Theosophical Society Adyar

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The Theosophical Society Adyar engl. The Theosophical Society - Adyar (Adyar-TG or TS Adyar) is a theosophical organization that developed from the Theosophical Society (TG). The headquarters are in Adyar , India . Today it is by far the largest TG and is active in more than 60 countries around the world, including Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In addition to its classic range of effects in the area of esotericism and religion , it exerted great influence on society, politics, art and science in the course of its history. Internal disputes as well as a series of scandals, however, tarnished the charisma of the organization.

Seal of the Adyar-TG with the maxim No religion is higher than the truth


The main building of the TG in Adyar in 1890
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
Henry Steel Olcott
William Quan Judge

It was founded on November 17, 1875 in New York . The most important founders and protagonists of the first decades were Helena Blavatsky , Henry Steel Olcott and William Quan Judge , with Olcott holding the office of president. After initial difficulties, the Theosophical Society (TG) was able to establish itself and found its first subsidiaries (lodges). A connection with the Arya Samaj led in 1878 to the Theosophical Society of the Arya Samaj and in 1879 to the relocation of Blavatsky and Olcott to India. After the founding of India's first theosophical lodge in Mumbai by the two theosophists, they moved the New York headquarters there in 1879 and published the monthly magazine The Theosophist . This shifted the focus of activities to South Asia. In 1882, Blavatsky and Olcott bought a 27 acre lot with three small buildings in Adyar , on the banks of the Adyar River , for £ 600, and in December 1882 they moved the TG headquarters there. In the following years Adyar gradually established itself in theosophical circles as a symbol for the TG. The growth of the organization and the parallel maturation of Blavatsky and Olcott brought about an adjustment of the goals of the Theosophical Society in the 1880s , which ultimately led to the expansion of this decade in India and Sri Lanka and in the 1890s in Europe and America promoted.

According to the theosophical view, the TG was founded on behalf of so-called masters of wisdom , who are also said to have led and directed the development of the TG. These masters were allegedly the teachers of Blavatsky and the authors of numerous masters letters received from a number of leading theosophists, most notably Alfred Percy Sinnett and Allan Octavian Hume . The masters were held in high regard by the theosophists, just as the masters' certificates have their permanent place in the teaching building of the TG. The Coulomb affair in 1884 and the subsequent Hodgson Report 1885, both in connection with the master craftsman's letters , had a devastating effect on the reputation of the TG and led to Blavatsky's departure for Europe and the loss of its influence. In 1885 the Theosophists and the TG were involved in the founding of the Indian National Congress (INC) and for decades they were linked to the Indian struggle for independence. In order to expand its influence again, Blavatsky founded the Esoteric Section ( Esoteric Section or Esoteric School of Theosophy or Eastern School of Theosophy - ES or EST) in London in 1888 as an independent body alongside the TG and nominally independent of it. On May 27, 1891, Judge and Annie Besant took over the management of ES

In the years 1894 and 1895 there was the Judge Case , a series of misunderstandings, influence and power struggles between Judge on the one hand and Olcott and Besant on the other, which finally ended on April 28, 1895 with the division of the TG into two competing organizations. On the one hand the Theosophical Society in America (TGinA) under the hierarchical leadership of Judges and on the other hand the more democratic Theosophical Society Adyar (Adyar-TG) under Olcott. This schism was only the prelude to a series of further divisions that led to a multitude of different TGs.

History of the Adyar-TG

Under Henry Steel Olcott

As already mentioned, Adyar had established himself as a synonym for the TG in theosophical circles . As a result of the schism of April 28, 1895, two TGs were created and the designation Adyar-TG became necessary to distinguish them. This became all the more important when, in the following decades, renewed divisions resulted in a number of further TGs, several of which also called themselves Theosophical Society . April 28th can therefore be regarded as the day the Adyar-TG was created; today the Adyar-TG calls itself The Theosophical Society - Adyar . Since the headquarters of the TG had been in Adyar since 1882 and the leadership remained continuous through Olcott, the current Adyar-TG was and is often equated with the TG of 1875. All merits but also scandals from 1875 to 1895 are usually attributed to the Adyar-TG. For many decades, the Adyar-TG also claimed this position of being the legal successor to the original TG for itself. In the Adyar TG, this view gradually gave way to more differentiated approaches. However, this right is criticized and disputed by other TGs who, for their part, still claim to be the sole heirs to the “true” and “genuine” theosophy.

