Jiddu Krishnamurti ( Telugu జిడ్డు కృష్ణమూర్తి Jiḍḍu Kr̥ṣṇamūrti ; born May 12, 1895 in Madanapalle , India , † February 17, 1986 in Ojai , California ) was an Indian philosopher and theosophist .
In his most important publications, Krishnamurti addresses spiritual issues such as the attainment of complete spiritual freedom through meditation , but also religious and philosophical topics. At first he gained fame through leading personalities of the Theosophical Society , especially Annie Besant , who declared him to be the coming " world teacher " in 1910 and founded the theosophical Order of the Star in the East for him . At the end of the 1920s he began to break away from the theosophical current.
Jiddu Krishnamurti was born in 1895 in Madanapalle, South India, as the eighth child (hence his name "reborn Krishna " according to Hindu tradition ) of Sanjeevama and Narayaniah Jidduh, into an Orthodox Brahmin family. His mother died when he was ten. His father Narayaniah was accepted into the Theosophical Society (TG) by Blavatsky in 1882 and was one of the first members. In 1909 he got a permanent job in the TG Adyar and moved into the immediate vicinity with his four sons. Shortly thereafter, the young Krishnamurti was noticed by the theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater while walking on Adyar Beach. Webster said the boy would become a great spiritual teacher because he had an unusually beautiful aura . With the permission of the father, he took over the upbringing and care of the boy. Some members of the TG Adyar hoped that a great “world teacher” would continue Blavatsky's work as “Lord Maitreya ”. That should be a person who "in the 33rd year of life, like Jesus , would be overshadowed by Christ ". Before Krishnamurti, Leadbeater had already brought a boy from Chicago to Adyar in order to shape him into the “vehicle” of the world teacher; he traveled with his mother after five years to Chicago, where he later lived as a lawyer.
On December 22, 1911, George Arundale, with Besant's consent, founded the Order of the Star in the East , of which Krishnamurti was appointed. The Star Order was supposed to pave the way for Krishnamurti as a born again world teacher at the age of 33. There were few rules and order structures. Members were very active in the field of humanitarian aid. This order should be independent of the TG, but consisted only of its members. In 1912 Krishnamurti and his younger brother Nitya were sent to England for further training . In order to enable the children to have a better future, Narayana Annie Besant had given custody of Krishnamurti and his brother Nitya, which he reclaimed in court in 1913/14 in vain.
After initially being tolerated, the General Secretary of the German section, Rudolf Steiner , protested against the "Indian boy as the future Christ, something that should not be taken seriously, that cannot have any serious character, but basically amounts to nothingness." He closed them all Theosophists, who were also members of the order, from the German section. This meant a breach of the statutes of the Adyar Theosophical Society , and after Besant's attempt to restore the statutes failed, she handed over the founding charter of the section in February 1913 to the lodges, which wanted to continue to recognize the statutes. Steiner's followers had already founded the Anthroposophical Society in Cologne in December 1912 .
From 1922 Krishnamurti distanced himself from the ideas of the members of the order, especially after the completely unexpected death of his brother Nitya on November 13, 1925, of whom leading theosophical authorities had promised that he would play an important role in the arrival of the world teacher and therefore for a long time to come Life. During its development phase within the framework of the TG Adyar, several small books, lectures and poems were created. Krishnamurti dissolved the Order of the Star in the East in 1929 and left the TG a year later. This led the TG into a crisis, which did not detract from the friendship between Besant and Krishnamurti. After the Order of the Star in the East was dissolved, the newspapers originally belonging to the order (for example Der Stern ) continued to publish its speeches, poems and conversations for a few years. His life's work was developed after he separated from the Theosophical Society. They are characterized by a radical denial of guruism, religion and organization and an equally radical affirmation of freedom, liveliness and mindfulness.
After Besant's death it became calmer for Krishnamurti. He shattered his image as the coming Messiah and was increasingly viewed as a spiritual "philosopher". Between 1933 and 1939 he traveled to India several times, each time speaking to large crowds. The years of World War II severely restricted his freedom of movement; he spent this time in seclusion in Ojai, California. In the relative seclusion there, his friendship with Rosalind Williams, D. Rajagopal's wife, a friend and member of the Order of the Stars , developed into a secret love affair over 25 years that became public in 1991.
There were only a few contacts with important theosophists such as Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa (president from 1946 to 1953). After 1947 Krishnamurti began a successful travel and lecturing activity. But only the current president Radha Burnier , whom Krishnamurti had known since early childhood, reconciled the TG and Krishnamurti.
