Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud (born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg in Moravia as Sigismund Schlomo Freud ; died on September 23, 1939 in London ) was an Austrian doctor , neurophysiologist , depth psychologist , cultural theorist and critic of religion . He is the founder of psychoanalysis and is considered one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. His theories and therapeutic methods are used, discussed and criticized to this day.

Sigmund Freud (photograph of Freud's son-in-law Max Halberstadt , 1921)Signature of Sigmund Freud

Freud's then new ideas of the great importance of child sexual conflict situations and trauma in the development of neuroses initially found little resonance in the medical profession, so that he went through a long phase of exclusion before a circle of followers gradually gathered around him, starting from Vienna. to further develop and disseminate psychoanalytic teaching.

The fundamental work on the exploration of the unconscious was Freud's book Die Traumdeutung , published in 1899 . His study on the psychopathology of everyday life from 1904 also became popular . From this, the mistakes later named after Freud are famous to this day . His lectures on Introduction to Psychoanalysis , published in 1916/17, come closest to a textbook and are still considered Freud's most widely read work to this day. High profile has it the id with the three instances of it , I and superego .

Especially in his late work Freud showed himself to be a sharp critic of religion. His commitment to Judaism was not motivated by religion.

Career and milestones

Family relationships

Freud's birthplace in Freiberg (today Sigmund Freud Museum Příbor)

Freud was born as the son of Jewish parents from Galicia in Freiberg in Moravia (Czech Příbor ) - at that time part of the Austrian Empire , today in the Czech Republic - and was originally called Sigismund Schlomo Freud . His father Jacob Freud was a wool merchant, came from a Hasidic family, was 40 years old when Sigmund was born and was married to the much younger Amalia Nathansohn in his third marriage . Jacob Freud read the Bible in Hebrew script and conveyed a fascination for the stories of the Old Testament to his son, but gave up the religious customs of his Hasidic ancestors and only allowed individual Jewish festivals to be celebrated as family celebrations. In retrospect, Freud said: "My father let me grow up in complete ignorance of everything related to Judaism."

Sigmund Freud had two half-brothers who were around 20 years older from his father's first marriage, but who left Austria in his childhood to seek a livelihood in Manchester . The younger brother Julius, born after him, died before Freud's second birthday; his sister Anna was born at the end of 1858. When Jacob Freud, who was active in the cloth trade in Freiberg, no longer saw any future prospects for himself, the family first moved to Leipzig in 1859 and, because a residence permit had not been granted for Leipzig, moved on to Vienna , where they found accommodation in the quarters of Leopoldstadt inhabited by Jews and subsequently moved several times. Between 1860 and 1864 Freud's younger sisters Rosa, Maria, Adolfine and Pauline were born, and in 1866 his brother Alexander, whose name Sigmund was allowed to choose.

The family suffered a serious loss of reputation in 1865 when Jacob's brother Josef Freud was arrested on suspicion of distributing counterfeit Russian rubles and sentenced to ten years in prison in 1866, which he served until 1870. According to police reports, the trail led to Manchester, where Jacob's sons Emmanuel and Philipp Freud were staying, but they were not mentioned. Sigmund noticed that his father's hair turned gray within a few days.

High school time

After attending a private elementary school, Freud went to the Leopoldstädter Communal-Realgymnasium from 1865 . The humanistic educational offer, centered on learning the ancient languages ​​and acquiring historical knowledge, suited Freud's disposition and interests. According to his own admission, he was able to recite what he had read by heart even in longer passages. In addition to the compulsory workload, he read for himself the writings of the pre-Socratics, Plato and the Attic tragedy poets and dealt with archaeological studies, especially those of Heinrich Schliemann on Troy .

He was the only one of the siblings to have his own room in the apartment, which he was filling more and more with books. In order not to waste time reading, he often ate his meals here. He helped his sisters with their homework, but insisted that they be considerate of their own drumming and study activities. "When he, buried in his books, complained about the noise Anna's piano lessons were making, the piano disappeared never to be seen again." The family accepted his "boyish lust for domination" indifferently and reinforced his feeling of being exceptional.

For the preparation of the matriculation examination at the contemporary Austrian grammar schools, extensive memorization over months was necessary. Changing moods of hope, wavering, consternation and amusement accompanied Freud in the final examination in July 1873, which ended with brilliant results for him. He achieved the top grade in seven subjects: "Excellent". The transfer task into ancient Greek consisted of 33 verses from the Sophocles tragedy, King Oedipus . In the same year Freud acquired a German edition of Sophocles' Tragedies, which he later continued to work with.

Extensive medical studies

Freud, who had also toyed with the idea of ​​studying law , decided - with the intention of becoming a natural scientist - to study medicine and enrolled at the University of Vienna in the summer of 1873 . His main interest was in human nature and its exploration. The rush for the subject was so great - around 1,300 medical students at the University of Vienna in the early 1870s - that even then the anonymous atmosphere of a mass university prevailed there. Freud was determined from the start not to limit his academic interests to training as a medical doctor. He soon took part in Franz Brentano's lectures on logic , Aristotelian epistemology and empiricism and began reading Brentano's psychological writings. "His whole life was now dictated by a great, almost insatiable urge to educate, marked by violent changes in inclination, fluctuating between zoology , physiology and natural philosophy, " says Peter-André Alt. When going through the medical disciplines, Freud was particularly drawn to the lectures of the psychiatrist Theodor Meynert , in whose clinic, after completing his studies in 1883, he "got to know the broad spectrum of the most varied of nervous disorders and laid the foundation for his own research in the therapeutic field."

From autumn 1874 Freud ran his own philosophy circle, partly with former schoolmates, and devoted himself, among other things, to Feuerbach's work Das Wesen des Christianentums with statements on religious criticism that made a lasting impression on him. In the summer of 1875 he visited his half-brothers in Manchester and from then on was extremely positively taken with the English way of life. Then the zoologist Carl Claus - counted by Peter Gay as one of the "most successful and fertile propagandists of Darwin in the German language" - accepted him as an assistant professor in his laboratory and gave him the opportunity to do research on eels at the experimental station for marine biology he set up in Trieste - To make testicles . In 1876 Freud moved to the laboratory of the physiologist Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke , on whose behalf he worked and researched until 1882, mainly using a microscope. The investigations related to the nervous system of lower fish and, in comparison, to the human one.

Before the final exams of his medical studies , Freud had to complete his one-year military service in the Vienna Medical Corps in 1879 . Since he his dissertation about the spinal cord lower fish had already concluded before the exams, he was already well on the day after passing the last medical examination for MD PhD . The medical studies that began early at the age of 17 ended comparatively late for the 25-year-old. “His extensive curiosity and research inclination prevented him from earning his doctorate within the usual five years,” summarizes Peter Gay.

Professional starting positions

Physiological research and clinical experience

More than a year after completing his doctorate, Freud continued his physiological research in Brückes laboratory. During his studies he had already written to a friend that when preparing for a career he preferred to “kill animals” rather than “torture people”. However, when he met Martha Bernays in April 1882 and wanted to marry, he had to strive for a significant improvement in his income.

At the end of July 1882, Freud took a job as an assistant doctor at the Vienna University Hospital in order to acquire clinical knowledge that would be useful for the planned operation of his own practice . In surgery , for which he lacked the manual skill and confidence, he stayed only a few weeks and then, with a recommendation from Meynert, switched to the internal department headed by Hermann Nothnagel , in which he also felt rather bad than right. So six months later he seized an opportunity to find accommodation in Meynert's psychiatric clinic. There he was confronted with drastic clinical pictures, for the treatment of which psychotropic drugs were not yet available. Freud, a “horror cabinet of venereal diseases” with a high mortality rate, was also employed in the syphilitic department.

Brain anatomy, cocaine and Parisian impulses

After the end of the service to the patient at 7 p.m., Freud went to Meynert's laboratory for brain anatomical studies. In order to be able to combine this research work more closely with clinical work, he moved to the neurological department in January 1884, where nerve ailments such as paralysis, headache and perception disorders were treated.

With the medical use of the substance cocaine , which at that time newly came into his field of vision, Freud was not lucky in two respects: The use he suggested as a local anesthetic was not due to his scientific merit due to a lack of detailed work, but to that of Carl Koller , who the investigated and published the local anesthetic effects of cocaine on the eye. Freud's treatment of a morphine dependency by means of cocaine substitutes, which was carried out on his doctor friend Ernst von Fleischl and was regarded as harmless, only showed clear success at the beginning, but also produced the fatal addiction to increasing the dose. Freud, who consumed cocaine himself in small doses, among other things for the local treatment of sinus infections and as a performance-enhancing agent until 1896, and his fiancée Martha, who used it to cure minor ailments on his recommendation, had no addictive characteristics.

Charcot demonstrates the effect of hypnosis on a " hysteric ", the patient Blanche Wittman , painting by André Brouillet (1887)

In September 1885, after successfully completing his habilitation colloquium, Freud was admitted as a private lecturer at the University of Vienna . Immediately afterwards, he was accepted for a six-month travel grant for young scientists that he had applied for and spent it with Jean Martin Charcot at the Paris Salpêtrière , because neuropathology there was considered to be the most advanced at the time. Long-term impressions for guests from outside the facility were, above all, Charcot's weekly patient demonstrations in front of a specialist audience with diagnostic surveys, in which the patient was often hypnotized to facilitate the determination of the typical symptoms of the disease. Charcots also regularly gave outstanding examples of invigorating lecture art in lectures. Returning to Vienna, Freud translated some of Charcot's writings and, in an obituary in 1893, paid tribute to him, among other things, as the discoverer of the traumatically triggered neuroses and for the refinement of the hypnotic process.

Psychoanalysis in the making

Freud had already got to know the use of hypnosis as a treatment method from his colleague Josef Breuer , a doctor he knew and friend of from Meynert's clinic ; and after the Parisian experience he also tried it himself when he set up his own practice in April 1886. During the ten years that followed, he also took care of the establishment and operation of the neurological outpatient clinic at the First Public Children's Hospital in Vienna's 1st district . This field of activity provided him with "illustrative material of inestimable importance", according to Alt, as he "based his later sex theory essentially on observations of infantile and pubertal change processes."

Freud family 1898. Front: Sophie, Anna and Ernst Freud. Middle: Oliver and Martha Freud, Minna Bernays. Back: Martin and Sigmund Freud.
The house at Berggasse 19 in Vienna. Freud lived here with his family for 47 years from 1891 until they emigrated to London in 1938
Ornate staircase, a landing with an interior door and window, staircase continuing up
Steps to Freud's apartment and practice at Berggasse 19. For almost half a century, patients came and went to Freud's office with the famous couch . The couch and most of the books, collectibles and furniture are now in the Freud Museum (London) , the Freuds' exile apartment.

With her own private practice, which initially only generated a meager income, the prerequisites for a marriage now appeared to be in place. After a four-year engagement period, Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays married on September 13, 1886 in the town hall of Wandsbek near Hamburg ; the following day there was a Jewish rite wedding. Between 1887 and 1895 Martha Freud gave birth to six children: Mathilde (1887–1978), Jean-Martin (1889–1967), Oliver (1891–1969), Ernst (1892–1970), Sophie (1893–1920) and Anna (1895-1982). In 1891 the family moved into the apartment at Wiener Berggasse 19, Freud's domicile until 1938. In the previous building on this property, Victor Adler , originally the owner of the house and founder of the Austrian social democracy, practiced as a doctor for the poor from 1882 to 1889 .

Soul doctor on his own mission

Shortly after the end of the honeymoon spent in Travemünde , Freud met with a lecture on male hysteria in the Viennese Society of Physicians in October 1886, at times violent rejection, which his former sponsor Meynert also expressed by describing male hysteria as an absurd “specific of French Decadence ”and thus degraded the proceeds of Freud's trip to Paris. As a result, Freud found himself largely isolated and sidelined from the clinical capacities of the Viennese medical profession. The flow to his practice was correspondingly slow during the first few years.