Less than a year after the schism, in March 1896, Judge died. This made Olcott the last living of the "three founders" (Blavatsky, Olcott, Judge). Due to his extensive, worldwide activity in the establishment of the Theosophical Society, his person was an important figure of integration for most of the Theosophists. The worldwide spread of the TG Adyar, its openness towards Asian and European religions and philosophies, as well as its adherence to a democratic organizational structure made the Adyar-TG particularly attractive compared to the TGinA and thus increased membership. In addition, there were disputes at the TGinA over Judge's succession and the reorientation towards social engagement under Katherine Tingley . A number of lodges therefore turned away from the TGinA in the following years and joined the Adyar-TG. The Adyar-TG outstripped the TGinA in the USA in early 1900 in terms of both membership and lodges. It was not until April 3, 1905, that Olcott registered the Adyar-TG in Chennai as a corporation, until that time, from a legal point of view, New York had been the seat of the organization.

During his presidency, Olcott primarily promoted Buddhism ; when he died in 1907, the Adyar-TG had around 650 lodges and centers in operation worldwide.

Under Annie Besant

Annie Besant
Charles Webster Leadbeater

After Olcott's death on February 17, 1907, Bertram Keightley and Annie Besant ran for president. Keightley finally renounced his candidacy, Besant was the only one who stood for election and decided this clearly for himself because there was no alternative. As a close confidante of Blavatsky during the last two years of her life, she had gained considerable influence and through her self-confident demeanor and dazzling speaking skills, she had further expanded her authority in the following years. Even before her time as a member of the Theosophical Society, Besant had developed strong sympathies for Hinduism and reform socialism, which she brought into the society through lectures and books. At the turn of the century, she overcame the negative attitudes towards esoteric Christianity that had prevailed in the TG since Blavatsky.

In the first few years after the TG was founded in 1875, the focus was on research into the occult , but from around 1878 onwards, Olcott primarily propagated Buddhism in the TG. Due to the departure of Judges as a result of the Judge Case , Besant gained further weight and their turn to Hinduism had an increasingly stronger effect since around 1894 in the form of a change of direction in the now multiple Adyar-TG. After the discovery of Jiddu Krishnamurti by Charles Webster Leadbeater and the establishment of the Order of the Star in the East for the new “world teacher”, the Adyar-TG changed course again under Besant. Since about 1911 the coming of a “new Christ” ( Maitreya ) has been in the foreground.

Many attacks against the TG Adyar were carried out by her TGinA under the autocratic leadership of Katherine Tingley. Leadbeater and Besant in particular were accused of betraying the pure teaching of Blavatsky theosophy and the masters of wisdom, from which no one should deviate. Leadbeater had recommended masturbation as an aid to young theosophists who accompanied him on lecture tours and who were plagued by erotic fantasies, in order to make the fantasies controllable. Leadbeater never denied this. After such recommendations became known in early 1906, Leadbeater was accused of having homosexual relationships with his students, which resulted in his "voluntary" resignation from the Adyar-TG as a result of a court of honor to prevent harm. This trial and a second one resulted in Leadbeater's acquittal. It later emerged that the dissemination of the allegations, as well as the legal process of the guardianship suit against Annie Besant, were paid for by Katherine Tingley. As early as 1907, HSOlcott apologized to Leadbeater. Besant then pushed through the resumption of Leadbeater against the opposition of numerous theosophists in January 1909. This led to the departure of George Robert Stow Mead and the spin-off of the Quest Society . The cult of Krishnamurti and the Order of the Star in the East were again one of the reasons for the final split from the Anthroposophical Society under Rudolf Steiner in 1912/13. Further divisions can be found in the chapter Divisions / Separations from the Adyar-TG .

Besant expanded the property acquired by Blavatsky from Adyar-TG in Adyar from 27 acres to 270 acres (109.27 hectares 1.09 km²). In 1908 she founded the Vasanta Press and in 1913 the Theosophical Publishing House , which still exist today and publish theosophical literature. The Krotona spiritual centers in Ojai , Manor in Sydney , and St. Michael’s in Naarden , which are also still active today, were established under Besant's presidency. Pedagogical work with children and young people, upbringing and schooling as well as social engagement were given great importance to the Adyar-TG under Besant. A number of schools, colleges and universities, children, youth and aid organizations, as well as women's rights and aid groups as well as charitable institutions were set up. These were partly autonomous, but were and are mostly under the indirect influence of the Adyar TG. Reform pedagogy and the women's movement in particular received important impulses and help from the theosophical field. In contrast to the Waldorf School Movement, no ideological influence whatsoever was exerted on the Montessori School Movement, which was promoted by the Adyar theosophists. An overview can be found in the chapter Apron and subsidiary organizations .