In the seventies and eighties, several thousand people attended his lectures, which were given all over the world. In 1985 Krishnamurti returned to the center of society in Adyar after 33 years. His ideas are very well received by theosophists.
Jiddu Krishnamurti died of a pancreatic tumor in 1986 at the age of 90 in Ojai .
The vast majority of today's literature by Krishnamurti consists of the written conversations he had with his visitors. Some of his lectures have also been published in book form.
Krishnamurti was in friendly contact with many well-known personalities, such as George Bernard Shaw , Leopold Stokowski and Antoine Bourdelle . In the thirties he met Aldous Huxley , with whom he became a close friend. He was also known with Jawaharlal Nehru , Indira and Rajiv Gandhi as well as many scientists such as David Bohm , Richard Feynman and Rupert Sheldrake . He also founded schools in the United States, India, and Great Britain that still exist today.
Leaving the Theosophical Society
After the young Krishnamurti was accepted into the Theosophical Society (TG), he grew up in different parts of the world. Leadbeater and Besant determined with which people and which environment Krishnamurti was allowed to have contact.
In August 1922 in Ojai a mental development process began in Krishnamurti (he himself spoke of "process"), which lasted until autumn 1924. In the years that followed, a gap opened up between Krishnamurti and the TG: “Initiations”, initiations of leading and prominent members of the TG by the occult masters, increased in an almost inflationary manner. This development, the announcement of the foundation of a world university and a new world religion as well as the early death of his beloved brother Nitya shook his previous ideas and his belief in the “masters” significantly. He began to distance himself from the authoritarian structure of the TG and instead propagated his ideal of the free man.
On August 3, 1929, he dissolved the organization he had founded for him, of which he was chairman, the Order of the Star in the East . In his speech to 3000 members, the essence of his teaching, which he represented throughout his life, is expressed:
“I maintain that the truth is an inaccessible land and that there are no paths that lead to it - no religion, no sects. That is my position, which I take absolutely and unconditionally. The truth is limitless, it cannot be conditioned , it cannot be reached in predetermined ways and therefore cannot be organized. Therefore no organizations should be founded that lead or force people on a certain path. "
Krishnamurti gave many interviews and discussions in the years after leaving the TG. Then he devoted himself to lecturing activities. He became an idol for many New Age representatives.
Krishnamurti's teaching is based on the possibility of complete spiritual freedom by recognizing its nature through attentive observation of one's own mind and its reactions at the moment in which these occur. Relationships with Taoism and Zen Buddhism (whose psychological aspects Erich Fromm dealt with) are recognizable. Central to his teaching is the saying “Truth is a pathless land” (for example: “The truth is a land without predetermined paths”): No method, no religion, no teacher can lead to the truth. Everyone is responsible for their own path.
Whatever Krishnamurti said, he never made a theory out of it. In all of the lectures he talks about doubting what he is saying. Because only what you recognize yourself is real insight, not what you read in books. This also and especially applies to his books. He tried to prevent a new ideology from emerging from it. Instead, what he says is intended to encourage people to discover the truth of our lives and of life as a whole.
Krishnamurti expressed that all human conflicts are only effects of the inner state of those people. The first thing to think about is not the external elimination of these grievances, but a transformation of the human being inside, a radical transformation that has nothing to do with a new worldview or religion. Obviously, man is conditioned by traditions and prejudices of people, caste, race, gender and other things.
A central point in Krishnamurti's teaching is the question of the self .
While the task of psychology at Freud lies unconscious I integrate Shares in the ego to dissolve in this way (already occurred) conflicts Krishnamurti recognize already in the assumption of the existence of an ego the real problem: Not one I-stabilization Krishnamurti strives for it, but rather its dissolution. The ego, self or ego (Krishnamurti does not differentiate here), on the other hand, is the cause of all conflicts for Krishnamurti.
According to Krishnamurti, thinking cannot represent a solution to our conflicts, nor can world views, certain values, personal views etc. arising from thinking, etc. Thinking is a separating, analytical process and can never be reality. Rather, it is a reflection of our personal, conditioned view of things.
Ideas and ideals
In this context, ideas and ideals also take on a completely new meaning. Krishnamurti ascribes no world-improving meaning to them, but on the contrary tries rather to depict their dangerousness, when these have their origin exclusively from thinking and the ego.