Freud treated his mostly female patients, who suffer from nervous disorders, with the tried and tested methods, including electrotherapy in addition to hypnosis . At the beginning of the 1890s, however, he turned away from it. He now focused more on the probable effect of sexual conflicts with regard to neurotic diseases up to the hypothesis expressed to Wilhelm Fließ in 1893 that "neurasthenia is only a sexual neurosis at all ." During these years, the theory-loving Berlin doctor colleague and nasal specialist Fliess became , in which Freud received little recognition in his professional environment, as a letter and occasional partner for personal exchange with his ideas, suggestions and with the editing of Freud's manuscripts to the most important promoter of his psychoanalytic approaches.

Josef Breuer , who described the case of "Anna O." ( Bertha Pappenheim ) in the studies on hysteria published jointly with Freud , also made a significant contribution to the genesis of psychoanalysis . The treatment begun by Breuer in 1880, about which Freud was oriented, showed, despite the lack of healing success in the end, that a therapeutic conversation situation and dynamic enabled the effective treatment of disease symptoms. Until the early 1890s, according to Gay, Freud tried, following Art Breuer's, to achieve therapeutic effects through hypnosis. But some patients did not allow themselves to be hypnotized by him; uncensored speech then presented itself to him as a superior means of investigation. "The technique of 'free association' was emerging."

Freud found that nervous symptoms of illness were hereditary, as taught by Charcot, only partially true. Now he preferred to “look for early traumatic experiences as the key to the hidden causes of the strange disorders of his patients.” Looking back on the cathartic treatment technique applied by Breuer, Freud explained: “We drew the patient's attention directly to the traumatic scene , in which the symptom arose, tried to guess the conflict and to make the repressed affect free. ”Freud first used the term“ psychoanalysis ”in 1896 in two essays in the French-language revue Neurologique on March 30th, in Neurological Zentralblatt on April 15th. The only method to reliably investigate the causes of the disease in neuroses, it was said there, was "psychoanalysis for making the previously unconscious conscious".

The material from which Freud developed his theory were the stories of suffering that he had analyzed and recorded in his treatment practice over the years. Initially, it was a matter of “listening, finding one's way into the vibrations of the strange soul, from which connections of the unconscious were then derived.” For Freud, a theory was only of value if it was related to practical experience. Freud obtained the right to publish his most important case histories out of a purely scientific interest. "The decisive factor remained the analytical objective, which revealed the intimate in 'all frankness', but did not serve to provoke erotic fantasies."

Dissemination approaches

In the Viennese medical profession, Freud had been largely isolated for a long time when he joined the Jewish B'nai-B'rith Lodge in September 1897 in order to cultivate intellectual exchange in good company. He made no secret of his disbelief and distance from all religious rites, which he practiced against his wife, for example, and enforced in everyday family life, even in this circle. Nonetheless, Freud acknowledged his Jewish origins and affiliation throughout his life. The lodge was dedicated to the education about Judaism, its values ​​and history; lectures were discussed, for example, about great Jewish minds such as Baruch Spinoza and Heinrich Heine . The fact that there were also devout believers among the members who liked to deal with theological questions did not prevent Freud from presenting, for example, on his dream research, which was received very benevolently and in some cases enthusiastically.

Sigmund Freud stele on the Cobenzl in Grinzing

Freud spent the summer of 1895 with the Ritter von Schlag family in their Belle Vue palace on Cobenzl , above Grinzing , in Vienna. On July 24th, in the interpretation of the dream of 'Irma's injection', according to a communication to Fliess of June 12th, 1900, “the secret of the dream” was revealed to him. A stele with an inscription on the site of the castle, which was demolished in 1963, reminds of this : “Do you actually believe that one day there will be a marble plaque on the house ?: 'Here, on July 24th, 1895, Dr. Sigm. Freud the secret of the dream '. So far, the prospects for this are slim. "

Freud began the study of the technique of dream interpretation after he had subjected himself to a self-analysis from 1895 to 1898, which specifically opened up the Oedipus complex for him : “I also found love for my mother and jealousy against my father in myself and now believe it to be a general event from early childhood […] “In November 1899 Die Traumdeutung appeared with an edition of 600 copies. The work was divided into three parts, the first of which was devoted to the presentation of previous dream research, the main part contained a presentation backed by case studies and the third "enabled the theoretical development of the findings with regard to the new leading categories of the unconscious and preconscious." For Peter Gay, the interpretation of dreams represents the “strategic center” in the development of Freud's psychoanalytic thinking. With its publication “the principles of psychoanalysis were established.” Peter-André Alt also sees the interpretation of dreams as the fundamental work for all other elements of Freud's theory : "The unconscious and the desire economy, the activity of the instincts, infantile sexuality, the role of the libido and the oedipal desire for incest, forgetting and remembering as reflexes of psychic work, the linguistic achievement of the dream - all of this was present here in fascinating conciseness."

However, the work was initially only poorly distributed. Only 351 copies had been sold by 1906. Occasional enthusiastic reactions from younger doctor colleagues did little to change the disappointing reception for Freud by the established professional colleagues who were no longer interested. From October 1902 onwards, Freud invited four of the young Viennese doctors, who showed a lasting interest in Freud's theories without their own specialist training and who had been treated personally by him, every Wednesday evening in the waiting room of his practice at Berggasse 19 to take part in Lecture and discussion to deal with pending psychoanalytic questions. The first four invited to this Wednesday group, which was soon to expand, were Alfred Adler , Max Kahane , Rudolf Reitler and Wilhelm Stekel . Together with Paul Federn, you formed the core of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association founded in October 1908 , the model for many other psychoanalytic societies around the world. During this time Otto Rank , Sándor Ferenczi and Ernest Jones joined the circle around Freud. In 1911, Lou Andreas-Salomé was the first woman to join Freud's inner circle of students.

With other publications from 1901 to 1906 opened up Freud psychoanalytic theory new areas, it extended, as it is in Alt, "from the dark side of dreams on mental waking existence of." Among them was the 1901 published study The Psychopathology of Everyday Life , which for should become Freud's most widely read work and contributed significantly to its popularization, in particular the “ Freudian slip of the tongue ” as the best-known example of a mistake . He also published Three Essays on the Unconscious in 1905 and The Joke and Its Relation to the Unconscious in 1906 . When Freud celebrated his 50th birthday that year, his admirers gave him a medal, one side with his portrait in profile, the other with Oedipus, solving the riddle of the Sphinx; in addition the inscription found in Sophocles and now to be minted on Freud: "He solved the famous riddle and was a very powerful man."

Treatment practice and everyday life

Sigmund Freud on a portrait photograph by Ludwig Grillich around 1905

After the turn of the century, Freud's practice picked up speed, especially after Freud had decided to reluctantly help the long in vain waiting for the appointment as associate professor by switching on his network of contacts. From then on, he no longer had to worry about the lack of interest in his practice, because, as he himself saw it, a professorship “elevates the doctor in our society to a demigod for his patients.” In view of the increasing demand, Freud increased his fee for them One-hour therapy session for 40 or, as an exception, 50 crowns, the equivalent of a decent suit at a men's tailor. With up to ten patients a day, six days a week for ten months a year, the annual earnings were 24,000 crowns, twice as high as for a full university professor and twelve times as high as that of a high school teacher. Since the fee costs had to be raised privately by the patients, Freud's core clientele was limited to the well-off Viennese circles. Severe cases appeared every day except Sundays, and milder cases three times a week.

The psychoanalytic treatment as developed, practiced and taught by Freud was based solely on the therapeutic conversation in which Freud sat next to the patient lying on the couch outside of their field of vision and added his impulses, questions and brief comments to their utterances. “For the analysis itself,” says Alt, “every detail was important, every side track was worth following.” A successful therapy usually required longer periods of time. Freud did not consider his own treatment approach to be suitable for the healing of psychoses . He avoided treating patients over the age of 50 as technically difficult.

For Freud, everyday work began when he got up at 7 o'clock. He treated his patients from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. Freud spent the rest of the evening, until bedtime at 1 a.m., reading and writing his publications. On Saturdays from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. he gave his lectures at the university. Then he spent the evening with friends and the weekly tarot games. He dedicated Sunday to his family and the accompanying correspondence. Since the mid-1890s, he closed his practice for at least two months at the latest in mid-July in order to go on vacation with the family and travel. When the practice reopened on October 1st at the latest, a new annual cycle began.

Psychoanalytic Politics

Freud attentively registered and supported all approaches to reception of his teaching, including abroad. The Psychiatric University Clinic Zurich ( called Burghölzli ) under Eugen Bleuler played an important role in this . Here, with Carl Gustav Jung , Ludwig Binswanger , Max Eitingon and Karl Abraham, a circle of later well-known Freud students was formed. Then there was Sabina Spielrein , who was treated as Jung's patient at Burghölzli and was introduced to psychoanalysis, who later contacted Freud and was active in both publishing and practicing psychoanalysis. The young doctors at this Swiss clinic, which is regarded as the avant-garde of international psychiatry and has a high scientific reputation, were very welcome to Freud as allies in establishing and disseminating psychoanalytic theory and practice. Especially with CG Jung, who he had in mind as the successor and continuation of his own work, he tried to establish a close cooperation.

Group photo in front of Clark University in 1909 . Front: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall , CG Jung . Back: Abraham A. Brill , Ernest Jones , Sandor Ferenczi

As early as 1908, Jung was entrusted with the preparation and organization of the first international congress of analysts in Salzburg and took over the editing of the first yearbook for psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research published by Freud and Bleuler in 1909 . In 1910 there was also the Wiener Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse, also published by Freud, with Adler and Stekel as editors, and in 1913 the International Journal for Psychoanalysis . Clark University in Massachusetts set a clear sign of international awareness and recognition of Freud's work at the beginning of September 1909 when it awarded Freud, who had traveled there during his summer break, an honorary doctorate and also awarded CG Jung.

At the second international congress of analysts in Nuremberg in 1910 , tensions arose when Freud's Viennese group of supporters felt neglected towards the Swiss when the International Psychoanalytic Association was founded. At Freud's instigation, CG Jung was proposed as president, and another Swiss psychiatrist and a relative of Jung was proposed as secretary. When the Viennese then set up internal consultations, to which Freud was not invited, he nevertheless appeared in great excitement and, according to Fritz Wittels, implored those present as follows: “You are for the most part Jews and therefore not suitable to make friends with the new doctrine . Jews have to be humble to be cultural fertilizers. I have to get in touch with science: I'm old, don't always want to be attacked. We are all in danger. ”They agreed on Jung as president with a term of office limited to two years. He wrote to Karl Abraham, who was also close to him and who had moved from Burghölzli to Berlin and opened his first psychoanalytic practice there, to dissuade him from the skepticism that had developed in the meantime towards his former boss, CG Jung. He asked him not to forget that he, Abraham, actually found it easier as a Jew to accept psychoanalysis than Jung, who, as a Christian and the son of a pastor, found his way to him, Freud, only against great resistance. “His connection is all the more valuable. I almost said that it was only his appearance that prevented psychoanalysis from becoming a Jewish national affair. "

Directional fights and relationship conflicts

As a pioneer, leading figure and engine of dissemination of psychoanalytic doctrine, Freud had and maintained pioneering authority throughout his life. Since he himself viewed the new space of knowledge as a scientific research and development project, it was obvious that both he and his fellow researchers should come to differentiations and corrections. For example, Freud's idea, initially derived from patient analysis, that every described experience of abuse had actually taken place in childhood and was to be regarded as the cause of the neurosis, turned out to be untenable: at least in part, as Freud later recognized, it was a false imagination. The fact that he repeatedly explained psychoanalysis on occasion corresponded, according to Alt, to Freud's “very own understanding of science”. The constant modifications in which he presented them therefore also worked in the interests of self-enlightenment. "Wherever Freud introduced his research, he continued it at the same time, raising it to a higher level of penetration."