In the political arena, the Adyar-TG's influence in South Asia reached a climax around 1917/18. Besant was elected President of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1917 , and a number of INC members were theosophists. Seen worldwide, around 1920 was the peak of theosophical influence. The dissolution of the Order of the Star in the East in 1929 marginalized the credibility and thus the influence of the Adyar-TG for the next decade. After Besant's death in 1933, her successor George Arundale was mainly occupied with consolidating and coming to terms with the Krishnamurti era so that he could devote himself to new projects.

After Besant's death in 1933

Besant's death in 1933, followed by Leadbeater's death in 1934, marked a turning point in the history of Adyar-TG. With her death the time of the "great leaders", the charismatic personalities in the Adyar-TG came to an end. None of the subsequent presidents or leading employees radiated even remotely that dynamic, or was able to develop a similar effect as the first and second theosophical generation. The respective presidents traveled the world, held lectures and congresses, published a number of books in some cases, but the times of stormy growth and worldwide influence were over.

Presidents of the Adyar-TG:

So far, there has never been an incumbent president voted out of office; all of them were re-elected at the end of their seven-year term and held the function until their death. Exceptions were Jinarajadasa, who did not run for a second term for health reasons, and Coats, who died during his first term.

The Adyar-TG in German-speaking countries


As early as 1879, just four years after the TG was founded in New York, Harald Wiesendanger founded the theosophical Isis Lodge in Hamburg . The name was evidently based on Blavatsky's work Isis unveiled ; this study group concentrated primarily on this work. Wiesendanger was not in possession of a deed of foundation from the parent company, so his lodge was only an unofficial one and, moreover, had a short lifespan. In 1884 Wilhelm Huebbe Schleiden founded the Lodge Germania , the first official lodge of the TG in German-speaking countries , with a charter issued by Olcott . This lodge was not granted a long life either, but it provided important impulses for the spread of theosophy. The German Theosophical Society (DTG), which appeared in 1894, decided to follow the Adyar-TG during the schism of 1895. In this DTG on January 17, 1902 Rudolf Steiner also became a member and secretary of the lodge. By merging with other German lodges, the German Section of the Theosophical Society (DSdTG) emerged with Steiner as Secretary General. Differences of opinion with Besant and the rejection of the Order of the Star in the East led Steiner to found the Anthroposophical Society in 1912/13 and thus to turn his back on the Adyar-TG - one split among many. The DSdTG never recovered from this split, since then it has only played a subordinate role. Apart from an interruption during the First World War and the prohibition by the Gestapo from 1937 to 1945, the DSdTG still exists today. There are currently eight boxes in operation - Berlin, Bremen, Düsseldorf, 2 × Hamburg, Hanover, Lebach and Munich.


In Austria, Friedrich Eckstein founded the first official theosophical lodge in Vienna in 1887 , which was also followed by the Adyar-TG during the schism of 1895. Mainly in Vienna, but also in other Austrian cities, more theosophical lodges slowly emerged; these had been organizationally affiliated to the DSdTG in Germany led by Steiner since 1902. When Steiner and his Anthroposophical Society became independent, the Austrian lodges formed their own Austrian section in 1912/13 . In 1913 there were 101 registered members who were organized in at least seven lodges, in 1920 there were 311 members in 13 lodges. The 1920s and the first half of the 1930s then marked the heyday of Adyar theosophy in Austria with 24 lodges. Banned after the annexation to Nazi Germany in 1938, only a very modest activity in the form of “coffee parties” was possible during the war. After the war, Adyar theosophy did not really get going in Austria; in addition, anthroposophy was able to establish itself much better as a strong competitor. Currently (2007) there is a lodge in Graz and groups in Vienna and Linz , there is no longer an Austrian section.


In Switzerland, too, the first theosophical lodges emerged at the turn of the century (19th and 20th), seven of which merged in Geneva in 1910 to form the Swiss section of the Adyar-TG. The development since then remains unclear, but in 1989 there were only three lodges left. Today (2007) there are two lodges in Geneva and about eight groups; there is no longer a Swiss section.