Krishnamurti distinguishes between chronological and psychological time. The focus of his discussion is not chronological time, but the psychological meaning of time: "It is the interval between idea and action" (Krishnamurti 1985, p. 65).
Krishnamurti criticizes our one-sided emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and the most conflict-free integration into the mechanisms of our society with its values and traditions, in which performance and success often come first. In contrast, true education should "help the student to recognize all social distinctions and prejudices and to tear them down ..." (Krishnamurti n.d., p. 44). Such an upbringing should not encourage the student or the child to disregard conventions or manners from the outset - this would only be a reaction to society and not free action - it should rather be based on the effects and causes of our corrupting society to be researched in oneself.
Jiddu Krishnamurti was accused that his teaching could not be practiced by any human being and that he would not live his teaching himself. He has also been criticized for his brahmin lifestyle as he has always been supported by donations from followers. The Austrian writer Gustav Meyrink condemned the messianic cult around Krishnamurti in his 1927 article Hochstapler der Mystik .
His relationship with Rosalind Williams, later Rajagopal, also appears contrary to his teaching. Krishnamurti repeatedly recommended a life of celibacy and stated himself to have been celibate at that time.
The relationship with his students was often described as tough. Roland Vernon writes in his biography that Krishnamurti lacks normal human compassion and kindness. He was intolerant and even contemptuous of those he did not consider to be his level. Mary Lutyens describes sessions with Krishnamurti as deliberately reducing one's self-confidence.
Krishnamurti practically wrote or spoke in English only. The original English editions are given in brackets below. A chronological edition of the work exists under the title Collected Works ; 17 volumes have appeared so far.
- Diaries and personal records
In 1961/62 he recorded Das Notebook ( Krishnamurti's Notebook , 1976).
From 1973 to 1975 he wrote a personally kept diary:
- Krishnamurti's Journal , 1982
In 1983/84 he spoke "thinking aloud" alone in a room, recorded by a cassette recorder. These "dictations" were noted in the following book:
- Talking to oneself - The Last Journal , Grafing 1988 ( Krishnamurti to Himself. His Last Journal , 1987)
- Speeches, answers to questions, conversations
- Kingdom of Happiness , Jena 1928
- The song of life , Neubabelsberg 1931
- Creative freedom ( The First and Last Freedom , 1948, with foreword by Aldous Huxley)
Trust in life . A Contribution to Education, 1954 ( Education and the Significance of Life , 1953)
- new as authority and education ,
Thoughts on Living ( Commentaries on Living , 1956–60)
- Volume 1: Ideal and Reality
- Volume 2: Conflict and Clarity
- Volume 3: Mind and Love
- The Gateway to New Life ( Talks by Krishnamurti in Europe , 1962)
- Answers to questions in life ( Think on these Things , 1964)
- Breaking into Freedom ( Freedom from the Known , 1969)
- In communion with life . Conversations in Saanen 1964, Berlin 1966
- Revolution through meditation. Total Renewal ( The Only Revolution , 1970)
- The Flight of the Eagle ( The Flight of The Eagle , 1971)
- You are the World - Speeches and talks ( You are the World Authentic Reports of Talks and Discussions in American Universities. , 1972)
- Change through Insight ( The Impossible Question , 1972)
- Beyond the violence ( Beyond Violence , 1973)
- Anders Leben ( A Wholly Different Way of Living , 1974)
- Questions and answers ( Questions and Answers , 1979-80)
- Life without illusions . Speeches in Saanen 1980
- The Flame of Attention , 1981/82
- From becoming to being . Jiddu Krishnamurti in conversation with David Bohm, 1987 ( The Ending of Time , 1985)
- The Washington Lectures ( Washington DC Talks , 1985)
- The last talks in Saanen 1985 , Grafing 1986 ( Last Talks at Saanen , 1987)
- The future is now. Last Talks , Frankfurt am Main 1992 ( The Future is Now.Krishnamurtis Last Talks in India , 1989)
Many of Krishnamurti's speeches and conversations were recorded on film and can be seen on YouTube , for example .
- Compilations and topic books
- Life encounter ( Meeting Life )
- The light in you. About true meditation ( This Light in Oneself - True Meditation )
- Love is like the scent of the rose ( Freedom, Love and Action ). Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2012, ISBN 978-3-451-06497-5 .