Among Freud's long-time supporters in Vienna, it was initially Alfred Adler who developed a distinctly different point of view. From Freud's perspective, his individual psychology was based on a massive underestimation of erotic impulses. Adler created "a world system without love". By placing the accent on the egoistic drives, as Freud judged in retrospect in 1917, Adler threw the entire theory of the unconscious out of balance. At the beginning of 1911, the differences escalated after two lectures by Adler. The following summer, Adler and three of his closest followers left the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. More followed after Freud declared that it was incompatible with Adler's new Thursday group. As a reaction to the outcome of the conflict with Adler, an international "secret committee" composed of followers of Freud was formed in July 1912 on the initiative of Ernest Jones , who resolved to preserve his teachings and to observe his opponents.

Meanwhile, disagreements between Freud and his intended successor, CG Jung, also increased. For several years Jung had assumed the role of successor in Freud's path that was intended for him and emphasized the authority of the foster father in his letters. But Jung too came up against Freud's exclusive emphasis on the libido as a psychodynamic driver. For his part, according to Gay, he tried to expand the meaning of Freud's concept of libido beyond the sexual instincts to a general psychic energy. For a long time this basic conflict was covered up and held down in mutual expressions of respect, whereby Freud perhaps relied on the passing of Jung's reservations, while the latter might shrink from falling out of favor with the one whom he himself put on a par with “Heracles as a human hero and higher God ”.

Signs that this was a highly tense relationship for Freud were two Freud faints in Jung's presence. The first came when they set out on a joint trip to the USA in 1909 to be awarded an honorary doctorate. Freud suffered the second bout of weakness during a controversial conversation with Jung in November 1912, when he himself had already given up hope that Jung would give in. Jung picked up Freud, who had fallen to the ground, and carried him to a couch, where he was quickly back to himself. The rift in the relationship, however, turned out to be incurable. Ultimately, one mutually certified neurotic disorders, a method of discrediting common in the first generation of psychoanalysts, as Gay emphasizes. Jung retired from all previous positions and created - like Adler before - his own sphere of activity. Freud published his reckoning with both adversaries in early 1914 in the treatise On the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement .

World war and post war experiences

In the pre-war year 1913, Freud's cultural-theoretical work Totem and Tabu appeared as a methodological extension and interdisciplinary foundation of the psychoanalytic teaching . With the intention of producing a synthesis of prehistory, biology and psychoanalysis, Freud sought hastily to fill the field of cultural anthropology before it could possibly be mastered by CG Jung.

With the beginning of the First World War , Freud let himself be carried away by the general euphoria of the war and even went so far as to remark that his “entire libido” belonged to Austria-Hungary . Until well into 1915, Alt says, Freud's patriotic enthusiasm continued, fueled by the successes of German troops on the Eastern Front and every breakthrough by Austrian armies in which his sons served. But Freud began to feel the hardships of the reality of war more and more. In April 1915 he put the loss of practice income that had occurred up to that point at 40,000 kroner. Instead of 10 patients a day, there were at times just two. At the end of 1917 people were paid with cigars or coal instead of groceries.

The survival of the psychoanalytic movement was called into question by the world war. The majority of those active were doctors called up for military service, so that both analysis and relevant publications practically came to a standstill. The yearbook was all set; the international journal for psychoanalysis and the journal Imago , founded in 1913 , still appeared, but on a much reduced basis. There were no psychoanalytic congresses or conferences; the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society met only every second, from 1916 every third week, if not more irregularly. However, as a result of the sharp decline in practical activity, Freud himself was able to turn to theoretical work and publication projects. At this time metapsychological treatises on narcissism , drive and repression, dream activity, forgetting and remembering, the unconscious and transference were written. In the 18th chapter of the lectures introducing psychoanalysis in 1917, he placed his discovery of the power of the unconscious as the most sensitive of three " offenses against humanity " in a row with the fundamental theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Charles Darwin . Freud was only appointed full professor on December 31, 1919 under the changed post-war conditions.

The end of the war and the immediate post-war period also brought supply needs to the Freud family. The scarcity of coal made it difficult to do desk work with frozen hands. From the fall of 1919 on, Freud's practice picked up again, because wealthy British and Americans in particular sought out Freud, who, under the conditions of galloping inflation, soon found pleasure in being paid in dollars. In the early 1920s, a large number of Americans in need of therapy visited the old continent, especially Vienna, because there was still a lack of trained analysts at home, and in some cases also to undergo a training analysis as doctors at Freud's. Freud also remained productive in the post-war years as a journalist: In 1920, Jenseits des Lustprinzips appeared , a work in which the terms “ repetition compulsion ” and “ death instinct ” were introduced; In 1921 Freud brought out group psychology and analysis of the ego , in 1923 the ego and the id .

Live and work with cancer

Sigmund Freud 1926 on a portrait photo of Ferdinand Schmutzer

In 1923, Freud's health, which had long been compromised in many respects, suffered a dramatic cut when he was confronted with a bleeding growth on the palate. During the first examinations, the malignancy of the tumor was withheld from him in order to spare him and to keep him courageous. From cigar smoking, which he indulged in excessively for decades and which had promoted palatal cancer , Freud still did not let himself be deterred. “Giving up the vice,” says Alt, “was not possible because it would have meant giving up intellectual work. In all other situations in life - playing cards, going for a walk, traveling - Freud could do without a cigar, but not at his desk. "

After a summer break in Rome, Freud underwent surgical removal on October 12, 1923, including the larger part of the right upper jaw and parts of the lower jaw. Then a prosthesis was made to make speaking and chewing possible again. The handling of the bulky construct during insertion and removal was complicated and time consuming. More than 50 other small and large interventions were necessary in the remaining 16 years of Freud's life, in order to contain new growths, some of which were benign, and to make prosthesis adjustments. Long public lectures, conference participation and eating in company were no longer possible for Freud under these circumstances. It was also difficult to hold analysis sessions with patients, which Freud carried out to a lesser extent until the last year of life. In the twenties, Freud, out of the desire to become more vital , underwent a vasoligature devised by Eugen Steinach , in which his vas deferens were tied off.

Despite increasing health problems, which increasingly resulted in longer spa stays, and at times his ability to concentrate, Freud remained decisive as a leading figure in the psychoanalytic movement, both theoretically and organizationally, in the course of the 1920s and early 1930s. With considerable energy, according to Alt, Freud continued to steer the fortunes of the International Psychoanalytic Society , both the journal and the publisher. "He and no one else decided on personnel changes that seemed necessary to him especially when colleagues and former confidants violated the principles of loyalty." With his treatise on resistance to psychoanalysis , published in 1925 , he again brought his view of the teething problems for his own Therapy concept in circulation by tracing it back to the irritating effect of disillusioning insights. In 1927, Freud laid out his critical religious thinking in The Future of an Illusion . One should expect the unveiling of the world riddles not from flimsy religious fictions, but only from science. In the study The Unease in Culture , he developed his psychoanalytical perspective of the human condition in the context of modern social life , for which the sublimation of the sex drive and related needs is fundamental - one of the most widely received and discussed in the multitude of Freud's publications.

Daughter Anna as a strong support

Sigmund and Anna Freud in the Dolomites in 1913

In the circle of his relatives, Freud was consistently the often generous and caring family man who, despite intensive occupation, rejected and avoided the hardship of upbringing typical of the time. Except on Sundays and during the summer holidays, he was hardly concerned with it anyway, because his wife Martha took care of the children and the household, supported from 1896 by her widowed younger sister Minna as a roommate, who sometimes accompanied Freud on his travels instead of Martha. A particularly close relationship developed between Freud and his last-born daughter Anna , who was interested in her father's books and in the discussions he had with his guests on psychoanalytic topics from a young age. Having worked as a teacher since 1915, Anna Freud also strove to train as a psychoanalyst.

Beginning in October 1918, Freud had therapeutic conversations with Anna in the sense of a training analysis, which initially lasted until 1922 and, among other things, treated the daughter's incestuous tendencies towards her father without taboos. After her first attempts at analysis with children, Anna Freud succeeded in becoming a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Association in 1922 with a treatise on childish beating fantasies .

When Freud's palatal cancer broke out in 1923, it was Anna who accompanied him on his last trip to Rome and who then became his main carer. She was the only one able to help him insert the palatal prosthesis, which could turn into a half-hour procedure. From then on Anna also took over the representation of her father at psychological congresses and from 1927 she held the position of general secretary in the International Psychoanalytic Association .

Freud's image of women

Freud's early practice clientele from the mid-1880s onwards was predominantly female; a good two decades later he began to train female psychoanalysts, although his image of women continued to show markedly conservative traits. He himself expected in the mid-1920s that his views on this would be criticized as being detrimental to the women's movement. In doing so, however, he himself found it unsatisfactory and uncertain “what we know about early female development”. In a publication on lay analysis in 1932, he gave his readers to understand that what he said about femininity was “certainly incomplete and fragmentary” say, and advised you to ask your own life experiences about it, to turn to the poets or to wait until science can give them "deeper and better coherent information."

Nevertheless, from the different modes of action of the Oedipus complex in boys and girls, which he assumed, Freud derived a weaker conscience expression in the female sex. While women remained more attached to their instinctual impulses, men tried to refine them culturally. According to Freud, women could only develop fully developed pleasure experiences if they succeeded in making the transition from clitoral to vaginal sexual satisfaction. Otherwise they wouldn't need the man for their erotic pleasure.

The treatise on female sexuality , written in 1931, addressed the process of separation in girls from mother to father. In doing so, Freud was able to fall back on impressions that he had gained during the joint analysis regarding a homosexual character of his daughter Anna. He interpreted persistent same-sex love inclinations among women as an attempt to overcome the incest problem and the feelings of guilt associated with a fixation on the father .

Celebrity with downsides

Unlike the isolation experience before the turn of the century, Freud and his teachings drew more and more attention in the 1920s. In the middle of the decade, Freud was known all over the world, says Peter Gay and refers to the project of Hollywood producer Samuel Goldwyn , who wanted to persuade the “greatest love specialist in the world” to “commercially exploit his expertise and create a story” for $ 100,000 to write for the screen or come to America and help in a 'major attack' on the hearts of this nation. ”Freud, however, categorically declined a meeting with Goldwyn.

The fact that Freud and psychoanalysis found their way into Viennese coffee houses , were discussed at cocktail parties and made their way onto the theater stage was hardly conducive to a sober understanding of his thinking. “Its terms and fundamental ideas have been misinterpreted and usually falsified to serve as a common currency.” It seemed to Swedish doctor and Freudist Paul Bjerre that Freudianism had aroused feelings “as if it were a new religion and not a new field of research . ”Freud himself was ambivalent about the popularity it had gained. In 1920, in view of the sending of substantial psychoanalytic publications from various countries, he registered that the matter was going “everywhere”; but he was skeptical about his own popularity and had bad expectations of what would happen to psychoanalysis after his death.

On the other hand, Freud was definitely interested in public applause and expected recognition for the originality of his contributions to science, which was increasingly emerging, even if he was awarded the Nobel Prize, for which he was awarded a campaign by personalities such as Alfred Döblin , Jakob Wassermann , Bertrand Russell , Knut Hamsun and Thomas Mann had been proposed but remained denied. On the other hand, he found satisfaction at the opening ceremony of the University of Jerusalem in 1925, when Lord Balfour counted him, alongside Henri Bergson and Albert Einstein, among the three men who would have exerted the greatest useful influence on modern thought.

In 1930 the city of Frankfurt awarded Freud the Goethe Prize “for the special linguistic qualities of his works” . At the suggestion of the League of Nations , Freud examined the possibilities of science to prevent war in an exchange of letters with Albert Einstein in 1932 : “Why war?” In 1935 he became an honorary member of the British Royal Society of Medicine. On Freud's 80th birthday, Thomas Mann gave the lecture “Freud and the Future” on May 8, 1936, first at the Vienna Academic Association and then again at Berggasse 19 directly for the jubilee who lacked the strength to participate in a public event . The old gentlemen of the Jewish student union Kadimah Vienna , to which Freud's son Martin belonged, also congratulated on this anniversary ; shortly afterwards he became an honorary member himself.

