wiener Werkstätte , in: Wagner, Hoffmann, Loos and the furniture design of Viennese modernism. Artist, client, producer , ed. v. Eva B. Ottillinger, exhib. Kat. Hofmobiliendepot, Vienna March 20 - October 7, 2018, pp. 152–156, ISBN 978-3-205-20786-3 .
  • Austrian Museum of Applied Arts (ed.): The Wiener Werkstätte. Modern arts and crafts from 1903–1932 , exhibition by the Federal Ministry of Education , editor: Wilhelm Mrazek, Vienna 1967
  • Wilhelm Mrazek: artist postcards from the Wiener Werkstätte (1908–1915) , published by the Austrian Museum of Applied Arts; Verlag Galerie Welz, Salzburg 1977, ISBN 3-85349-064-6
  • Werner J. Schweiger: The Wiener Werkstätte. Arts and crafts 1903–1932. Brandstätter, Vienna / Munich 1982.
  • Werner J. Schweiger: picture sheets of the Wiener Werkstätte. ibid. 1983
  • Elisabeth Schmuttermeier: The Wiener Werkstätte , in: Historical Museum of the City of Vienna (Hrsg.): Dream and Reality. Vienna 1870–1930 , 93rd special exhibition, in the Künstlerhaus , Karlsplatz , March 28 to October 6, 1985
  • Elisabeth Schmuttermeier: The Wiener Werkstätte , in: Vienna around 1900. Art and culture , Christian Brandstätter Verlag & Edition, Vienna 1985, ISBN 3-85447-097-5
  • Waltraud Neuwirth: The Wiener Werkstätte - Avantgarde, Art Déco, Industrial Design , exhibition cat 1984/85, Austria. Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna 1984
  • Lillian Langseth-Christensen : A design for living. Vienna in the twenties , Viking, New York 1987, ISBN 0-670-80089-9
  • Werner J. Schweiger: Masterpieces of the Wiener Werkstätte. ibid. 1990.
  • Gabriele Fahr-Becker: Wiener Werkstätte, 1903–1932. Taschen, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8228-3771-9 , text and picture book. (Original edition Benedikt Taschen Verlag, Cologne 1994)
  • Renate Ulmer: Emanuel Josef Margold. Viennese Modernism, Darmstadt artists' colony, corporate design for Bahlsen, new building in Berlin. Arnold, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-89790-200-1 .
  • Peter Noever: The Price of Beauty - 100 Years of the Wiener Werkstätte. (... appears on the occasion of the exhibition “The Price of Beauty - On the 100th birthday of the Wiener Werkstätte”). MAK Vienna, December 10, 2003 to March 7, 2004, Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2003, ISBN 3-7757-1410-3 .
  • Ernst Ploil: "Art or Commerce" The Wiener Werkstätte at the 1908 art show . In: Agnes Husslein-Arco, Alfred Weidinger (ed.): Gustav Klimt and the art show 1908. Prestel, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7913-4225-2 , pp. 428–433.
  • Heinz Spielmann : Carl Otto Czeschka. A Viennese artist in Hamburg. With unpublished letters from the Wiener Werkstätte as well as contributions by Hella Häussler and Rüdiger Joppien. HWS series: Artists in Hamburg (Ed. By Ekkehard Nümann) Vol. 1, Wallstein-Verlag 2019, ISBN 978-3-8353-3434-2 [3]

Web links

Commons : Wiener Werkstätte  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Senta Siller: "Carl Otto Czeschka - Life and Work", dissertation 1992, page 28
  2. Vienna cemeteries - search for the deceased Helga Blau (-Malmberg) Ober St. Veit J-16-10 (dissolved)
  3. Page 51 ff - Helga Malmberg "Echoes of the Heart - A Peter Altenberg Book". Munich 1961
  4. at Goetheplatz 311
  5. in "House Mercur"
  6. Herta Neiß “100 Years of the Wiener Werkstätte - Myth and Economic Reality”. Vienna 2004, page 68
  7. "Wiener Weiberkunstgewerbe" is selling extremely well. In: The world . May 27, 2005, accessed July 2, 2009.
  8. ^ Jason Jacques Inc , accessed July 2, 2009.
  9. Jason Jacques Inc ( Memento of the original from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed July 2, 2009. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. Scheibs Ceramics Museum , accessed on July 2, 2009.
  11. ^ Advertisement of the auction house in the daily newspaper Der Standard , Vienna, July 4th, 2015, supplement album , p. A7
  12. ^ Susan Brown Nicholson: The Encyclopedia of Antique Postcards. Wallace-Homestead Book Company, Readnor, Pennsylvania 1994, p. 212.
  13. cf. AK Express, Issue No. 14 from 1980.
  14. Hans Dichand (ed.), Michael Martischnig: Art Nouveau postcards . Harenberg Kommunikation, Dortmund, p. 157
  15. Record price card , website operator: Volker Wichmann, accessed on October 19, 2010.
  17. Tim Bonyhady: Wohllebengasse. The story of my Viennese family . From the English by Brigitte Hilzensauer, Paul Zsolnay Verlag, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-552-05648-0 , pp. 140, 183.
  18. Acceptance of the settlement of the Wiener Werkstätte , in: daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse , Vienna, No. 22197, July 2, 1926, p. 14 .
  19. The life data of Mathilde Flögl according to information from BildIndex [1] born: 1893.09.09, Brno died: 1958.07.18, Salzburg - some sources have previously named "after 1950" as the date of death.
  20. His estate is in the Vienna Library in the Vienna City Hall
  21. ^ Julie M. Johnson: The Memory Factory: The Forgotten Women Artists of Vienna 1900. Purdue University Press 2012, ISBN 1-557-5361-39 , p. 393.
  22. Angelika Völker “The fabrics of the Wiener Werkstätte 1910–1932”, Vienna 2004, page 240
  23. see material by Martha Alber "Blätter" in Gustav Klimt "Johanna Staude" (1917/18): Johanna Staude. In:, accessed on March 5, 2020 .
  24. from the small WW leaflet: The trademark and monograms of the Wiener Werkstätte (1905)
  25. [2]
  26. ^ OGH judgment . February 8, 2005.