- Man be ( To Be Human )
- Total Freedom - The Book of Krishnamurti ( Total Freedom )
- About love ( On Love and Loneliness )
- On Living and Dying Reflections on the Last Things ( On Living and Dying )
- Truth is a Pathless Land ( The Little Book on Living )
- Happiness or the stillness of the mind
- Conversations about Being , 1977 ( Talks with American Students , 1970)
- In communion with life ( Talks by Krishnamurti in Europe )
- Education to art of living - letters to his schools ( Letters to the Schools, Volume 1 ), from September 1978 to March 1980
- The inaudible sound - Letters on mindfulness ( Letters to the Schools, Volume 2 ), August 1981, November 1983
- Be free! ( The Urgency of Change )
- Jan Foudraine : Bhagwan, Krishnamurti, CG Jung and psychotherapy . Synthesis, Essen 1983, ISBN 3-922026-20-6 .
- Jean Overton Fuller : Krishnamurti. The spirit blows where it wants . Aquamarine, Grafing 2000, ISBN 3-89427-149-3 .
- Vanamali Gunturu: Krishnamurti. Life and work . Diederichs (DG 133), Munich 1997, ISBN 3-424-01353-6 .
- Vanamali Gunturu: Jiddu Krishnamurti's thoughts from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-631-33452-4 (= Diss. Munich 1995)
- Pupul Jayakar: Krishnamurti. A life in freedom . Nietsch, Freiburg im Breisgau 2003, ISBN 3-929345-18-8 .
- Hans Peter Klink: On the reception of psychoanalysis in Jiddu Krishnamurti . Roderer, Regensburg 2004, ISBN 3-89783-421-9 (= Diss. Tübingen 2003)
- Mary Lutyens: Krishnamurti. The biography . Aquamarin, Grafing 1991, ISBN 3-89427-008-X .
- Peter Michel : Krishnamurti. A person of the future . Aquamarine, Grafing 2007, ISBN 978-3-89427-374-3 .
- Vimala Thakar: My encounter with Krishnamurti . Aquamarin, Grafing 1989, ISBN 3-922936-85-7 .
- Evelyne Blau: Krishnamurti. 100 years . Aquamarin, Grafing 1995, ISBN 3-89427-072-1 .
- Literature by and about Jiddu Krishnamurti in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Jiddu Krishnamurti in the press kit of the 20th century of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Krishnamurti Forum (Germany)
- Norbert Heider , from his diploma thesis The Pedagogical-Psychological Concept of the Krishnamurti Schools , 1993
- jiddu-krishnamurti.net (English)
- Krishnamurti Foundations (English)
- David Bohm and Krishnamurti (English)
- Krishnamurti and the world crisis (English)
- ↑ after Mary Lutyens: Krishnamurti , p. 25
- ^ A b Jean Overton-Fuller: Krishnamurti. The spirit blows where it wants . Aquamarine, Grafing 2000, ISBN 3-89427-149-3 .
- ↑ Rudolf Steiner: The healthy development of the human being. Rudolf Steiner Complete Edition No. 303, 1st lecture, Dornach, December 23, 1921
- ↑ Norbert Klatt: Theosophie and Anthroposophie , Norbert Klatt, Göttingen 1993
- ↑ Pupul Jayakar: Krishnamurti. A Life in Freedom , pp. 82–113
- ↑ Radha Sloss: Lives in the Shadow With J. Krishnamurti
- ^ Grübler / Rademacher: Religion in Berlin. A manual , Weißensee Verlag, Berlin 2003
- ↑ Kocku von Stuckrad : What is esotericism? Beck, Munich 2004, pp. 214-215.
- ↑ Jiddu Krishnamurti: Truth Is A Pathless Land, The Core Of The Teaching. The Indcom Press, Chennai 2013, p. 2 (The quote is from a speech by Krishnamurti that he gave in 1929 on the occasion of the dissolution of the Order of the Star in the East in Holland.)
- ^ Gustav Meyrink: impostor of mysticism. First published in: Allgemeine Zeitung , Chemnitz 1927
- ↑ See e.g. B .: Jiddu Krishnamurti: Revotution through meditation - the total renewal (11th chapter "Sex") . Humata Verlag, (1st edition) 1983, (last edition: 5th edition) 2006. (Original title: The Only Revolution , 1970)
- ^ Roland Vernon : Star in the East: Krishnamurti - the invention of a Messiah
- ^ Mary Lutyens: Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||spiritual teacher of Indian-Brahmin origin|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 12, 1895|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Madanapalle , India|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 17, 1986|
|Place of death||Ojai , California|