At the abyss of current affairs

Freud's view of the political situation in Austria after the end of the First World War was slightly sarcastic. On March 17, 1919 he wrote: “Today we learn that we are not allowed to join Germany, but are allowed to cede South Tyrol. I'm not a patriot, but it is painful to think that pretty much the whole world will be abroad. "He greeted the overthrow of the Austrian monarchy rather cautiously towards Lou Andreas-Salomé :" I think you can only be friendly about revolutions Win relationship when they are over; they should therefore have expired in a very short time. ” Freud, who had sympathized with social democratic positions in his younger years, viewed conditions in Russia after the Bolshevik October Revolution with skepticism and described himself to Arnold Zweig as“ an old-fashioned liberal ”. Freud rejected the instrumentalization of psychoanalysis for political purposes; psychoanalysis does not form a worldview.

Freud was a professing non-religious both in his writings and in everyday family life, who, according to his son Martin, took no account of Jewish traditions. Christmas was celebrated with presents under the tree and Easter with painted eggs. Neither he nor his siblings had visited a synagogue. In an interview with George Sylvester Viereck in 1926, Sigmund Freud commented on his cultural self-positioning : “My language is German. My culture, my upbringing are German. Mentally I thought I was German until I saw the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany and German-Austria. Since then I have preferred to call myself a Jew. ”A year earlier he had addressed another facet of his cultural self-reflection:“ It is perhaps no mere coincidence that the first exponent of psychoanalysis was a Jew. In order to acknowledge it, it takes a fair measure of willingness to accept the fate of isolation in the opposition, which is more familiar to the Jew than to anyone else. "

Book burning and the Schuschnigg regime

When, in connection with the effects of the global economic crisis, the Österreichische Creditanstalt declared its insolvency in May 1931 and thus caused additional economic upheaval, Freud did not find himself in an economic emergency because of his foreign clients who paid in hard currencies, but complained about the collapse of the community. After the " seizure " of the Nazis in Germany also fell Freud's works of book burning prey to the May 1933rd “What progress we are making!” He wrote to Ernest Jones . "In the Middle Ages they would have burned me, nowadays they are content with burning my books."

A year later, the democracy in Austria was transformed into a clerical-fascist corporate state by Engelbert Dollfuss and - after his assassination by the Austrian National Socialists - under Kurt Schuschnigg . Freud was still calm. He considered reactionary Austrian Catholicism to be a useful protection against the Nazis. In misunderstanding the seriousness of the situation, he even entered into all sorts of organizational compromises with the National Socialists in order to ensure the continuation of psychoanalysis in Germany. He did not expect conditions like in Germany for Austria. The League of Nations would not allow legal persecution of Jews in Austria; however, France and its allies would certainly prevent Austria from joining Germany. Austrian fascism therefore appeared to him to be the lesser evil, especially since he did not trust Austrians to be as brutal as the Germans.

During this time, Freud's conflict with the - at the time - communist- oriented Wilhelm Reich , a student he originally valued, who joined the KPD in 1930 and agitated against National Socialism in word and in writing, intensified . In 1934, Freud had Reich expelled from the International Psychoanalytic Association . Whether this - as was sometimes speculated - should be a pawn sacrifice to appease the National Socialists, or primarily for “scientific reasons”, as Freud himself stated in a private letter, is still open.

Escape after the "Anschluss" of Austria in 1938

After the German troops marched into Austria on March 12, 1938, a seven-member SA troop entered Berggasse 19 on March 15 to confiscate art and antiques, but Martha Freud was able to persuade them to leave by handing her wallet. When the Gestapo wanted to fetch Freud for interrogation on March 22nd, Anna referred to her father's frailty, offered to be interrogated instead and was taken away. The family doctor Max Schur provided her with the veronal barbiturate for emergencies . In the evening she was released and home on the intervention of the American Embassy Secretary.

In the meantime, Ernest Jones and Marie Bonaparte in particular worked hard to enable Freud to emigrate to England in an orderly manner. They initiated diplomatic pressure from Britain and the United States. The completion of the formalities on both sides, including the payment of the " Reich Flight Tax" advanced by Marie Bonaparte , dragged on until June 4, 1938.

Before leaving, Freud had to sign a ready-made form: “I am happy to confirm that up to today, June 4, 1938, no harassment of any kind has occurred to me or to my housemates. The authorities and functionaries of the party were always correct and considerate towards me and my housemates. ”With his wife Martha, daughter Anna and housekeeper Paula Fichtl, Freud left Vienna on the afternoon of June 4th on the Orient Express to go to Paris to enter English exile. Four of Freud's sisters remained, whose departure to France, planned for autumn 1938, failed and who became victims of the Holocaust in 1942/43 .

Exile and death in England

Sigmund Freud, his wife and many of their descendants are buried in the Freud Corner of the Golders Green Crematorium in London.

On the morning of June 6, 1938, the Freuds were welcomed by the press at Victoria Station in London and taken to the house on 39 Elsworthy Road, Primrose Hill , which their son Ernst had rented for them . Just a few weeks after arrival, Freud bought a spacious villa in Hampstead , Maresfield Gardens 20. Two practice rooms could be accommodated here for himself and his daughter Anna. Marie Bonaparte had organized the transfer of Freud's fortune to a London account. The son Ernst was busy with architectural alterations to make everyday life easier for the father. Freud was enthusiastic: “He's building a lift, making one room out of two or the other way around, translating pure witchcraft into architectural terms.” In August 1938, Freud's library and collection of antiquities arrived in London and were based on the Viennese model in the new premises House.

The Freuds were warmly received not only in the London psychoanalytic group; Freud also reported floods of letters that had to be answered and large numbers of flower greetings. “We became popular in London in one fell swoop.” Among the visitors Freud soon received in his new domicile were Stefan Zweig , Bronisław Malinowski and Salvador Dalí , who took the opportunity to draw Freud's head with an oversized thinker forehead. HG Wells visited him in November 1938, and Virginia Woolf , Chaim Weizmann and Arthur Koestler came to visit in early 1939 .

As early as the autumn of 1938, Freud had to undergo another complicated cancer operation. The temporary relief gave way as early as the late summer of 1939 to further tumor formation, which was accompanied by suppuration and putrefaction, so that Freud's dog withdrew and a net was stretched over his bed to keep flies away. On September 21, Freud reminded his doctor Max Schur of an earlier appointment and had him inject morphine in doses that made him asleep on the morning of September 23, 1939. Schur was touched by the way in which Freud met death with dignity and without self-pity. During his exile in London, he was expressly concerned with dying in freedom, if possible without sickness and paralysis of performance, as it were "in armor" like Macbeth . Peter Gay concludes: "The old stoic had been in control of his life - until the end."

Life's work

Freud's psychic apparatus

Sigmund Freud was the founder and indisputably the determining theoretician of psychoanalysis . As a result, he exerted a strong influence on almost all representatives of this subject and also on many human scientists. Psychoanalysis diversified into numerous schools during Freud's lifetime. Today it is characterized by a plurality of concepts and constructs. Nonetheless, it is customary in psychoanalytic discussions and publications to refer to Freud's work as a common reference. In this way, Freud's writings are still of great importance today, despite numerous corrections, modifications and further developments.

Freud himself had practiced the principle of differentiation and constant revision of psychoanalytic doctrine in the history of his work, most recently in the summary he began in July 1938 under the title Outline of Psychoanalysis . For the "umpteenth time" he had designed an introduction to his system of thought, he reported to Ernest Jones . Not only the textbooks, says Alt, but “almost all of his large texts and case studies regularly offered a summary of guiding methodological principles. [...] If he presented psychoanalysis in constant modifications as if it were unknown territory, this also had the effect of self-enlightenment. Wherever Freud introduced his research, he continued it at the same time, raising it to a higher level of penetration. "

According to Irene Berkel, Freud's thought and work took a new direction in the context of and under the impact of the First World War. Until then, his research was based on optimism for progress and trust in the contribution of psychoanalysis to human self-liberation. Now he increasingly turned to the destructive forces in the human soul as well as in culture Theoretical building. ”Freud remained a researcher and seeker to the end, who gave empiricism priority over his own theoretical starting positions. Since he did not eliminate discrepancies, but rather let them persist, some things seem contradictory, confusing and inconsistent. “This Freud-specific procedure,” says Berkel, “gave his constructions the character of provisionality and produced the openness, liveliness, tension and density that characterize his theory. Of course, it makes it difficult to understand his complex conceptual structures. "

Medical histories

Freud's medical histories, published between 1895 and 1918, are historical documents that provide insight into his treatment method and into the social milieu of Vienna of his time. As an interface between theory and practice, they are still the starting point for discussions about psychoanalysis as a form of treatment and as a psychological theory.

Psychoanalysis and metapsychology

Freud's drawing in the book "Das Ich und das Es" from 1923.

In addition to the exploration of the unconscious, which was the subject of Freud's psychoanalytic explorations and therapeutic treatments in everyday practice, he developed ideas of a metapsychology as early as the late 1890s that should serve to explain psychological phenomena as completely as possible, and not just psychopathological, but also, for example, the dreams and failures of healthy people. After the basic interpretation of dreams (1899/1900), the follow-up publications On the Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) and The Joke and Its Relationship to the Unconscious (1906) can be assigned to this project.

During the First World War, after the publication To the introduction of narcissism (1914) , Freud conceived a compilation of twelve metapsychological treatises in the narrower sense, of which, however, he only completed and published five: in 1915 Triebe und Triebschicksale , Die Verrängung and Das Unconscious ; in 1917 metapsychological additions to dream interpretation as well as grief and melancholy . In the post-war period, Freud designed a “new map of the psychological structure”, according to Peter Gay, by exploiting the feeling of guilt psychoanalytically and focusing more on the ego and its functional components . With ego psychology he came closer and closer to an earlier project: "To design a general psychology that extended beyond its first restricted habitat, the neuroses, to normal psychic activity."

Beyond the pleasure principle

An expanded doctrine of instincts in the publication Beyond the Pleasure Principle , published in 1920, was the beginning of a series of Freud's writings that aimed at a psychoanalytic anthropology , "a general doctrine of the human being as a being who has to cope with his life under the law of the irrational." According to Alex Holder, the previous primary dualism between pleasure and reality principle , between sexual and ego instincts, resulted in an even more fundamental psychological contrast: that between the life instincts (sexual and self-preservation instincts) on the one hand and the death instincts on the other.

It, me and superego

Super-me, me and it

Freud developed a further differentiation in relation to his structural model of the psyche in the study Das Ich und das Es , published in 1923 . For the first time, the mental structure was analyzed as determined by three forces that work in mutual dependence on one another: "I, id and super-ego strive in different ways to fulfill the potentials inherent in them, but are dependent on each other."

In Freud's work, the ego strives to oppose the id with the demands of the outside world and “to put the reality principle in place of the pleasure principle, which governs unreservedly in the id.” In one of Freud's parable, it says of the ego: “It is so similar in relation to the It to the rider, who is supposed to curb the superior power of the horse, with the difference that the rider tries to do this with his own strength, the ego with borrowed, "borrowed from the id, as Gay notes. Freud continues: “Just like the rider, if he does not want to separate from the horse, often has no choice but to lead it where it wants to go, the ego also tends to put the id's will into action, as if it were would be your own. "

The third force in Freud's structural model of the psyche is what he also called the “ego ideal”, the “superego”. As the individual father and mother identification that emerges from the Oedipus complex of early childhood, the super-ego also acts as an unconscious instance on the ego. “While the ego is essentially the representative of the external world, the reality, the superego confronts it as the advocate of the internal world, the id.” According to Freud, the id exerts an influence on the ego: on the one hand, directly through the instinctual structure , on the other hand, about the ego ideal. In psychoanalysis he sees a tool that is supposed to enable the ego to gain control over the id. After all, the ego - "the real place of fear" - suffers from the threat of three dangers: "from the outside world, from the libido of the id and from the severity of the superego."

Cultural theoretical derivations

It is easy to show, wrote Freud in Das I und das Es , that the ego ideal or super-ego meets all demands on the higher being in man. “As a substitute for the longing for the father, it contains the germ from which all religions have been formed.” In later development phases, teachers and other authorities continued the father role and exercised moral censorship by means of commands and prohibitions through the individual conscience. "The tension between the claims of conscience and the performance of the ego is felt as a feeling of guilt ." According to Freud, social feelings are based "on identifications with others on the basis of the same ego ideal."

With the publication Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyze , published in 1921 , Freud set out "from analyzing the individual to understanding society," as he wrote to Romain Rolland . The central point of reference in Freud's reflections in this regard was the psychology of the masses by Gustave Le Bon . Freud agreed with him that masses were less cultured than individuals, that they were more intolerant, more irrational and immoral, and that they were more uninhibited. When the individual merges with the crowd, "all the cruel, brutal, destructive instincts that slumber as remnants of prehistoric times would be awakened to free instinctual satisfaction". The mass formation takes place through a process of identification of all individual individuals with the same object, a “leader” (representative of the “forefather”), instead of the ego ideal. Andreas Mayer sums up: “Freud's mass psychology is accordingly conceived as an attempt to understand the phenomenon of modern mass formation both in terms of developmental history (from the naturalistic myth of the primal father and primal horde) and individual psychology (from the libidinal relationship between the ego and object in love and in hypnosis). "

Totem and taboo

The four papers summarized under this title in 1913, originally published separately from one another, formed the distinctive prelude to Freud's writings on cultural theory, which - inspired by contemporary ethnological research - covered a wide arc back into human history , as the subtitle already indicated: Some matches in Lives of the savages and the neurotics. Belonging to a totem is defined as the basis of a social system and as a unifying bond of clans who see their progenitor in the totem. The incest taboo usually goes hand in hand with this form of communalization . "The striking similarities between taboo and all possible forms of neurosis lead to the conclusion", says Brumlik, "that in both cases there is a close proximity between prohibition and the desire to exceed it".

The central element of the totem cult is the processing of guilt. In the primal horde ruled by the father, according to Freud's scenario, at some point the time will come when the violently subjugated sons rebelled, killed and devoured their father. The totem, reminiscent of her father, reminds her of her guilt as well as her triumph over him. Freud counted on "indelible traces" of this primal crime in human art, culture and religion.

The discomfort in culture

The discomfort in culture, first edition
“The case that a large number of people jointly attempt to create happiness insurance and protection against suffering through delusional transformation of reality claims a special significance. We must also characterize the religions of mankind as such mass madness. Of course, those who still share the delusion never recognize it. "(P. 33)

Alt sees this work, published in 1929/30 as the sum of Freud's theoretical work, "both climax and conclusion", at the center of which is "the system of repression with its impact on all fields of civilization". The reality of life forces you to renounce pleasure, to restrain, redirect and suppress your instincts. Cultural order is based on the submission of sensual powers. "Man can only survive this constant imposition if he learns to be satisfied with forms of substitute satisfaction." Although he succeeds in asserting himself against the forces of nature with technical innovations, but only in the form of makeshift remedies without permanent world domination: " Man has become, so to speak, a prosthetic god, really great when he puts on all his auxiliary organs, but they have not grown together with him and occasionally still give him a lot of trouble. "

What people reveal as life's purpose and intention through their behavior is the pursuit of happiness, which, however, experiences adversity from three sides: from physical decline and death, from the fatal forces of the outside world and from the painful suffering in interpersonal relationships - the The intention that man should be 'happy' is not included in the plan of 'creation'. According to Freud, what remains possible in terms of relative happiness is “a problem of the individual love economy.” There is no generally applicable advice on this, “everyone has to try for himself in which particular shape he can be happy.” Those who are predominantly erotic will do so Give priority to emotional relationships with others, the self-sufficient, narcissistic type seeks satisfaction in his inner emotional impulses, the active person test his strength on the outside world.

Micha Brumlik deals with the discomfort in culture , especially with regard to political content and counts the work in the series of "great socio-philosophical attempts" such as Plato's Politeia , Macchiavelli's The Prince , Thomas Hobbes Leviathan or Rousseau's treatise on the origin and fundamentals of inequality among people . Brumlik is particularly concerned with Freud's criticism of communism . This is less about economic aspects or the abolition of private property , but about psychological and anthropological aspects. With the abolition of private property one deprives the human desire for aggression one of its tools, according to Freud, but certainly not the most powerful. The persistence of the instinct for aggression can also be expected on every new path taken by cultural development.

Criticism of religion

Freud described himself as an enemy of religion "in every form and dilution" and thus stands in the tradition of Ludwig Feuerbach (whose theses he regards as his philosophical basis) and Friedrich Nietzsche (to whom he admits to have intuitively anticipated a number of insights from psychoanalysis ). Even Arthur Schopenhauer's writings had great influence on the young Freud. But above all his late work was to a considerable extent dominated by criticism of religion. His last work (1939), published a few days before his death, was the provocative study of the founder of the religion Moses: The Man Moses and the Monotheistic Religion .

Freud reaffirms the philosophers' criticism of religion through the insights he gained as a physician with a scientific background in the development of clinical psychoanalysis. He was forced to believe that religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis. Here he argues anthropologically , ontogenetically and phylogenetically :

The anthropological argument defines religion as infantile (= childlike) defensive behavior against human inferiority: Man has personalized the forces of nature and elevated them to be protected powers. So they help him in his helplessness. The underlying behavior pattern ties in with the early childhood experience with protective parents, especially with the father.

In his writing Zwangshandlungen und Religionsübungen (1907), Freud discovered parallels between the compulsive actions of mentally ill people and religious exercises, since in both cases non-execution or inaccurate execution triggers fear. In both cases it is a question of repressed instinctual strivings.

Freud's ontogenetic approach also addresses early childhood experiences: the child's ambivalent relationship to the father continues in the adult's faith. He realizes that even as such he cannot completely defend himself against foreign powers, which is why he seeks his protection in belief in God . He fears the gods, yet he gives them his protection.

Reception aspects

According to his followers, one of Freud's historical merits is to have made the role of the unconscious in human thought and action known to wide circles. In addition, he founded a new psychological doctrine with psychoanalysis and presented basic therapeutic procedures that are still used today in modified form in the psychotherapeutic treatment of neuroses and psychoses. Some of its followers see psychoanalysis as a comprehensive theory that can describe and explain complex human experience and action. With regard to individual and collective history, according to Andreas Mayer, it stands for clearing up illusions and skepticism about progress. "If Freud is right, psychoanalysis does not develop a new worldview or a closed system, but rather resembles a campaign of conquest that begins again and again in an area that is dominated by numerous unknowns."

Critical discussion

Nevertheless, Freud's theories were subject to various criticisms from the start. A critical examination of Freud's doctrines was not long in coming even among his early followers. First Alfred Adler developed his own teachings , then also CG Jung , who was initially planned by Freud as his successor . The guardian of Freud's legacy was his daughter Anna Freud , who trained as a psychoanalyst, published herself and represented her father, who suffered from palatal cancer in 1923, at lectures and congresses. She stayed with him when he persisted in Vienna after the book burning in 1933 and accompanied him to exile in London after the “Anschluss” of Austria in 1938 .

The criticism continues to this day, although it should be noted that psychoanalysis has been further developed in many directions since Freud and in its current form does not agree in all points with Freud's views. Mention should be made of Anna Freud's ego psychology , Melanie Klein's object relationship theory , Heinz Kohut's self-psychology, and Jacques Lacan's theory, with a particular focus on the function of speech and language in psychoanalysis. Freud's views are partially supported by the findings of the still young neuropsychoanalysis .

The existence of a death instinct , which the late Freud postulated in 1920, was contested or strongly questioned by some (Marxist) psychoanalysts during Freud's lifetime.

The classic drive theory, which assumed an antagonism between libido and aggression, was expanded to include additional basic human needs, e.g. B. Attachment, Individuation, and Exploration. The accusation of pansexualism , d. H. the assertion that psychoanalysis traces everything back to sexuality overlooks, on the one hand, the fact that Freud had a much broader concept of "sexuality" than is usually the case today, and on the other hand, that the theory of sex in some versions of modern psychoanalysis only occupies a marginal position.

Problems of interpretation create the fact that Freud contradicts himself in part, sometimes even in the same publication. For example, in dream interpretation , which is still considered a cornerstone of psychoanalysis and perhaps the least controversial, Freud claims that dreams are regularly based on infantile desires and are often sexually motivated. At the same time, according to Mackenthun, his examples and interpretations (especially his own dreams) are often neither infantile nor sexually motivated.

Freud's statements on the subject of sexual abuse , which he had repeatedly encountered in his analyzes through memories, dreams and other indications from his patients, were criticized from the start. In later publications he often classified the statements of his patients as 'Oedipal-tinged wishful fantasies'. This is where psychoanalysis differs from other theories: unconscious sexual fantasies, ideas and desires are given no less importance than manifest experiences.

Freud's theory of so-called “ penis envy ” is also frequently doubted : In the psychological development of some girls, this is symmetrically opposed to the boys’s “ fear of castration ”. From this, Freud derived further possible peculiarities of the female mental life.

In religious studies and theology , Freud's theses, with a few exceptions such as Eugen Drewermann and Günter Krinetzki , were generally cautiously received. Nevertheless, many of his terms and considerations found their way into religious studies, sometimes without precise identification of their origin.

Express appreciation

The American historian and psychoanalyst Peter Gay sees Freud's thinking as “woven into the very texture of modern thought” in many ways - “whether one borrows from it or rejects it, whether one admires or distrusts it, cites it precisely or distorted". Contributed in their own way to Freud's immortality were "the hateful quibbles of skeptical psychologists, the no less hateful attempts at devaluing the Marxists and the even more hateful polemics of feminists." and controversial authority, as it was Plato in classical antiquity. "

In the effort to preserve his teaching as a unified work, Freud showed "beyond his genius as an explorer of the unconscious" a "pronounced pragmatic sense", according to the psychoanalytically versed religious scholar Irene Berkel. Together with his followers - after founding an international psychoanalytic movement in 1910 - from the centers of Vienna, Budapest, Berlin and Zurich he purposefully pursued the institutionalization and international expansion of psychoanalysis. The founding and publication of various psychoanalytic journals from 1909 onwards had also provided the young psychoanalytic association with “a forum for theoretical discussions and developments”. Freud's originality is shown in the fact that he opened psychoanalysis to other sciences and thus gained numerous suggestions for his own work.

A confrontation with the work of Sigmund Freud will hardly be able to avoid, judges the historian of science and representative of “New Freud Studies” Andreas Mayer, who “strives for an understanding of the cultures of the western world of the 20th century.” From Freud's contemporaries to the In the present, “his works in the social sciences and humanities have had their own impact on each generation.” As part of an “academically relevant selection”, the list “extends from the philosophical debates of Ludwig Wittgenstein , Karl Popper or Adolf Grünbaum , the various Readings in the French theoretical discussion with Jean-Paul Sartre , Maurice Merleau-Ponty , Jacques Lacan , Claude Lévi-Strauss , Jacques Derrida , Michel Foucault and Paul Ricœur , the diverse reception in literary theory, the Freudo-Marxist varieties of the Frankfurt School to the anthropological and sociological analyzes by authors such as Philipp Ri eff and Ernest Gellner . ”Many of Freud's terms such as“ Oedipus complex ”,“ narcissism ”,“ fixation ”,“ castration fear ”or“ penis envy ”have become common knowledge.

The educationalist Micha Brumlik found a new anthropology, a new doctrine of man, to be just as inexhaustible as those of Plato and Descartes in terms of wealth, analysis and power of interpretation . Just as Plato's image of man arose from the crisis of the Greek polis and Descartes' new approach could not be thought of without the emerging bourgeois society, "so Sigmund Freud's thinking articulates the deadly crisis of European modernity, which in the primal catastrophe of the 'first' World War received its signature. “As early as 1915, Freud foresaw what significance this war would have for mankind. Among other things, he contributed significantly to the clarification and dissemination of the term trauma .

According to the German literary scholar Peter-André Alt , anyone who speaks of the modern age cannot ignore psychoanalysis. “The diagnosis she makes of the instinct and the unconscious encompasses our great narratives of human culture. Nobody can raise these narratives without paying tribute to Freud's patterns of interpretation. ”Alt sees the webs of this new theory woven from the most intimate experiences of its founder. “That brings them closer to art, whose works always bear the subjective psychological signature of their creators.” Even where they refer to the philosophy of the 19th century, to more recent natural research, to European literature or to ethnology and the The interpretation of myths in classical antiquity is based on the fact that Freud's theory is “a highly original system that enables independent judgments about instinct and spirit, society and state, religion and culture.” What Freud created continues “as a challenging legacy of the darkest and at the same time brightest science of man that was ever designed. "

Awards and posthumous honors

50 shilling coin (2000)
Sigmund Freud statue in the courtyard of the Meduni Vienna



Freud's publications include, in chronological order:

Unpublished Writings: The Freud Archives

A very large collection of Freud's original writings and letters is in the Sigmund Freud Collection of the Library of Congress in Washington. The so-called Freud Archive was founded in 1951 at the instigation of Anna Freud and, above all, Kurt Eissler . The original curators included Eissler as director, Ernst Kris and Heinz Hartmann . It comprises around 80,000 documents on the early history of psychoanalysis, including around 35,000 letters and 45,000 manuscripts. A second archive of this type is located in Sigmund and Anna Freud's last residence, Maresfield Gardens , now the Freud Museum in London.

The archive's restrictive access policy has been the subject of criticism from historical research. In particular, letters that Freud wrote are in some cases kept under lock and key until beyond the year 2060. In order to inspect certain documents, a special permit is required from the head of the manuscript department after consultation with the Sigmund Freud Archives in New York, but this is only granted in exceptional cases. There is no release date for a number of letters.

This poses a problem for the academic study of Freud: For a long time there was no access to corrections and omissions in earlier publications of his writings, such as Freud's 1950 letters to Wilhelm Fliess . When these writings were first published, his daughter Anna Freud and Ernst Kris had made numerous retouchings, as Jeffrey Masson , editor of the complete collection of letters published in 1985, was able to demonstrate.

In February 2017, around 20,000 documents from the Sigmund Freud Papers were made publicly available in digitized form. These are primarily letter documents.

Total expenditure

Collected papers. New York: Basic Books, (1959)
  • Collected Writings. 12 vols., Ed. Anna Freud, Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Leipzig 1924–1934.
  • Collected Works. Ordered chronologically. 17 volumes, plus a register volume (volume 18) and a volume with supplements (volume 19). Edited by Anna Freud et al. First published by Imago, London 1940–1952, register volume 1968, supplementary volume texts from the years 1885 to 1938 1987, several editions; Reprinted by Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag 1999, ISBN 3-596-50300-0 ("Imago edition"; most comprehensive edition of Freud's writings, most frequently cited after this edition).
  • Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. 24 volumes Ed. James Strachey in collaboration with Anna Freud. Hogarth Press, London 1953–1974 (English translation; the edition with the most extensive editorial material).
  • Study edition. 10 volumes and a supplementary volume. Edited by Alexander Mitscherlich, Angela Richards, James Strachey. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main. Volumes 1 to 10 were first published from 1969 to 1975. The supplementary volume with Freud's technical writings was edited by Ilse Grubrich-Simitis and appeared in 1975. (The study edition contains about two thirds of the standard edition . The study edition is the philologically best edition in German, with preliminary editorial remarks on each text, comments by the editors on developments in Freud's thinking, as well as evidence of important changes that Freud made in various editions of his writings; each volume contains a bibliography and a detailed index. The editorial apparatus of this edition is largely based on the Standard Edition published by Strachey from 1953 onwards .).
    • In 1977, the study edition was expanded to include a work by Ingeborg Meyer-Palmedo that had already appeared out of series in 1975: Sigmund Freud Concordance and Total Bibliography , so that the study edition temporarily comprised two supplementary volumes, a total of 12 volumes. A reprint of the 12-volume study edition was published in 1982 by Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, ISBN of the first volume, ISBN 3-596-27301-3 .
    • In 1989 the S. Fischer-Verlag published a revised new edition of the study edition, now again without the bibliography, i.e. in 11 volumes, ISBN 3-10-822732-7 . In 2000, Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag published a licensed edition of the revised new edition of the study edition from 1989, ISBN 3-596-50360-4 (The revision consists primarily of eliminating printing errors and improving cross-references to precise cross-references within the edition .).
    • Parallel to the revised new edition of the study edition in 1989, but outside of this series, a revised and expanded version of the bibliography appeared in the same year; the title was changed to Freud bibliography with a concordance of works. ISBN 3-10-022742-5 ; In 1999 an improved and expanded edition was published. of this bibliography, ISBN 3-10-022742-5 .
  • Work edition in two volumes. Volume 1: Elements of Psychoanalysis. Volume 2: Applications of Psychoanalysis. Edited and commented by Anna Freud and Ilse Grubrich-Simitis . Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-596-17216-0 .
  • The reading book. Writings from four decades. Edited and commented by Cordelia Schmidt-Hellerau. Fischer, Frankfurt 2006, ISBN 3-10-073302-9 .


  • With Carl Gustav Jung : Correspondence. Edited by W. McGuire, W. Sauerländer. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1974.
  • Letters 1873–1939. Selected and edited by Ernst and Lucie Freud. Frankfurt am Main 1960; 3. Edition. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1980.
  • Letters to Wilhelm Fließ 1887–1904. Unabridged, edited by Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson. (German version by Michael Schröter, transcription by Gerhard Fichtner). Frankfurt am Main, S. Fischer Verlag 1986, ISBN 3-10-022802-2 .
  • Bridal letters: Letters to Martha Bernays from d. Years 1882–1886. Selected, ed. u. with e. Forward vers. by Ernst L. Freud. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-596-26733-1 .
  • With Max Eitingon : Correspondence (1906–1939). edition discord 2004.
  • With Anna Freud : Correspondence. Edited by Ingeborg Meyer-Palmedo. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-10-022750-6 .
  • Meanwhile we stick together. Letters to the children. Edited by Michael Schroeter with the participation of Ingeborg Meyer-Palmedo and Ernst Falzeder. Construction Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-351-03302-6 .



  • Andreas Mayer : Sigmund Freud. Introduction . Junius Verlag, Hamburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-88506-090-1 .
  • John Forrester, Laura Cameron: Freud in Cambridge . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2017, ISBN 978-0-521-86190-8 .
  • Peter-André Alt : Sigmund Freud. The modern doctor. A biography. Beck, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-69688-6 (about the book) .
  • Adam Phillips : Becoming Freud: The Making of a Psychoanalyst. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2014 ISBN 978-0300158663 .
  • Irene Berkel: Sigmund Freud. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-7705-4605-3 .
  • Annette Meyhöfer : A Science of Dreaming. Sigmund Freud and his time. Knaus, Munich 2006, ISBN 3813502287 .
  • Birgit Lahann : When Psyche came on the couch. The enigmatic life of Sigmund Freud. Construction Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-351-02631-5 .
  • Eva Weissweiler : The Freuds. Family biography. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-462-03617-3 .
  • Christian Moser : Sigmund Freud - The whole truth . Carlsen, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-551-78195-8 (comic).
  • Linde Salber: The dark continent. Freud and the women. Rowohlt Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek 2006, ISBN 3-499-62138-X .
  • Hans-Martin Lohmann : Sigmund Freud. Rowohlt Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek 1998, ISBN 3-499-50601-7 . (New edition: 2006, ISBN 3-499-50693-9 ).
  • Charles Rojzman: Freud. Un humanisme de l'avenir. Desclée de Brouwer, Paris 1998. ( Freud, the humanist. Open Gate, London 1999, ISBN 1-871871-46-8 )
  • Peter Gay : Freud. A life for our time. Norton, New York 1988, ISBN 0-393-02517-9 . ( A biography for our time. Translated by Joachim A. Frank. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-596-17170-9 , licensed edition by Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-596-12913 -3 ).
  • Marianne Krüll : Freud and his father. The emergence of psychoanalysis and Freud's unsolved father bond. Psychosocial, Giessen 1979. (3rd edition. 2004, ISBN 3-89806-361-5 )
  • Ronald W. Clark : Sigmund Freud. The man and the cause. Cape, London 1980, ISBN 0-224-01745-4 . (German: Sigmund Freud. Translated by Joachim A. Frank. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1981, ISBN 3-10-010802-7 )
  • Max Schur : Freud. Living and dying. International University Press, New York 1972. ( Sigmund Freud. Living and dying. Translated by Gert Müller. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1973, ISBN 3-518-37278-5 ; Schur was Freud's last doctor)
  • Ernest Jones : Sigmund Freud. Life and work. 3 volumes. Hogarth, London 1954-1957. (Later editions appeared under the title The life and work of Sigmund Freud. Complete German translation: Das Leben und Werk von Sigmund Freud. 3 volumes, transl. By Katherine Jones and Gertrud Meili-Doretzki. Huber, Bern 1960–1962. A reprint This complete translation was published in 1984 by dtv, Munich, ISBN 3-423-04426-8 , the title was changed to Sigmund Freud. Life and Work. Jones' Freud biography comprises a little more than 1500 pages in the English original Hogarth, London, a version shortened to about half by Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus under the title The life and work of Sigmund Freud , with a foreword by Lionel Trilling. The translation of this shortened version was published in 1969 under the title Sigmund Freud. Leben und Factory at S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main).
  • Siegfried Bernfeld , Suzanne Cassirer Bernfeld: Freud's early childhood (1944). In: The same: building blocks of the Freud biography. Edited by Use Grubrich-Simitis. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1981, ISBN 3-518-07577-2 , pp. 78-92.
  • Werner LeibbrandFreud, Sigmund. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , pp. 407-409 ( digitized version ).


  • Nador Fodor, Frank Gaynor (Ed.): Freud: Dictionary of psychoanalysis. A compilation of selections from Freud's work. Philosophical Library, New York 1950, reprinted by Greenwood, New York 1969.
  • Jean Laplanche , Jean-Bertrand Pontalis : The vocabulary of psychoanalysis . Translated by Emma Moersch. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1972, numerous unchanged editions, ISBN 3-518-07607-8 . (Freud Lexicon with a detailed description of the development of the individual terms and with page references to the Collected Works and the Standard Edition ; first in French, Paris 1967).
  • Wolfgang Mertens, Bruno Waldvogel (ed.): Handbook of basic psychoanalytic concepts. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 3rd, revised and expanded edition, ibid 2008, ISBN 978-3-17-018844-0 .
  • Alain de Mijolla (Ed.): Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. 2 vol., Calmann-Lévy, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-7021-2530-1 (extended English translation: International dictionary of psychoanalysis. 3 vol., Thomson / Gale, Detroit 2005, ISBN 0-02-865924-4 ; die English translation on the Internet at ).
  • Humberto Nagera (Ed.): Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts. An introduction to Sigmund Freud's terminology and theory building. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1977 (first in English 1969 and 1970), ISBN 3-596-42288-4 .
  • Elisabeth Roudinesco, Michel Plon: Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Fayard, Paris 1997 (Translation: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Names, Countries, Works, Terms. Springer, Heidelberg / New York 2004, ISBN 3-211-83748-5 ).
  • Helmut Siefert : Freud, Sigmund. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 438 f.
  • Ross M. Skelton (Ed.): The Edinburgh International Encyclopaedia of Psychoanalysis. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2006, ISBN 0-7486-1265-3 .


  • Thomas Ballhausen , Günter Krenn, Lydia Marinelli (eds.): Psyche in the cinema. Sigmund Freud and the film. Filmarchiv Austria, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-901932-89-5 .
  • Raymond Battegay : Psychology: Freud and Judaism. Ambivalence and belonging. Freud and his ambivalent relationship to Judaism and his attitude to religions in general. In: Structure. The Jewish monthly magazine. May 2006, pp. 6-11. ISSN  0004-7813 .
  • Micha Brumlik : Sigmund Freud. The thinker of the 20th century. Beltz, Weinheim 2006, ISBN 3-407-85780-2 .
  • Frederick Crews: Freud: The Making of an Illusion. Metropolitan Books, New York 2017, ISBN 978-1-62779-717-7 .
  • Mark Edmundson: The Death of Sigmund Freud: The Legacy of His Last Days. Bloomsbury, New York 2007, ISBN 978-1-58234-537-6 .
  • Lydia Flem: The Man Freud. Translated from the French by Eva Moldenhauer. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1993, ISBN 3-593-34907-8 .
  • Werner Greve, Jeanette Roos: The fall of the Oedipus complex - arguments against a myth. Huber, Bern 1996, ISBN 3-456-82724-5 .
  • Horst Gundlach: Sigmund Freud and the integrity. In: Reports on the history of science . 27, 3, 204, pp. 175-185, ISSN  0170-6233 .
  • Albrecht Hirschmüller: Freud's encounter with psychiatry. From brain mythology to the theory of neuroses. Edition diskord, Tübingen 1991.
  • Han Israëls: The Freud Case. The birth of psychoanalysis from a lie. European Publishing House, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-434-50454-0 .
  • Roland Kaufhold , Hans-Jürgen Wirth : Sigmund Freud emigrated to London 70 years ago. .
  • Christine Kirchhoff, Falko Schmieder (eds.): Freud and Adorno. On the prehistory of modernity. Kulturverlag Kadmos, Berlin 2014, Literature Research Volume 19, ISBN 978-3-86599-212-3 .
  • Adriaan de Klerk: The importance of castration anxiety and circumcision in Freud's work and life. In: Matthias Franz (ed.): The circumcision of boys. A sad legacy. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-525-40455-3 , pp. 190-210.
  • Thomas Köhler : Freud bashing. On the value and worthlessness of anti-Freud literature (=  library of psychoanalysis ). Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2016, ISBN 978-3-8379-2503-6 , doi : 10.30820 / 9783837968415 .
  • Jürg Koller: The sick Freud. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-608-91032-8 .
  • Anton Leitner, Hilarion G. Petzold (Ed.): Sigmund Freud today. The father of psychoanalysis in the eyes of science and psychotherapeutic schools. Krammer, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-901811-52-4 .
  • Hans-Martin Lohmann : Sigmund Freud for an introduction. Junius, Hamburg 1986. (5th edition. 2002, ISBN 3-88506-362-X ).
  • Hans-Martin Lohmann, Joachim Pfeiffer (eds.): Freud manual. Life - work - effect. Metzler, Stuttgart et al. 2006, ISBN 3-476-01896-2 .
  • Zvi Lothane : Defied with Schreber Freud. (1), In: Psychoanalysis in contradiction. 40/2008.
  • Lydia Marinelli, Andreas Mayer: Dreams after Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams and the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. Vienna / Berlin 2002. (3rd edition. 2011).
  • Andreas Mayer: Sigmund Freud for an introduction. Junius, Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-88506-090-1 .
  • Joachim Pfeiffer : Sigmund Freud. In: Matías Martínez , Michael Scheffel (ed.): Classics of modern literary theory. From Sigmund Freud to Judith Butler (= Beck'sche series. 1822). Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60829-2 , pp. 11-32.
  • Josef Rattner : Sigmund Freud. In: Classics of Psychoanalysis. 2nd Edition. Beltz / Psychologie Verlags Union, Weinheim 1995, ISBN 3-621-27285-2 . (First edition 1990 and T. Klassiker der Tiefenpsychologie ), pp. 3–27.
  • Günter Rebing: Freud's Fantasy Pieces . The case histories of Dora, Hans, Rat Man, Wolf Man. Athena Verlag Oberhausen 2019, ISBN 978-3-7455-1044-7 .
  • Jacques Le Rider : The End of Illusion. Viennese modernism and the crises of identity. Vienna 1990, ISBN 3-215-07492-3 .
  • Paul Roazen: Sigmund Freud and his circle. A Biographical History of Psychoanalysis. Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach 1976. (1996, ISBN 3-930096-77-3 ).
  • Wilhelm Salber : Developments in the psychology of Sigmund Freud. Three volumes. Bouvier, Bonn 1973/74, ISBN 3-416-03351-5 .
  • Max Schur : Freud: Living and Dying. Hogarth, London 1972. (German edition: Sigmund Freud. Living and dying. Translated by Gert Müller, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1973, ISBN 3-518-07273-0 ).
  • Sieglinde Eva Tömmel: Who's Afraid of Sigmund Freud? How and why psychoanalysis heals. Brandes & Apsel, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-86099-827-7 .
  • Samuel M. Weber: Freud legend. Four studies on psychoanalytic thinking. Passagen-Verlag, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85165-547-8 .
  • Heinrich Zankl : Sigmund Freud - addicted father of psychoanalysis. In: Zankl H., Betz K .: Still brilliant. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2014, ISBN 978-3-527-33410-0 , pp. 157-168.
  • Eli Zaretsky: Freud's Century. The history of psychoanalysis. Zsolnay, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-552-05372-7 .

Literary reception

  • The play Le Visiteur (1993) by Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt is set in Sigmund Freud's study in 1938.
  • The novel Und Nietzsche weeping by the American psychiatrist Irvin D. Yalom is set in Vienna in 1882 and is about a fictional treatment of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche by Josef Breuer . The doctor consults with his young colleague and student Sigmund Freud and discusses with him the methods of chimney sweeping and memory work under hypnosis that were used in Bertha Pappenheim's case. Both have different opinions about Freud's dream interpretation hypotheses.
  • In Robert Seethaler's novel The Tobacconist , the author lets his protagonist Franz Huchel meet the old and sick Sigmund Freud in 1937, shortly before his emigration, while buying his cigars and make friends with him. The young, inexperienced man seeks guidance from the famous psychoanalyst, but in this time of political uncertainty he refers him to himself: "We feel our way through the darkness with difficulty, at least here and there to come across something useful." In the best case, it is Dreams and he recommends Franz to write down his own. “Right from the start, we are on our own when it comes to crucial issues. [...] You have to try your own head. And if he doesn't give you any answers, ask your heart! "
  • The novels by the British author Frank Tallis , published in Germany under the title “Die Max Liebermann Krimis”, are set in Vienna around 1900. The psychiatrist Max Liebermann, friend and advisor to the Vienna police inspector, is a student of Freud and goes to Freud's house in the Berggasse 19 in and out.


Web links

Commons : Sigmund Freud  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Sigmund Freud  - Sources and full texts


  1. The marriage of the parents in 1855 was carried out by Isaak Noah Mannheimer , who in 1841 had opened a debate in the context of Reform Judaism with the Hamburg chief rabbi Isaak Bernays , the grandfather of Freud's wife Martha Bernays . (W. Aron: Color drawings because of opshtam fun Sigmund Freud and because of his Yiddishness . In: Yivo Bleter . Volume 40 , p. 169 . )
  2. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 14.
  3. Shortly after the birth of his brother, the ten-year-old gave his parents a detailed lecture on Alexander the Great , inspired by school lessons. (Alt 2016, p. 32)
  4. Alt 2016, p. 34.
  5. Alt 2016, pp. 43–45.
  6. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 22 f.
  7. "In the old languages ​​alone, text and vocabulary skills were required", writes Peter-André Alt, "which today's students can hardly show in the state examination." (Alt 2016, p. 53.)
  8. Alt 2016, p. 53 f.
  9. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 34–36.
  10. Alt 2016, p. 57.
  11. Alt 2016, p. 60.
  12. Alt 2016, p. 64 f.
  13. Alt 2016, p. 69.
  14. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 41–44.
  15. Alt 2016, pp. 73–85.
  16. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 39.
  17. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 47.
  18. Alt 2016, pp. 105-109.
  19. Alt 2016, pp. 109–112.
  20. Alt 2016, pp. 112-120.
  21. Alt 2016, pp. 136–149.
  22. Walter Mentzel: From the medical history holdings of the UB MedUni Vienna: The first Public Children's Sick Institute (1788 - 1900 - 1938): Joseph Johann Mastalier - Max Kassowitz - Carl Hochspringer - Sigmund Freud. II. Sigmund Freud worked at the Department of Nervous Diseases at the First Public Children's Institute. Blog University Library Medical University of Vienna, July 23, 2020. Digitized version , accessed on August 16, 2020.
  23. Alt 2016, p. 155 f.
  24. Martha was also distantly related to the poet Heinrich Heine on her father's side . (David Bakan: Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition. Princeton 1958, p. 196) Freud's sister Anna in turn married Martha's brother Ely Bernays. Edward Bernays (1891 in Vienna –1995 in New York City ), the "father of public relations ", was a son from this marriage and thus a nephew of Sigmund Freud.
  25. Julius Braunthal: Victor and Friedrich Adler - two generations of workers' movement. Verlag der Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1965, p. 29ff.
  26. Alt 2016, p. 166 f.
  27. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 77.
  28. Alt 2016, pp. 175–177.
  29. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 78–82 and 86 (quotation).
  30. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 85.
  31. Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 198.
  32. Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 232.
  33. Alt 2016, pp. 17 and 416 f.
  34. "In this loneliness, I felt a longing for a circle of select, high-spirited men who, regardless of my audacity, should receive me amicably," wrote Freud in retrospect. (Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 309)
  35. Alt 2016, p. 309.
  36. (Letter of June 12, 1900 to Wilhelm Fließ, in: Sigmund Freud: From the beginnings of psychoanalysis. Letters to Wilhelm Fließ, treatises and notes from the years 1897–1902. London 1950, p. 344).
  37. ^ Letter to Fliess dated October 15, 1897; quoted from Alt 2016, p. 253 f.
  38. Alt 2016, p. 264.
  39. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 122 and 137.
  40. Alt 2016, p. 288.
  41. Alt 2016, p. 288. The second edition from 1908 was followed by four more by 1921. (Ibid.)
  42. Alt 2016, p. 316.
  43. Cf. on the theory of failures: Sigmund Freud: Zur Psychopathologie des Everytagsleben. 1901. In: A. Freud et al. (Ed.): Collected works. Ordered chronologically. Volume 4, Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1999.
  44. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 122 and 137.
  45. Gay sees Freud's academic career as being conspicuously hindered by the state authorities: The usual range from private lecturer in 1885 to professorship was eight years; But Freud was left to wait 17 years. (Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 158 and 161)
  46. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 159.
  47. Alt 2016, pp. 354–356.
  48. Alt 2016, p. 451.
  49. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 181 f.
  50. Alt 2016, pp. 242–245.
  51. Alt 2016, pp. 482 f. And 522 f.
  52. Alt 2016, pp. 507, 509 and 520.
  53. ↑ In addition to Freud and Jung, 25 other scientists from different disciplines were honored with a doctorate in the academic ceremony. (Alt 2016, p. 544)
  54. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 250.
  55. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 234.
  56. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 112 f.
  57. Alt 2016, p. 871.
  58. Alt 2016, pp. 547–552.
  59. Peter-André Alt sees Emma Jung as the center of the conflict in Jung's publication Changes and Symbols of Libido : "Jung sought to transfer the monocausal sex theory of the neuroses theory to a world model that combined libido and myth in an overall conception based on Schopenhauer's concept of will." (Alt 2016, p. 557)
  60. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 258.
  61. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 266–268.
  62. Alt 2016, p. 573.
  63. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 369; Alt 2016, p. 574.
  64. Bernd Ulrich: Sigmund Freud. In: G. Hirschfeld, G. Krumeich, I. Renz (Ed.): Encyclopedia First World War. Paderborn 2003, p. 505 f.
  65. Alt 2016, p. 584.
  66. Alt 2016, p. 595 f.
  67. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 396 f.
  68. Alt 2016, p. 559.
  69. “The third and most sensitive offense, however, is to be experienced by human addiction to greatness through today's psychological research, which wants to prove to the ego that it is not even master in its own house, but is dependent on scanty news of what is unconsciously going on in its mental life. "(Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 613)
  70. For Freud, however, no new rights were associated with this, as Alt emphasizes: "In the future he was not a full member of the medical faculty, did not belong to the college and had no right to vote in academic decisions." (Alt 2016, p. 648)
  71. Alt 2016, pp. 635 and 644.
  72. Alt 2016, p. 653.
  73. Alt 2016, pp. 655–658 and 858.
  74. Frank Thadeusz, DER SPIEGEL: When Sigmund Freud mutilated the Queen's future mother-in-law - DER SPIEGEL - story. Retrieved August 26, 2020 .
  75. Alt 2016, p. 810.
  76. Alt 2016, p. 802.
  77. Alt 2016, pp. 700–703.
  78. Alt 2016, pp. 705–713.
  79. Alt 2016, p. 311.
  80. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 489 f.
  81. Alt 2016, p. 663.
  82. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 490.
  83. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 497.
  84. Alt 2016, p. 775.
  85. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 562 f.
  86. Alt 2016, p. 764 f.
  87. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 497.
  88. Alt 2016, p. 766.
  89. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 510.
  90. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, pp. 505 and 507.
  91. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 510.
  92. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 511 f.
  93. ^ The city of Frankfurt announces the nomination of the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud for the Goethe Prize, August 6, 1930. Contemporary history in Hessen. (As of October 5, 2018). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
  94. Sigmund Freud's 80th birthday. In:  Kleine Volks-Zeitung , April 29, 1936, p. 4 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / kvz
  95. Martin Freud: Sigmund Freud: man and father. Vanguard Press, 1958, p. 165.
  96. Michael Molnar (ed.), Sigmund Freud: The diary of Sigmund Freud, 1929-1939. A record of the final decade. Hogarth, 1992, ISBN 0-7012-0924-0 , p. 206.
  97. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 428.
  98. Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 633.
  99. Alt 2016, p. 713 f.
  100. The vision of the future of Marxism seemed illusory to him because it was too optimistic with regard to the expectations of people's actions; On the other hand, he saw the anti-religious thrust of the Soviet state as positive. (Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 806)
  101. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 674 f.
  102. Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 817.
  103. Quoted from Alt 2016, p. 790. A letter to the members of the B'nai-B'rith -Loge dated May 6, 1926, said: “Because I was a Jew, I found myself free from many prejudices limited others in the use of their intellect, as a Jew I was prepared to go into the opposition. ”(quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 677)
  104. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 663.
  105. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 428, who notes that this is probably the least forward-looking bon mot that Freud has ever coined.
  106. Hans-Martin Lohmann, Joachim Pfeiffer (ed.): Freud-Handbuch. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2006, p. 72 f.
  107. Alt 2016, p. 822.
  108. Karl Fallend, Bernd Nitzschke (Ed.): The "Fall" Wilhelm Reich. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1997.
  109. Anonymous: The exclusion of Wilhelm Reich from the International Psychoanalytic Society . In: Journal for Political Psychology and Sexual Economics. Volume 2, Issue 1 (5), 1935, pp. 54-61.
    Bernd A. Laska: Sigmund Freud versus Wilhelm Reich.
  110. Alt 2016, p. 844 f.
  111. Alt 2016, pp. 846–848.
  112. Alt 2016, p. 849. The anecdote that Freud added in handwriting, "I can recommend the Gestapo to everyone, is known, but doubtful." (Alt 2016, p. 849)
  113. Alt 2016, p. 849 f.
  114. Alt 2016, pp. 853 and 856.
  115. Alt 2016, pp. 854 f. And 857 f.
  116. Alt 2016, pp. 877-882.
  117. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 733.
  118. Alt 2016, p. 871. Peter-André Alt recommends: “Anyone who always needs an introduction to psychoanalysis should read Freud's last book first.” (Ibid., P. 873)
  119. Berkel 2008, p. 52.
  120. Berkel 2008, p. 53 f. “In addition, Freud drew on examples from the most varied of areas, drew up analogies and similes whose similarity with the object and their compatibility with one another, as he admitted, proved to be limited. Nevertheless, he ascribed them an epistemological function and used them to 'illustrate a highly complicated and never-before-represented object of thought from different angles'. "(Ibid., P. 54)
  121. According to a letter to Fliess in 1998, metapsychology was supposed to explain the part of psychology leading beyond or “behind” consciousness. Peter Gay sees it as Freud's counterpart competing with metaphysics . (Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 409)
  122. Alex Holder: Introduction to Sigmund Freud's Das Ich und das Es. Metapsychological writings. Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 8.
  123. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 448.
  124. Alt 2016, p. 674.
  125. Alex Holder: Introduction to Sigmund Freud's Das Ich und das Es. Metapsychological writings. Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 21.
  126. Alt 2016, p. 685.
  127. Sigmund Freud: The I and the It. Metapsychological writings. Introduction Alex Holder. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 264.
  128. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 464.
  129. Sigmund Freud: The I and the It. Metapsychological writings. Introduction Alex Holder. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, pp. 272–275 (quotation p. 274 f.)
  130. Sigmund Freud: The I and the It. Metapsychological writings. Introduction Alex Holder. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, pp. 292-294.
  131. Sigmund Freud: The I and the It. Metapsychological writings. Introduction Alex Holder. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 275.
  132. Quoted from Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 454.
  133. Sigmund Freud, Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyze , quoted from Andreas Mayer 2016, p. 110; Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 455.
  134. "The leader of the masses is still the dreaded forefather, the masses still want to be ruled by unlimited violence, they are addicted to authority in the highest degree, have a thirst for submission according to Le Bon's expression." (Sigmund Freud: Massenpsychologie und Ich- Analysis. The future of an illusion. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1967, p. 67)
  135. Andreas Mayer 2016, p. 111 f.
  136. Alt explains: “At the beginning there is an investigation into fear of incest, followed by considerations on the function of taboos among the so-called indigenous peoples, the third section deals with animism, magic and the cult of the totem, the fourth describes the connection between parricide and the totem and their connection with of infantile sexuality. "(Alt 2016, p. 575)
  137. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 371.
  138. Brumlik 2006, p. 137 f.
  139. Alt 2016, p. 580.
  140. Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 374. “Freud's conclusion with the Faust quotation is chosen so happily that one is tempted to ask oneself whether he had not covered the whole long distance to get his text with Goethe's to be able to conclude with the famous saying: 'In the beginning was the deed.' "(Ibid.)
  141. Alt 2016, p. 705 f. Gay judges similarly: “During the upheavals of the Oedipus complex, the innate endowment including the phylogenetic inheritance plays its role in creating the inner policeman that the individual and with him his culture afterwards carries around with him. By introducing fear into his cultural analysis as well as into that of the individual superego, showing the workings of aggression as well as love, and reflecting once more on the respective share of disposition and environment in the growth of the psyche, Freud interwoven in The discomfort in culture the main threads of his system. The book is a great summary of the thinking of a lifetime. "(Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 619)
  142. Alt 2016, p. 709.
  143. Sigmund Freud: The uneasiness in the culture ; quoted from Alt 2016, p. 711.
  144. ^ Sigmund Freud: The uneasiness in the culture ; quoted from Mayer 2016, p. 135; Gay, 2nd ed. 2006, p. 613. “Any continuation of a situation longed for by the pleasure principle”, Freud writes, “only gives a feeling of lukewarm comfort. We are set up in such a way that we can only enjoy the contrast intensely, the state only very little. ”(Sigmund Freud: Outline of Psychoanalysis. The Uneasiness in Culture. With a speech by Thomas Mann as an afterword. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, p. 75.)
  145. Sigmund Freud: Outline of Psychoanalysis. The discomfort in culture. With a speech by Thomas Mann as an afterword. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, p. 81.
  146. Brumlik 2006, p. 209.
  147. Brumlik 2006, pp. 211-213.
  148. Sigmund Freud: Totem and taboo. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1913 (1956).
  149. Hartmut Zinser : Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). In: Axel Michaels (ed.): Classics of religious studies. 3rd edition, Munich 2010, p. 97.
  150. Andreas Mayer 2016, p. 191 f.
  151. Wilhelm Reich : The masochistic character. A sex-economic refutation of the death drive. In: International Journal of Psychoanalysis . Volume 18, 1932, pp. 303-351; Otto Fenichel : On the criticism of the death instinct. In: Imago . Volume 21, 1935, pp. 458-466.
  152. Judith Helfer: Sigmund Freud defied . The scientist Zvi Lothane has refuted Sigmund Freud in at least one case, in: Aufbau - Jewish monthly magazine. News bulletin of the German Jewish Club New York. January 20, 1995.
  153. Gerald Mackenthun: Freud's “Interpretation of Dreams” from 1900 - read again, summarized and criticized 100 years later. P. 327. and passim in the reprint of the 1st edition
  154. Hartmut Zinser: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) , In: Axel Michaels (Hrsg.): Classics of religious studies. Munich 1997, 3rd edition 2010, p. 102.
  155. Peter Gay in the foreword to the German edition of Freud. A life for our time (A biography for our time, 1989, p. XIII)
  156. Berkel 2008, p. 7.
  157. Andreas Mayer 2016, pp. 10 and 12.
  158. Brumlik 2006, pp. 9 and 25 f.
  159. Alt 2016, pp. 14-16 and 18.
  160. ^ New "Freudplatz" in Vienna , ORF, February 11, 2014; Plan section
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  162. 4342 Freud (1987 QO9) JPL Small-Body Database Browser, last accessed April 30, 2010.
  163. ^ Sarah Sloat: Typographer Turns Freud into a Font. In: The Wall Street Journal . Dow Jones & Company , November 25, 2013, accessed August 2, 2018 .
  164. Mark Wilson: Kickstarting: Sigmund Freud's Handwriting As A Scrawling Typeface. In: Fast Company (magazine) . Mansueto Ventures, LLC, July 5, 2013, accessed August 2, 2018 .
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  168. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 7-9 and 123.
  169. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 11-52 and 123.
  170. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 53-76 and 123 f.
  171. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 77-84 and 124.
  172. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 85-90 and 124.
  173. also in: Sigmund Freud, Collected Works. Volume 10, pp. 2-9.
  174. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 91-112 and 124.
  175. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams and Interpretations of Dreams. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1971 (1980), ISBN 3-596-26073-6 , pp. 117-121 and 125.
  176. ^ Kurt R. Eissler and the Sigmund Freud Archives
  179. Critical on this: Jacques Bénesteau , The Freud Archive and the Library of Congress
  180. See Sigmund Freud. A Register of His Papers in the Sigmund Freud Collection in the Library of Congress (PDF; 312 kB).
  181. From the beginnings of psychoanalysis: Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, treatises and notes from the years 1887–1902, (1950 in S. Fischer-Verlag) edited and commented on by Anna Freud, Ernst Kris and Marie Bonaparte
  182. ^ Sigmund Freud Papers in the Library of Congress
  183. US Library Of Congress Releases Sigmund Freud's Digitized Letters , University Herald, February 4, 2017 (accessed February 16, 2017).
  184. The Burghölzli is located on Lake Constance. (No longer available online.) In: Tages-Anzeiger . September 3, 2011, archived from the original on March 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 22, 2016 .