Divisions / separations from the Adyar-TG

A list of organizations which parted ways with the Adyar-TG, partly in dispute, partly in friendship. Only those societies are listed that deal at least to a substantial extent with theosophical issues (or pretend to do so). In the broadest sense , we are dealing here with Theosophical Societies . Are not listed the many groups where theosophical influence was available / is the focal point but then in the area of Buddhism , Rosicrucians , Freemasonry , New Thought or New Age was. (This list is incomplete. There were a number of other spin-offs in particular before 1930. Please complete.)

  • 1924 Blavatsky Association
  • 1957 New Acropolis
  • 1983 Astrological Lodge of London
  • 1984 expulsion of the Yugoslav section
  • 1989 Resignation / exclusion of the Danish section
  • 1992 Edmonton Theosophical Society and Theosophical Society in Canada : The Edmonton Theosophical Society is an independent theosophical organization in Canada. It was founded in 1911, was part of the Canadian section of the Theosophical Society Adyar (Adyar-TG) from 1919 and became independent in 1992 with the Theosophical Society in Canada (TS in Canada). In 1995 the Edmonton TS separated from the TS in Canada and has been completely autonomous since then.
  • 1993 Theosophical Society in Boston , emerged from the Lodge in Boston founded in 1922

Apron and subsidiary organizations

In the course of time, a number of independent organizations have been set up by the Adyar-TG itself or members belonging to it. The purpose or the idea behind it was to put the practical and moral consequences of theosophy into practice. Addressing a larger number of people in the theosophical sense by doing this may have been another reason. In contrast to the Theosophical Society in America , which integrated social practice into its organization, the Adyar-TG chose the much more successful way of creating separate societies for this purpose. These organizations mostly performed educational or social tasks, others were devoted to Rosicrucian or Masonic subjects. As a rule, most societies were controlled or significantly influenced by the Adyar-TG, despite their autonomous management. Some societies, such as the Liberal Catholic Church or Kalakshetra , later emancipated themselves from the Adyar-TG, are now independent, but still maintain friendly contacts.

  • 1895 Hindu Boys Association - a school founding and running organization
  • 1895 Lotus Circle for Children - a children's program
  • 1898 Central Hindu College , from 1916 Banaras Hindu University
  • 1898 Order of the Round Table - a children and youth organization
  • 1908 Theosophical Order of Service - an aid organization
  • 1910 Order of the Rising Sun , from 1911 Order of the Star in the East
  • 1912 Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross
  • 1913 Theosophical Educational Trust - a school founding and running organization
  • 1915 Theosophical Fraternity in Education - a reform pedagogical group
  • 1915 All-India Home Rule League - a political group promoting Indian independence
  • 1916 Young Men's Indian Association
  • 1916 Liberal Catholic Church
  • 1917 Women's Indian Association - a women's rights movement
  • 1919 League of Parents and Teachers - Society for parent and teacher training
  • 1920 Guild of the Citizens of Tomorrow
  • 1921 New Education Fellowship (since 1966 World Education Fellowship ) - a school founding and running organization
  • 1922 Brahmavidya Asrama - a spiritual school
  • 1923 Federation of Young Theosophists - Theosophical Society for under 35s
  • 1927 Theosophical World University
  • 1936 Kalakshetra Foundation
  • 1974 Blavatsky Trust - publications and information group for the processing of theosophical history and the dissemination of literature
  • 1980 Olcott Education Society - operating company of schools, hostels, educational institutions and social services
  • 2001 Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women
  • 2002 Eastern Order of International Co-Freemasonry

Organization, distribution and importance


View of Adyar,
the wooded areas on the left bank belong to the Adyar-TG
The Adyar-TG building in Reykjavík , Iceland

The organization of the Adyar-TG is hierarchically based on the democratic principle of the separation of powers . The numbers three and seven , which are considered sacred, play a special role.

  • The only requirement for membership in the Adyar TG is that the individual member must recognize the three goals (see chapter Goals ). There are no oaths of any kind , as is sometimes claimed, but one must be taken in the esoteric section . A membership fee is mandatory.
    • The group (center), as the smallest unit, consists of at least 3 individual members. Theoretically, the group can have any number of members, but it is common to form a lodge from 7 members.
    • The lodge (branch) consists of at least 7 individual members. A foundation deed (charter), which is signed by the President of the Adyar-TG, is required for its establishment. Similar to an association , there is an elected secretary (head), secretary and treasurer.
      • A section (national company) can be formed as soon as at least 7 lodges have been established in a country; it can also contain any number of groups and individual members . However, there can only be one section per country (e.g. Germany, Austria, Switzerland, etc.). As with the lodge, a foundation deed is required to establish a section. The sections are headed by the elected general secretary (board of directors) as executive, supported by a deputy, secretary, treasurer and 4 assessors. Every 3 years each section holds a general assembly during the annual summer school. All members of the respective section are entitled to participate in this legislative assembly. Countries in which there are no sections due to too few members form a regional association (e.g. Austria) or a presidential representation (e.g. Switzerland).
        • The federation is a voluntary union of the sections of a continent (e.g. European Federation, Indo-Pacific Federation, etc.). Regional associations and presidential representations can also be members of the federation. The executive is made up of the chairman, who is elected for 3 years, and is supported by a deputy, secretary, treasurer and 6 assessors. The annual council (e.g. European Council), which consists of the secretaries-general of the sections, exercises the legislative power.
          • The International Board of Directors, under the leadership of the President, who is elected for a period of 7 years, is in charge of the entire Adyar-TG, whereby the Board of Directors only meets once a year. In addition to the president, the executive is taken over by his deputy with secretary, treasurer and 7 to 10 assessors. The legislative power is exercised by the General Council, which consists of all General Secretaries worldwide and 12 elected assessors and meets annually. Since not all secretaries-general and other functionaries want to or are not able to go to the meetings in India every year , there is a postal vote on important topics.

Only one member of the Adyar-TG can be elected to all of the above functions; outsiders can only participate free of charge in mostly topic-related study groups, lectures or evening talks. All groups, lodges, etc. are autonomous in their internal affairs, but their statutes must not conflict with the statutes of the headquarters.

The Theosophical Society in America is a section of the Adyar-TG and an integral part of the same. It is not to be confused with the Theosophical Society of the same name in America . The latter arose in 1895 from the split following the Judge Case , but only bore this name from 1895 to 1898 and is now called Theosophical Society Pasadena .


Apart from internal disputes and scandals, which cost the Adyar-TG most of its members, there have been a number of setbacks due to political sanctions. In 1919 theosophy was banned in Russia by the Bolsheviks and all lodges were dissolved. Banned by the Gestapo in all of Nazi Germany in 1937 , the Second World War was followed by an expansion of the ban on theosophy in the German-occupied areas. As a result, most of the European lodges came to a standstill, and Mussolini had banned theosophy in Italy in 1939 . From 1945 to around 1990 no theosophy was allowed in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc . There has only been a hesitant revival here since the early 1990s.

The Adyar-TG is currently active in more than 60 countries worldwide with its own boxes or sections. In Germany, the association had an estimated 160 members in 2003.

Influence and importance

The overcoming of colonialism in South Asia and the subsequent independence of India and Sri Lanka is essentially due to the work of the Adyar-TG. The revival and appreciation of Buddhist and Hindu culture by the theosophists strengthened the self-confidence of the South Asian peoples and made them aware of the value of their own tradition. Gandhi , Nehru and Tilak received decisive impulses from theosophy and worked together with theosophists in their efforts for decades.

The dissemination of Eastern ideas through the Adyar-TG in the west performed mediating services between cultures and contributed, for example, to the spread of Buddhism or yoga in the west. Much of all western esotericism is directly or indirectly influenced by theosophy. Likewise, the received progressive education , women's movement and feminism an important influence on the part of Theosophy and Theosophists were involved in these movements. Maria Montessori lived for several years in Adyar, where George Arundale offered her refuge and task during the Second World War.

Important artists such as Wassily Kandinsky , Piet Mondrian and Alexander Scriabin were influenced by theosophy. For poets and writers such as William Butler Yeats , James Joyce , George William Russell , Henry Miller and Lyman Frank Baum , theosophy was the inspiration.


The goals of the Theosophical Society changed several times over the course of time, the current form for the Adyar-TG is:

  • To form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of Humanity, without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color.
    • To form a core of the all-embracing brotherhood of mankind, regardless of race, belief, gender, class or skin color.
  • To encourage the study of Comparative Religion, Philosophy and Science.
    • To encourage comparative studies of religion, philosophy and science.
  • To investigate unexplained laws of Nature and the powers latent in man.
    • To explore still unexplained natural laws and the forces hidden in humans.

On December 23, 1924 (renewed December 25, 1996) the General Council, headed by Annie Besant, issued a statement “ that members of society are not in any way bound by any doctrine or belief, whatsoever they come from are. […] Every member has full right to join any teacher or school of thought at their own discretion, but they have no right to impose their choice on other members. Neither the candidates for the offices of the Society nor their constituents may be excluded from voting or standing for election because of the views they hold or because they belong to any school of the spirit. "


As a result of the eventful history of the Adyar-TG, as well as the involvement of intellectually very different personalities, the teaching building of the Adyar-TG is the most complex and differentiated of all TGs and the most difficult to narrow down. Of course, the work of Helena Blavatsky takes center stage , but Olcott , Besant, Leadbeater , Sinnett , Jinarajadasa or Hodson , to name just a few, are also part of the standard repertoire of Adyar theosophical literature with their extensive vre.

The Adyar-TG in no way sees itself as a religion , rather it claims to want to explore the truths and correspondences that exist in all religions. Hence the theosophical maxim is no religion is higher than truth . Theosophists therefore try to come closer to the truth by studying religious, philosophical and scientific literature (see goal no. 2) and, as a result, to achieve personal perfection or spiritual advancement, similar to Jnana Yoga . This is explained a little deeper in the article Theosophy .

Above all, Buddhist , Hindu and Christian elements determine the theosophical philosophy. In addition to Neoplatonic or Gnostic topics, yoga , hermetics , Kabbalah or astrology also have their place and questions about the current mainstream , modern esotericism and interreligious dialogue are discussed.


As a rule, the Adyar-TG is not viewed and assessed by critics as an independent organization, but rather criticizes theosophy or the theosophical movement as a whole. Some assessments are therefore based on Adyar-TG foreign and rejected literature, such as B. that of Alice Bailey , whereby a certain blurring of the allegations is inevitable. Criticism comes almost exclusively from church circles.

  • The Evangelical Information Center criticizes the fact that “ The theosophical idea of ​​development […] just like social Darwinism at the same time [shows] a tendency towards racism . "
  • Catholic theology notes, “ The teaching of the theosophists. Society was in 1919 [...] from the teaching post as with the cath. Belief irreconcilably condemned. "


  • CV Agarwal: The Buddhist and the theosophical movements, 1873–1992 . Sarnath, Varanasi 1993.
  • Bruce F. Campbell: Ancient wisdom revived. A history of the Theosophical movement . University of California Press, Berkeley 1980, ISBN 0-520-03968-8 .
  • Hermann Rudolph Fischer: 100 years of the Theosophical Society. A historical overview . Schatzkammerverlag Fändrich, Calw 1980.
  • Joscelyn Godwin: The theosophical enlightenment . State University of New York Press, Albany 1994, ISBN 0-7914-2152-X .
  • Michael Gomes: The dawning of the theosophical movement . Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton 1987, ISBN 0-8356-0623-6 .
  • Hammer, Olav; Rothstein, Mikael: Handbook of the theosophical current . Brill, Leiden 2013, ISBN 978-90-04-23596-0 .
  • Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa : The golden book of the Theosophical Society. A brief history of the Societys growth from 1875-1955 . Theosophical Publishing House, London 1925.
  • K. Parvathi Kumar: The Theosophical Movement . Edition Kulapati, Wermelskirchen 1996, ISBN 3-930637-07-3 .
  • Joy Mills: 100 years of theosophy. A history of the Theosophical Society in America . Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton 1987, ISBN 0-8356-0235-4 .
  • Josephine Ransom: A Short History of the Theosophical Society . Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton 1992, ISBN 978-81-7059-122-1 .
  • James A. Santucci: Theosophy and the Theosophical Society . Theosophical History Center, London 1985, ISBN 0-948753-00-5 .
  • Peter Washington: Madame Blavatsky's baboon. A history of the mystics, mediums, and misfits who brought spiritualism to America . Schocken Books, New York 1995, ISBN 0-8052-4125-6 .

Web links


Websites of the Adyar-TG


  1. Archived copy ( memento of the original from February 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. ^ Peter Michel, Charles W. Leadbeater, Aquamarinverlag 1998
  3. PLACES OF THE OCCULT ( Memento of July 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) page 119ff
  4. Various communities / newer religious movements (world views / alternative religiosity & spirituality) , website of the religious studies media and information service eV, accessed on December 16, 2015.
  5. Archived copy ( memento of the original from June 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. ^ Adelaide Gardner: Introduction to Theosophy . Adyar-Verlag, Graz 1952. Page 83
  9. Page 1 ( Memento of the original from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /