Charles Robert Darwin [ tʃɑrlz 'dɑː.wɪn ] (born February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury , † April 19, 1882 in Down House / Kent ) was a British naturalist . He is considered to be one of the most important natural scientists because of his essential contributions to the theory of evolution .
The journey with the HMS Beagle , which began at the end of 1831 and lasted almost five years , and which took the young Darwin around the world , was both a key experience and the basis for his later work. Darwin first became known to the general public through his travelogue published in 1839. With his theory about the formation of coral reefs and other geological writings, he gained recognition as a geologist in scientific circles . His research on barnacles (Cirripedia) also gave him a reputation as a respected zoologist and taxonomist in the mid-1850s .
As early as 1838, Darwin drafted his theory of adaptation to the habitat through variation and natural selection , thus explaining the phylogenetic development of all organisms and their division into different species . For over 20 years he gathered evidence for this theory. In 1842 and 1844 Darwin wrote brief outlines of his theory, which he did not publish. From 1856 he worked on an extensive manuscript entitled Natural Selection . A letter from Alfred Russel Wallace , which contained his Ternate manuscript with similar thoughts on evolution, finally resulted in a publication of theories on evolution by both of them in the summer of 1858 . A year later, Darwin's work On the Origin of Species (On the Origin of Species) , which for a strictly scientific explanation diversity of life , the foundation of modern evolutionary biology is and represents a crucial turning point in the history of modern biology.
1871 discussed Darwin in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (The Descent of Man) with the sexual selection a second selection mechanism and used his theory to the lineage to explain the human being. In the last decade of his life, Darwin studied climbing plants , orchids and carnivorous plants and made important contributions to botany . Its official botanical author abbreviation is " Darwin ".
life and work
Childhood and studies
Charles Robert Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 on the Mount House estate in Shrewsbury . He was the fifth of six children of the doctor Robert Darwin and his wife Susannah, née Wedgwood (1765-1817). His grandfathers were the naturalist and poet Erasmus Darwin and the ceramic manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood .
On July 15, 1817, when Charles Darwin was eight years old, his mother died. His three older sisters Marianne (1798-1858), Caroline (1800-1888) and Susan (1803-1866) took over his care. From the spring of 1817 he attended the day school of the Unitarian community. His mother was a devout Unitarian, his father was considered an unbeliever, but Charles was baptized in the Anglican Church . In June 1818 he moved to the private boarding school of Shrewsbury, directed by Samuel Butler , where he stayed for seven years. However, Darwin could not gain much from conventional teaching, which was oriented towards ancient languages and literature. The penetration of complex issues such as Euclid's geometry , in which a private teacher taught him, or the fine adjustment of a barometer, which his uncle Samuel Tertius Galton (1783–1844) explained to him, however, gave him pleasure. At this time Darwin was already collecting shells, seals, coins and minerals, and his incessant forays into nature, during which he examined the behavior of birds, sharpened his powers of observation. Inspired by experiments by his older brother Erasmus (1804–1881), which he carried out in a self-built laboratory in his parents' tool shed and with which Darwin was allowed to help, he dealt intensively with chemistry. Charles, like his father, was to become a doctor and had already sat in on his practice.
In October 1825 Darwin, like his brother Erasmus before, began studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh . The lectures, with the exception of Thomas Charles Hope's chemistry lectures , bored him. He mainly dealt with scientific topics. The most influential teacher in his time in Edinburgh was Robert Edmond Grant , a free thinker and follower of Lamarck's theory of evolution . With him he learned marine zoology, scientific observation and the importance of accurate records. He was also engaged in the dissection of birds, which he learned from John Edmonstone , a former black slave. Darwin was a member of the Royal Medical Society and the Plinian Society, where he gave his first scientific lecture on the self- motility of the eggs of Flustra (a moss animal ).
When Darwin's father saw that his son was struggling to study medicine, he suggested that he become a clergyman in the Church of England and begin studying theology . After a brief period of thought, Darwin agreed and began studying at Cambridge in January 1828 after brushing up on his Greek in private lessons. Although Darwin completed his theological studies without enthusiasm and considered them a waste of time, he later described his time at Cambridge as the happiest of his life.
On the advice of his tutor John Graham (1794-1865), later Bishop of Chester , he postponed his first preliminary examination, the so-called "Little Go". After two months of preparation, he finally passed Little Go in March 1830 with ease. Preparations for the final examination also included works by William Paley , a major exponent of natural theology that was then predominant in England . Darwin was particularly impressed by Paley's work Natural Theology ; Paley's logic, type of reasoning and language would shape him later. On January 22, 1831, he passed his final exam as the tenth best of 178 students, which included questions about Paley, Euclid and the Greek and Latin classics. He was only able to receive the certificate for the first academic degree Baccalaureus Artium on April 26, 1831, as he had to stay two semesters in Cambridge due to the time he had missed at the beginning of his studies.
At the beginning of his studies at Christ's College in Cambridge Darwin met his cousin William Darwin Fox , of him in the entomology introduced and he by a passionate collector of beetles was. In the summer months he went on numerous entomological excursions, most of which took him to North Wales , and accompanied, among others, Frederick William Hope (1797–1862), George Leonard Jenyns (1763–1848) and Thomas Campbell Eyton and his father Thomas Eyton . Another small scientific recognition he received when his name was mentioned in the Illustrations of British Entomology by James Francis Stephens , published in July 1829 .
Darwin held John Stevens Henslow's botany lectures in high regard . Through his great cousin Fox, he received invitations to the regular evenings held in Henslow's house, which he held for students who had not yet graduated. A friendship developed between the two that lasted lifelong and that Darwin characterized as the most influential in his entire career.
During his senior year in Cambridge he read John Herschel's Introduction to the Study of Natural Philosophy and Alexander von Humboldt's Journey to the Equinoctial Areas of the New Continent . From Humboldt's work he made numerous notes on the Canary Island of Tenerife and began planning a trip there in April 1831. He started learning Spanish , which was troubling him. He obtained information about the costs and dates of passages to Tenerife and was disappointed to find that he could not start the journey before June 1832.
As early as the spring of 1831, Henslow had convinced him to study geology and introduced him to Adam Sedgwick , professor of geology at Cambridge. In August 1831 Darwin and Sedgwick went on a geological excursion to North Wales, on which they spent about a week together. On his return to Shrewsbury on August 29, 1831, Darwin found a letter from Henslow. Henslow informed Darwin that Captain Robert FitzRoy was looking for a suitable and scientifically trained companion for his next trip with the HMS Beagle and that he had recommended him for this position. FitzRoy feared that without such a companion he would suffer the fate of the first captain of the HMS Beagle , Pringle Stokes, who had committed suicide in 1828. The destination of the expedition led by FitzRoy were Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America to carry out cartographic measurements. The coasts of Chile , Peru and some South Sea islands should also be measured. After Darwin and FitzRoy met to mutual satisfaction and his father's approval for the proposed venture, Darwin traveled to London.
The trip with the HMS Beagle
Storms repeatedly delayed the start of the HMS Beagle's survey trip . It was not until December 27, 1831 that the HMS Beagle set sail from Devonport . The journey began unpleasant for Darwin. He became seasick immediately , and his dream of exploring the species-rich subtropical vegetation on the Canary Island of Tenerife, described by Humboldt , failed due to a quarantine that was imposed on the crew due to a cholera outbreak in England. Darwin spent the first time on the ship microscopically examining the organisms (later referred to as plankton ) trapped in a self-constructed, close-knit trawl . He began his first notebook, which was followed by numerous others, which he put on for various purposes during the trip. There were notebooks that he only used during excursions ashore. In his geological and zoological notebooks, he arranged the impressions gained on land. He carefully numbered the samples he had collected in other notebooks.
On January 16, 1832, he was able to go ashore for the first time at Praia on the Cape Verde island of Santiago . Henslow had advised Darwin to read the first volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology , and FitzRoy had given it to him before he left. During his three-week stay, he discovered a horizontal band of mussels in the cliffs of the coast at a height of 15 meters and for the first time found confirmation of Lyell's theory of the slow, gradual , geological formation of the earth.
Almost exactly two months after departure, the HMS Beagle reached the east coast of South America on February 28, 1832 and anchored off Salvador da Bahia in All Saints Bay . Darwin enjoyed the tropical rainforest , but also watched the effects of slavery , which he rejected because of his upbringing and about which he quarreled with FitzRoy. Two months later he received his first mail from home in Rio de Janeiro . While the HMS Beagle continued surveying the coast, Darwin stayed with some crew members in Rio and undertook geological surveys along the coast. In the second half of August he sent the first samples, mainly geological, from Montevideo to Henslow in Cambridge. By the end of June 1835, seven more shipments followed with plant, animal, fossil and geological finds and collectibles.
On September 22, 1832, Darwin discovered his first fossils near Bahía Blanca in Punta Alta . Better equipped, he was able to uncover the skull of a megatherium and a well-preserved skeleton of a scelidotherium , both giant sloths , the next day . From the place where it was found, a layer of mussels, he concluded that the two extinct animals must have developed at the same time as the mussels surrounding them.
Over the turn of the year, the HMS Beagle stayed in the Tierra del Fuego area , where a missionary station was set up for the Reverend Richard Matthews and the three Tierra del Fuego , whom FitzRoy had brought to England on his first voyage . When the HMS Beagle visited the mission station again a year later, it was deserted. After a month's stay on the Falkland Islands , the HMS Beagle continued its survey work off the east coast of South America. Meanwhile, Darwin undertook excursions into the interior of Uruguay and Argentina from April to November 1833 . At the beginning of December, the HMS Beagle left Montevideo, measured parts of the Strait of Magellan , among other things, and reached the Pacific Ocean on June 11, 1834 .
The HMS Beagle sailed via Chiloé , Valdivia and Concepción to Valparaíso , where it arrived on July 23, 1834 and stayed for several weeks. Darwin undertook his first expedition through the Andes from August 14th to September 27th, 1834 , which took him to Santiago for the first time . While the HMS Beagle was mapping the Chonos Archipelago , Darwin explored the geological nature of the island of Chiloé. On February 20, 1835, he witnessed the severe three-minute earthquake near Valdivia. Six weeks later, he and FitzRoy saw the effects of this quake while riding to the heavily destroyed city of Concepción. When Darwin explored Quiriquina Island near Talcahuano in early March 1835 , he found marine debris that had been lifted a few feet as a result of the earthquake, which he saw as further confirmation of Lyell's theory and the age of the earth. During a second Andean expedition in March and April, he discovered that the mountains, which are far from the coast, consisted mainly of submarine lava. He found fossil and petrified trees and began to develop his own geological theories. By the summer he undertook two more expeditions during which he carried out research in the Andes.
After the surveying work off Chile and Peru , which lasted until September 7, 1835 , the HMS Beagle finally left the West coast of South America and set off for the Galapagos Islands . On September 18, Darwin set foot on one of the numerous islands on San Cristóbal for the first time. The surveying work lasted a good month. Darwin was able to conduct examinations and collect animal and plant samples on the islands of Floreana , San Salvador and Isabela . Nicholas Lawson, the director of the prison camp on Floreana Island, drew his attention to the fact that the turtles living on the Galápagos Islands could be assigned to specific islands based on their tanks. Darwin didn't pay much attention to that remark or to the Galapagos finches at the time .
On October 20, 1835, the HMS Beagle set out to cross the Pacific Ocean. A good three weeks later, the atoll Puka-Puka in the Tuamotu Archipelago was sighted and reached Tahiti on the evening of November 15 , where the ship anchored for ten days. In Papeete , Darwin and FitzRoy met the Tahitian Queen Pomaré IV . While continuing to New Zealand , Darwin completed his theory about the formation of coral reefs , which he had already begun on the west coast of South America. Darwin once again used the ten-day stay in the north of New Zealand's North Island for excursions inland. He visited the missionaries of the Te Waimate Mission and examined peculiar limestone formations at Kaikohe .
When the HMS Beagle reached Sydney Cove in Port Jackson off Sydney in Australia on January 12, 1836 , Darwin was relieved to finally be back in a large, sophisticated city. On one of his trips he met some Aborigines who - for a shilling - demonstrated their javelin throwing skills. In Hobart , Darwin, who was more and more drawn to his home, enjoyed the hospitality of General Surveyor George Frankland (1800–1838). He celebrated his 27th birthday, caught skinks and snakes, collected flatworms and numerous insects, including dung beetles , which he found in cow dung . The last stop of the two-month stay in Australia was Albany .
The next trip took him to the Cocos Islands as well as Mauritius and the southern tip of Madagascar to South Africa . On May 31, 1836, the HMS threw Beagle in Simon's Town in Simon's Bay anchor. Darwin hurried overland to Cape Town , where he met with John Herschel . On June 29, the HMS crossed Beagle the Tropic of Capricorn . On St. Helena he investigated the geology of the island and on Ascension he climbed the 859 meter high volcano Green Mountain . Home England was getting closer, but on June 23rd, Captain FitzRoy decided to return to Salvador da Bahia on the coast of South America to rule out incorrect measurements. On August 17, 1836, the HMS Beagle finally went on home course. He again made Praia driven and a stopover in the Azores -Insel Terceira inserted. On October 2nd at around 9 a.m. the ship entered the English port of Falmouth . Darwin immediately went to see his family in Shrewsbury .
On the return trip Darwin had organized his notes and, with the help of his assistant Syms Covington , had compiled a total of twelve catalogs of his collections. His zoological notes comprised 368 pages, while those on geology were around four times as extensive with 1,383 pages. In addition, he had described 770 pages of his travel diary. 1529 species preserved in alcohol as well as 3907 hides, skins, bones, plants etc. were the result of his almost five-year journey. In retrospect, Darwin later summed up in his autobiography: "The trip with the Beagle was by far the most important event in my life and determined my entire career."
Back in England - the beginnings of the theory of evolution
Darwin's name was known in scientific circles even before his return in October 1836, since Henslow, unbeknownst to Darwin, had published some of his letters as Letters on Geology . Darwin stayed for a short time in Cambridge, where he worked on his collection and the manuscript of the Journal . In March 1837 he settled in London. Here he soon made friends with Charles Lyell and Richard Owen . The friendly relationship with Owen, however, cooled in later years.
In the time after his return, Darwin's first thoughts about the species change occur, even if Darwin himself later brought this point forward to the time in South America. His belief in the constancy of species was particularly shaken by the work of John Gould in March 1837 on the birds of the Galápagos Islands. Darwin had hardly paid any attention to the birds on the voyage, nor did he assign the specimens collected to the individual islands. Gould showed not only that all species are closely related (today summarized as Darwin's finches ), but that in these birds no clear separation between species and varieties is possible, i.e. there are no clear species boundaries.
Darwin's reflections on the origin of species were accompanied by a wide range of reading in the fields of medicine, psychology, natural sciences, philosophy, theology and political economy. Darwin's aim was to place the origin of species on a scientific basis. In particular, he now rejected Paley's natural theology, in whose tradition he had been trained at Cambridge. Many of Darwin's later experiments and arguments served to refute Paley's argument from design and attribute adaptations to natural causes, not divine action. Darwin often used the same examples as Paley and similar arguments. Philosophically, Darwin was primarily shaped by Anglo-Scottish empiricism in the tradition of David Hume , but also by Adam Smith , for example his theory of moral feelings. Theoretically speaking, John Herschel and William Whewell had a great influence on him with their emphasis on the importance of induction and deduction in the natural sciences.
By the summer of 1837 at the latest, Darwin was convinced of the variability of species and began to collect information on this subject. In the following 15 months the theory emerged slowly and step by step, which he was only to publish in 1858/1859. In March 1837 Darwin began to write down his reflections in notebooks, the Notebooks on Transmutation . On p. 36 of the first notebook, "B", under the heading I think , he drafted a first sketch of the origin of species through splitting. An important basis for his considerations was gradualism , as he knew it from Lyell's Principles of Geology . Darwin knew the variability of species and the selection mechanism (artificial selection) from animal and plant breeding.
The law of growth, as formulated by Thomas Robert Malthus in his essay on the Principle of Population and read by Darwin in September 1838, turned out to be the crystallization point for the formulation of his selection theory . Malthus' theory is based on the observation that population increases exponentially (without control or external restriction) while food production only increases linearly. Thus, the exponential growth can only be sustained for a limited time and at some point there will be a fight for the limited resources. Darwin realized that this law could be applied to other species, and that such competition would result in beneficial variations being preserved and unfavorable variations disappearing from the population. This mechanism of selection explained the change and also the emergence of new species. So Darwin had a "theory to work with".
The time in London was the busiest in Darwin's life. In addition to his extensive studies on evolution, he published the multi-volume The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (1838-1843). His travel book, initially published as the third volume of The narrative of the voyages of HM Ships Adventure and Beagle (1839), was so successful that it was published separately under the title Journal of Researches that same year. It is still his most widely read book today, along with the Origins . Darwin wrote the geological work based on his observations during the voyage on the structure of the coral reefs (1842) and volcanoes (1844), which contributed significantly to his reputation as a scientist. How firmly anchored Darwin was in society is shown by his admission to the Royal Society and the Athenaeum Club, as well as his appointment to the Council of the Geological Society of London and the Council of the Royal Geographical Society .
On January 29, 1839 Darwin and his cousin Emma Wedgwood (1808-1896), the daughter of his uncle Josiah Wedgwood II married. The joint fortune, which came from both his own father and the father of the bride, allowed Darwin a life as a privateer . He invested the fortune in real estate and later mainly in railway stocks. The children William Erasmus (1839–1914), Anne (1841–1851) and Mary Eleanor (1842–1842) were born in London. Mary Eleanor died after a few weeks. Darwin studied infant expressions on William, which he would later publish.
Retreat to Down House
In November 1842, the Darwin family moved to Down House in the small town of Downe south of London . Here Darwin hoped for more rest for his ailing health. Since his return from the Beagle trip, increasingly since 1839, symptoms of illness had repeatedly set in, the causes of which are still speculated today. Symptoms were faintness, stomach pain, nausea and vomiting, increased heart rate, and difficulty breathing. Darwin therefore lived very withdrawn, seldom traveled and never left the British Isles in his life. Daughter Henrietta was born in September 1843, followed by six more children: George Howard (1845–1912), Elizabeth (1847–1926), Francis (1848–1925), Leonard (1850–1943), Horace (1851–1928) ) and Charles Waring (1856-1858).
In 1843 his friendship began with the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker , who would become his strongest ally alongside Lyell and Thomas Henry Huxley . In a letter on January 11, 1844, Darwin gave him the first clues about his theory of evolution and wrote to him that "contrary to his original view, he is now almost convinced that species (it is like admitting murder) are not immutable" . Hooker replied that in his opinion there was "a gradual change in species" and that he, Hooker, was curious to see Darwin's approach as he had not yet heard a satisfactory explanation. Darwin had already outlined his considerations in 1842 in a 35-page sketch and worked it out in 1844 into a 230-page essay, which only his wife Emma could read and which she was to publish in the event of his death. Both texts already agreed in content and basic structure with the book published in 1859. Until now, the doctrine of transmutation has remained mainly limited to socialist, revolutionary and sometimes medical circles, but from 1844 it found its way into bourgeois circles: with Robert Chambers' anonymously published work Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation , which - brilliantly but journalistically written - quickly became a bestseller, but was not taken seriously in scientific circles.
The next works Darwin published were the Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of HMS Beagle in 1844 and the Geological observations on South America in 1846. With that, the collections were his world tour refurbished after ten years, with the exception of a strange specimen of the barnacles . From the description of this species an eight year long processing of all known living and fossil species of the entire subclass Cirripedia developed. This work, which he published in two thick volumes on the living and two narrow volumes on the fossil representatives, made him a recognized taxonomist, and he received the Royal Medal for it in 1854 . He received collections from all over Europe, the USA and all British colonies. Darwin himself recognized the importance of variation and the individual during the work . During this time, Hooker became the only point of contact on the subject of evolution, and in 1847 Darwin gave him his essay to read.
In 1849 Darwin went to Malvern for a 16-week water cure for treatment by doctor James Gully , which improved his health considerably. In the years that followed, Darwin took repeated cures to recover, and he continued the cold ablutions at home. In 1851 his favorite daughter Annie fell seriously ill and died on April 23, 1851. Her death destroyed the last vestiges of his belief in a moral, just world, which had already faded since his return from the Beagle voyage. Darwin referred to himself as an agnostic in later life .
After completing work on the barnacles, Darwin resumed work on the theory of evolution in 1854. During these years he carried out countless experiments. Among other things, he tried to find a solution to the problem of island settlement. To this end, he examined, for example, the viability of plant seeds in salt water and considered bird droppings and the vaults of birds of prey as media for spreading. For the theme of variation, he turned to animal breeders, gathered information from them, and began breeding pigeons himself to study artificial selection in practice.
Charles Lyell, to whom Darwin shared much of his views, urged Darwin in 1856 to publish his findings so that someone else would not precede him. The reason for this urge was an essay by Alfred Russel Wallace , On the Law which has regulated the introduction of New Species (1855), the scope of which Darwin himself misunderstood because of Wallace's claused language. Darwin now began to write down his findings in a manuscript entitled Natural Selection . The work dragged on due to the extensive material, in March 1858 ten chapters, around two thirds of the planned volume, were finished. In the meantime he had found another correspondent in Asa Gray at Harvard and had given him a summary of his theory in a letter dated September 5, 1857. In July 1857 Darwin was elected justice of the peace and in the same year made a member of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina .
In 1859, Darwin estimated that it must have taken a little over 300 million years for a 500-foot-high limestone cliff in southern England to be eroded by the sea. So the rock itself had to be much older. This was controversially referred to as "vague observations" by Lord Kelvin , since Kelvin concluded that the Earth was between 20 and 400 million years old using thermodynamic calculations from cooling periods of the earth - even before the discovery of radioactivity .
About the origin of the species
The justification of Lyell's insistence on publication was shown when, in June 1858, Darwin received a mail from Wallace from the Moluccan island of Ternate with a manuscript called On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type , which essentially used the same explanatory patterns as Darwin's own work included. It used the term struggle for existence and drew on the work of Lyell, Malthus, Lamarck and the Vestiges of Robert Chambers. Wallace asked Darwin to forward the manuscript to Lyell, but without mentioning a possible publication. Although Darwin feared for his priority in publication, he forwarded the manuscript. Since his youngest son, Charles Waring, contracted scarlet fever on June 23 and died a few days later, Darwin left matters to his friends Lyell and Hooker. They found the solution in a gentlemanly agreement , which included a joint presentation of the work of Wallace and Darwin, which took place on July 1, 1858 at a meeting of the Linnean Society . Neither the reading nor the subsequent printing of the lecture led to significant reactions.
Instead of finishing his book Natural Selection , which would have taken too long, Darwin decided to publish a summary of the book. The planned essay ultimately turned into a book of around 155,000 words. Hooker read and corrected the manuscript. The publisher John Murray , through Lyell's mediation, accepted the manuscript unseen, and even paid the £ 72 cost of Darwin's changes to the proofs. The first edition was increased from the originally planned 500 to 1250. On November 22, 1859, the fully pre-ordered edition went from On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life (The Origin of Species) to the trade and came into the November 24 Sale. In the book, Darwin essentially set out five independent theories:
- the evolution , as such, the variability of species;
- the common descent of all living things;
- the gradualism , the change by the smallest increments;
- Reproduction of species or speciation in populations
- and natural selection as the most important, if not the only, mechanism of evolution.
The fact of evolution was practically universally accepted in scientific circles over the next few years, but much less so was natural selection, with which even Darwin's friends Lyell and Asa Gray could not make friends. John Herschel sharply criticized it as the "law of the higgledy-piggledy" ("rule of cabbage and turnips"). Karl Ernst von Baer even put it close to a science fairy tale. Darwin's fatherly friend Henslow rejected evolution, but remained on friendly terms with Darwin. Sedgwick and Richard Owen, however, published negative reviews. Darwin's friends backed the book with several reviews, Huxley told The Times .
In June 1860, during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford University , a bitter argument broke out in Darwin's absence between the supporter of evolutionary ideas Thomas Huxley and one of their avowed opponents, the Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce . In the course of this, Wilberforce and Darwin's former captain Robert FitzRoy argued against, Huxley and Joseph Dalton Hooker for the theory. Both sides claimed victory in the debate.
The other books after On the Origin of Species
In the next few years Darwin published three important books in which he worked out aspects of the theory of evolution in much more detail than in the book On the Origin of Species .
In The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication , which appeared at the end of January 1868, he presented all the material he had collected over the last few decades, that is, variation, changeability , shows of animals and plants under the influence of humans. In this book he also presented his speculations about a mechanism of inheritance, namely the pangenesis theory . It met with rejection even from his friends and turned out to be wrong.
Darwin had always avoided discussing human ancestry up to this point. It was only in the 1871 book, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (The Descent of Man) put Darwin represents what has already been widely discussed at that time and what is already Huxley ( Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature , 1863) and Ernst Haeckel had publicly represented: the relationship between humans and monkeys, with whom they share common ancestors. Darwin's first assumption that man developed in Africa turned out to be correct much later. Darwin also attributed the spiritual properties of man to evolutionary processes. Furthermore, he emphasized the unity of man as a single species and spoke out against understanding the races (or subspecies ) of humans as different species (in the 7th chapter: "About the races of humans"). He explained the origin of these human races through sexual selection . In the second part of the book he focused on sexual selection, the choice of partners by the opposite sex. With this theory Darwin was able to explain phenomena such as deer antlers, which should not exist due to natural selection. The book was also a response to the book The Reign of Law by the liberal Duke of Argyll , in which the latter, influenced by Owen, attacked Darwin's natural selection and traced the origin of natural laws back to God.
1872 followed On the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals ) , expounded in Darwin that the feelings and their expression in humans and animals alike, and how external features have arisen through evolution . The book was also an argument against Charles Bell and his book Anatomy and Physiology of Expression , in which he took the view that the facial muscles of humans were created for the purpose of expressing his feelings. In the same year, the sixth and last edition of Origin of Species was published. In each edition Darwin made numerous changes, corrected errors and responded to criticism.
In 1874 Darwin was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .
The last decade: botany
In the last decade of his life, Darwin's publishing activities focused on botanical subjects. Darwin carried out numerous experiments for this purpose, in which he was particularly supported by his son Francis.
The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants from 1867 (expanded 2nd edition 1875) and the 592-page book The Power of Movement in Plants from 1880 are fundamental works of plant physiology . While observing the irritability of oat coleoptiles , he postulated a messenger substance ( hormone ) that decades later would be identified as auxin . He investigated the reaction of the root tips to stimuli and put the root tips of plants in analogy to the brains of invertebrates, an idea that came back to life in the 21st century as plant intelligence in the context of the controversial plant neurobiology . Darwin discovered the circumnutation , the endogenously controlled circular movement of many plants. In his book, Insectivorous Plants (Insectivorous plants) by 1875 he was able to prove that some plants actually carnivorous are.
In three papers he dealt with flower biology : In the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing (About the facilities for the fertilization of British and foreign orchids by insects and about the favorable successes of the Alternating fertilization) (1862) he showed that the flower structure of orchids serves to achieve the highest possible rate of cross- pollination . He described the flowers of deception, such as the fly ragweed , which imitates female digger wasps and thus attracts the males. For the Malagasy orchid Angraecum sesquipedale with a 25 cm long nectar spur, he predicted a pollinating butterfly with an equally long proboscis, which would not be discovered until years later. His publication The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom (The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom) (1876) was the result of extensive pollination experiments since 1866, some of which he carried out over ten plant generations. Cross-pollination led in most cases to stronger offspring than self-pollination . In The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species ( 1877) he showed that the different flower forms of some plants also serve to ensure cross-pollination, for example in heterostyly . The book was one of the few that Darwin dedicated to one person: Asa Gray .
Darwin's last book dealt with a subject that had preoccupied him for over 40 years: the activity of earthworms . The formation of vegetable mold, through the action of worms, with observations on Their habits ( The Formation of Vegetable Mold Through the Action of Worms ) came out in 1881, a few months before Darwin's death. Here he postulated a central role for earthworms in soil and humus formation. In a 30-year field experiment, he showed that the work of the earthworms incorporated lime pieces from the surface up to 18 cm deep into the soil. He also refuted the opinion that was widespread at the time that earthworms were harmful to crop production. With this work Darwin was one of the pioneers of soil biology.
On Darwin's initiative, the Index Kewensis was created, the further financing of which he regulated in his will.
Charles Darwin died on April 19, 1882 at the age of 73 at his Downe home. He was buried in Westminster Abbey on April 26, at the foot of the monument to Sir Isaac Newton and next to Sir John Herschel . One of his pallbearers was Alfred Russel Wallace . The erection of a statue in the new Natural History Museum had to wait until 1885, when Richard Owens retired .
Reception and aftermath
Charles Darwin is considered to be one of the most important natural scientists due to his essential contributions to the theory of evolution and is still strongly present in the public consciousness due to this achievement. For example, in 1992 Darwin was ranked 16th on a list of the most influential people in history, and in Great Britain he was ranked fourth on the 100 Greatest Britons .
Today, the evolution theory founded by Darwin and continuously developed since then represents the fundamental paradigm for biology : It brings together all biological sub-disciplines such as zoology, botany, behavioral research, embryology and genetics "under one roof". Theodosius Dobzhansky formulated this succinctly in 1973 in the often quoted sentence: "Nothing in biology has any meaning, except in the light of evolution."
Darwin's works, especially The Origin of Species and Descent of Humans , triggered a flood of reviews and reactions shortly after their publication. Darwin's theories not only touched on biological issues, they also had "far-reaching implications for theology, philosophy and other humanities, as well as for the political and social spheres". Darwin's theories were discussed not only in scientific circles but also by the clergy and the general public. Topics were, for example, the teleology problem , the role of a creator, the mind-body problem or the position of man in nature. The fact that man is not an independent creation, but an evolutionary product like millions of other species, is in contradiction to Christian teaching and many philosophical schools. Sigmund Freud described the theory of evolution as one of the three insults of human self-love .
Important parts of his theory had quickly gained acceptance: the fact of evolution itself and common ancestry. However, the mechanism of selection has long remained controversial and is only one of several discussed mechanisms. At the first big anniversary on the occasion of Darwin's 100th birthday in 1909 there was almost no one to support the selection theory. This time was later Julian Huxley as "eclipse of Darwinism" (eclipse of Darwinism) referred. It was not until the synthetic theory of evolution , also known as the second Darwinian revolution , that the theory of selection made its breakthrough. In the 20th century, under the influence of Darwin, new disciplines emerged such as behavioral research and sociobiology , the application of which to humans is discussed in philosophy as " evolutionary ethics ". The Evolutionary Epistemology pass ultimately to Darwin and back important elements of evolutionary economics were influenced by his work.
Darwin's theories experienced an abusive reinterpretation and political transfer in the ideology of social Darwinism . This transfer, based among other things on a naturalistic fallacy , can neither inevitably be derived from Darwin's work, nor does it even remotely correspond to Darwin's view of the world and man.
"No other scientist of the 19th century has influenced our modern worldview - both in biology and beyond - more than this English researcher."
The Darwin finches and the Eocene primate genus Darwinius were named after Darwin . Also the following geographic locations: Charles Darwin National Park (Australia), Charles Darwin University (Australia), Darwin College in Cambridge (England), Darwin (Falkland Islands) , Darwin (Australia) , Darwin Glacier and Mount Darwin (California), Isla Darwin , Darwin Island (Antarctica), Darwin Sound (Canada), Darwin Sound ( Tierra del Fuego ), Monte Darwin (Tierra del Fuego), Mount Darwin (Tasmania) , Cordillera Darwin (Chile) and Cape Darwin (East Antarctica).
English first editions
- The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle . Smith, Elder & Co. , London 1838-1843 (as editor); digitized version
- Journal and Remarks. 1832-1836 . Vol. 3 by P. Parker King, Robert FitzRoy, Charles Darwin: The narrative of the voyages of HM Ships Adventure and Beagle . Henry Colburn, London 1838-1839; digitized version ; as an independent publication: Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by HMS Beagle Henry Colburn, London 1839.
Geology of The Voyage of The Beagle . 3 volumes, Smith, Elder & Co, London 1842–1846:
- The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. FitzRoy, RN during the years 1832 to 1836 . Smith, Elder & Co., London 1842; digitized version
- Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of HMS Beagle, together with some brief notices of the geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. Being the second part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. FitzRoy, RN during the years 1832 to 1836 . Smith, Elder & Co., London 1844; digitized version
- Geological observations on South America. Being the third part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. FitzRoy, RN during the years 1832 to 1836 . Smith, Elder & Co., London 1846; digitized version
Living Cirripedia . 2 volumes, The Ray Society, London 1852–1854
- Living Cirripedia, A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Lepadidae; or, pedunculated cirripedes . London: The Ray Society 1852; digitized version
- Living Cirripedia, The Balanidae, (or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidae . The Ray Society, London 1854; digitized version
Fossil Cirripedia of Great Britain . 2 volumes, Palaeontographical Society, London 1851–1855
- Fossil Cirripedia of Great Britain: A monograph on the fossil Lepadidae, or pedunculated cirripedes of Great Britain . London: Palaeontographical Society 1851; digitized version
- A monograph on the fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae of Great Britain . Palaeontographical Society, London 1855; digitized version
- On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life . John Murray, London 1859; digitized version
- On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing . John Murray, London 1862; digitized version
- On the movements and habits of climbing plants. In: Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany). Vol. 9, pp. 1-118; digitized version
- The variation of animals and plants under domestication . John Murray, London 1868; digitized versions
- The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex . John Murray, London 1871; digitized versions
- The expression of the emotions in man and animals . John Murray, London 1872; digitized version
- Insectivorous Plants . John Murray, London 1875; digitized version
- The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom . John Murray, London 1876; digitized version
- The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species . John Murray, London 1877; digitized version
- The power of movement in plants . John Murray, London 1880; digitized version
- The formation of vegetable mold, through the action of worms, with observations on their habits . John Murray, London 1881 digitized version
German first editions
- Charles Darwin's Scientific Journeys to the Islands of the Green Foothills, South America, Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, Chiloe Islands, Galápagos Islands, Otaheiti, New Holland, New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Keeling Islands, Mauritius, St. Helena, den Azores ec . German and with comments by Ernst Dieffenbach . Ms. Vieweg and Son, Braunschweig 1844, digitized .
- About the origin of species in the animal and plant kingdoms through natural breeding, or the preservation of perfected races in the struggle for existence . After the second [English] edition with a historical preface and other additions by the author for this German edition translated from English and annotated by Dr. HG Bronn . E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer, Stuttgart 1860; digitized version
- About the institutions for the fertilization of British and foreign orchids by insects and about the beneficial successes of alternating fertilization . Translated from English by HG Bronn with addenda and improvements by the author. E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printing company, Stuttgart 1862.
- About the movements of the creepers. Excerpted from a treatise contained in the Journal of the Linnean Society, IX, pp. 1–118. Presentation by AW Eichler. “ In: Flora or general botanical newspaper. Neue Reihe, Vol. 24, pp. 241-252, pp. 273-282, pp. 321-325, pp. 337-345, pp. 375-378, pp. 385-398.
- The Varying of Animals and Plants in the State of Domestication . 2 volumes. Translated from English by J. Victor Carus . With the author's corrections and additions to the 2nd English edition and with a register. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1868
- Human descent and sexual selection . 2 volumes. Translated from English by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1871; Digital version of the 3rd edition from 1875 = translation of Darwin's revision from 1874
- The expression of the emotions in man and animals . Translated from English by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1872
- Ch. Darwin's collected works . Translated from English by J. Victor Carus. Authorized German edition. 16 volumes. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1874–1888
- Journey of a naturalist around the world . Translated from English by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1875.
- Insectivorous Plants . Translated by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1876; Digitized and full text in the German Text Archive , digitized version
- The various forms of flowers on plants of the same species . Translated by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1877; digitized version
- The effects of cross and self-fertilization in the vegetable kingdom . Translated by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1877; digitized version
- The movement of plants . Translated by J. Victor Carus. E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1881; digitized version
- The formation of the soil through the action of worms . Translated from the English by J. Victor Carus . E. Schweizerbart'sche publishing house and printer (E. Koch), Stuttgart 1882; digitized version (PDF; 2 MB)
- About instinct. In: G. John Romanes: The spiritual development in the animal kingdom. In addition to a postponed work: 'On Instinct' by Charles Darwin. Ernst Günthers Verlag, Leipzig 1885 ( full text at archive.org ).
Modern editions (selection)
- The origin of the species through natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for existence. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2018, translated by Eike Schönfeld, ISBN 978-3-608-96115-7 .
- PH Barrett, RB Freeman (Eds.): The Works of Charles Darwin. 29 volumes, The Pickering Masters, London 1986–1989.
- PH Barrett: The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin. 2 volumes, Chicago, London 1977.
- Barrett PH, Gautrey PJ, Herbert S., Kohn D., Smith S. (Eds.): Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844. New York 1987, ISBN 0-521-35055-7 .
- F. Burkhardt, S. Smith et al. a. (Ed.): The Correspondence of Charles Darwin. Vol. 1 ff., Cambridge 1985 ff.
- Collected Works. After the translation from the English by: J. Victor Carus , Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-86150-773-0 .
- P. Wrede, S. Wrede (Ed.): Charles Darwin: The origin of the kinds. Annotated and illustrated edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2012, ISBN 978-3-527-33256-4 .
- Nora Barlow (Ed.): The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. With the Original Omissions Restored. Edited and with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow. 1958 online (German most recently Insel Verlag, Frankfurt, ISBN 978-3-458-35070-5 )
- Janet Browne : Charles Darwin: Voyaging. Jonathan Cape, London 1995, Princeton UP 1996
- Janet Browne: Charles Darwin: The Power of Place. Jonathan Cape, London 2002
- Adrian Desmond , James R. Moore : Darwin. List Verlag, Munich / Leipzig 1991, ISBN 3-471-77338-X .
- Eve-Marie Engels : Charles Darwin. C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54763-8 .
- Franz Wuketits : Darwin and Darwinism. C. H. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50881-2 .
- Autobiography p. 27 f.
- Autobiography, p. 23.
- Charles Darwin to Caroline Sarah Darwin, January 6, 1826, Letter 20 ( July 29, 2008 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 11, 2008).
- Eve-Marie Engels. Charles Darwin , Person, Life and Work Section . Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54763-8 , pp. 16-41.
- Desmond / Moore, p. 42 f.
- Autobiography, p. 46.
- Autobiography, p. 58.
- Autobiography, pp. 68 f. Darwin Online, accessed July 23, 2009 : “Upon the whole the three years which I spent at Cambridge were the most joyful in my happy life; for I was then in excellent health, and almost always in high spirits. "
- Charles Darwin to Charles Thomas Whitley, August 10, 1828, Letter 45a ( September 24, 2008 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008).
- Charles Darwin to William Darwin Fox, March 25, 1830, Letter 78 ( September 4, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008).
- Janet Browne: About Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species . dtv, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-423-34433-4 , pp. 20-22.
- E. Janet Browne: Charles Darwin: Voyaging . Vol. 1, Jonathan Cape, London 1995, ISBN 1-84413-314-1 , p. 97.
- Francis Darwin : The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin . 3 volumes, John Murray, London 1887, Vol. 1, p. 163 ( online ).
- Autobiography, p. 68.
- Darwin's insects in Stephens' Illustrations of British entomology (1829-1832)
- Autobiography, pp. 60 and 64
- Autobiography, p. 67 f.
- Preliminary discourse on the study of natural philosophy. In: Cabinet cyclopaedia. 1831.
- Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America, During the Years 1799-1804 . London 1818-1819.
- Charles Darwin to William Darwin Fox, April 7, 1831, Letter 96 ( January 16, 2009 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Charles Darwin to William Darwin Fox, May 11, 1831, Letter 100 ( January 16, 2009 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Charles Darwin to Charles Thomas Whitley, July 19, 1831, Letter 102a ( September 4, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Charles Darwin to John Stevens Henslow, July 11, 1831, Letter 102 ( January 16, 2009 memento on the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Charles Darwin to William Darwin Fox, August 1, 1831, Letter 103 ( January 16, 2009 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Charles Darwin to William Darwin Fox, July 9, 1831, Letter 101 ( January 16, 2009 memento in the Internet Archive ) in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 12, 2008)
- Paul H. Barrett: The Sedgwick-Darwin geologic tour of North Wales. In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 118, No. 2, April 19, 1974, pp. 146-164 online
- John Stevens Henslow to Charles Darwin, August 24, 1831, Letter 105 in The Darwin Correspondence Project (accessed June 14, 2008).
- Richard Darwin Keynes: From Bryozoans to Tsunami: Charles Darwin's Findings on the Beagle. In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 147, No. 2, 2003, p. 112 f.
- Desmond / Moore p. 214.
- Desmond / Moore p. 218.
- Autobiography, p. 76.
- Ernst Mayr : The Growth of Biological Thought. Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance . 12th Printing, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2003, chapter Charles Darwin. ISBN 0-674-36446-5 , pp. 394-425.
- Stephen Jay Gould: The Structure of Evolutionary Theory . Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2002, ISBN 0-674-00613-5 , pp. 116-121.
- Desmond & Moore S. 220-229.
- Autobiography p. 120. Darwin Online, accessed on July 23, 2009 : “[…] it at once struck me that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work; [...] "
- Janet Brown: About Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species . dtv, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-423-34433-4 , pp. 39-61.
- Eve-Marie Engels: Charles Darwin. C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, p. 207.
- Charles Darwin to Joseph Dalton Hooker, January 11, 1844, Letter 729. The Darwin Correspondence Project, accessed July 23, 2009 : “At last gleams of light have come, & I am almost convinced (quite contrary to opinion I started with ) that species are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable. "
- Joseph Dalton Hooker to Charles Darwin, January 29, 1844, letter 734. The Darwin Correspondence Project, accessed July 23, 2009 : “There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject. "
- Eve-Marie Engels. Charles Darwin , Origin of the Theory of Descent section . Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54763-8 , pp. 43-126.
Charles Darwin to Emma Darwin, April 23, 1851, letter 1412. (No longer available online.) The Darwin Correspondence Project, formerly the original ; Retrieved on July 29, 2009 : “My dear dearest Emma - I pray God Fanny's note may have prepared you. She went to her final sleep most tranquilly, most sweetly at 12 oclock today. ” Charles Darwin to Erasmus Alvey Darwin, April 25, 1851, letter 1416. (No longer available online.) The Darwin Correspondence Project, formerly the original ; Retrieved on July 29, 2009 : “Will you be so kind as to get inserted as follows in Times & in any other one or two papers of largest circulation. “At Malvern on the 23d inst; of Fever, Anne Elizabeth Darwin, aged ten years, eldest daughter of Charles Darwin Esq. of Down Kent. ”-.“ Note: In his autobiography on page 97, Charles Darwin writes We have suffered only one very severe grief in the death of Annie at Malvern on April 24th, 1851, when she was just over ten years old. however, this information appears to be incorrect.
- Desmond / Moore, p. 439.
- Autobiography, p. 94. Darwin Online, accessed July 27, 2009 : “The mystery of the beginning of all things is insoluble by us; and I for one must be content to remain an Agnostic. "
- Heuel-Fabianek, B. (2017): Natural radioisotopes: the “atomic clock” for determining the absolute age of rocks and archaeological finds. Radiation Protection Practice, 1/2017, pp. 31–42.
- Ernst Mayr: The Growth of Biological Thought. Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance . 12th Printing, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-674-36446-5 , pp. 505-510, chapter Charles Darwin.
- Ernst Mayr: That is evolution . C. Bertelsmann, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-570-12013-9 , p. 114.
- JR Lucas: Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter. In: The Historical Journal. Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 313-330; Retrieved online December 15, 2006.
- Desmond / Moore pp. 557-564.
- Desmond / Moore, pp. 615–617.
- The section The Last Decade: Botany is based next to the biography of Desmond and Moore (1991) on: Ulrich Kutschera : Fact Evolution . dtv, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-423-24707-8 , Chapter 4: Unknown theories of the biologist Charles Darwin: From barnacles to tendril movements to reef formation. Pp. 103-130.
- Benjamin Dayton Jackson: The new 'Index of Plant-Names'. (Concluded from p. 71). In: The Botanical Journal - British and Foreign. Vol. XXV. West, Newman & Co., London 1887, pp. 150-151
- Hart, Michael (2000), The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Citadel, pp. 82 ff.
- The 100 Greatest Britons. Retrieved August 27, 2012 .
- Theodosius Dobzhansky: Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. In: American Biology Teacher. Vol. 35, 1973, pp. 125-129. (online) , accessed June 6, 2008.
- Eve-Marie Engels: Charles Darwin. C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, p. 208.
- Ernst Mayr: The Growth of Biological Thought. Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance . 12th Printing, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-674-36446-5 , p. 438.
- Sigmund Freud: A Difficulty in Psychoanalysis. Collected Works XII, pp. 6-8; ders .: Lectures to introduce psychoanalysis. Collected Works XI, p. 294 f .; Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt 1999, ISBN 3-596-50300-0 .
- Julian Huxley: Evolution. The Modern Synthesis. 1942, pp. 22-28. Quoted from Eve-Marie Engels: Charles Darwin. C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, p. 219.
- Carsten Herrmann-Pillath : Grundriß der Evolutionsökonimok , Wilhelm Fink, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-8252-2340-X , p. 204.
- Eve-Marie Engels: Charles Darwin. C. H. Beck, Munich 2007, p. 199 f .; Franz Wuketits : Darwin and Darwinism. C. H. Beck, Munich 2005, pp. 93-96.
- Thomas Junker : Charles Darwin. In: Ilse Jahn, Michael Schmitt: Darwin & Co. A history of biology in portraits. Vol. 1 . C. H. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-44642-6 , p. 389.
- Peter J. Bowler: Darwin Deleted. Imagining a World Without Darwin. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2013, ISBN 978-0-226-06867-1 .
- Janet Browne: Charles Darwin. The power of place . 2 volumes, Knopf, New York 2002.
- Eve-Marie Engels (Ed.): Charles Darwin and its effect. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-518-29503-8 .
- Johannes Hemleben : Charles Darwin: With self-testimonies and picture documents. 14th edition. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 2004, ISBN 3-499-50137-6 .
- S. Herbert: Charles Darwin, Geologist . Cornell University Press, Ithaca 2005, ISBN 0-8014-4348-2 .
- Albert C. Seward : Darwin and modern science . Essays in commemoration of the centenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and of the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of The Origin of Species . Cambridge 1909.
- Rebecca Stott : Darwin and the Barnacle . Faber and Faber, London 2003, ISBN 0-571-20966-1 .
- Charles Darwin - The Ride of the Beagle. Printing: Clausen & Bosse, Leck, marebuchverlag, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-936384-95-6 .
- The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online - Complete Edition of Darwin's Writings
- The Darwin Correspondence Project - Darwin's Letters
- The Darwin Digital Library of Evolution at the American Museum of Natural History
- Author entry and list of the described plant names for Charles Darwin at the IPNI
- Works by Charles Darwin in Project Gutenberg ( currently not usually available to users from Germany )
- Literature by and about Charles Darwin in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Charles Darwin in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Literature by and about Charles Darwin in the catalog of the Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
- Works by Charles Darwin in the Gutenberg-DE project
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Darwin, Charles Robert (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||British naturalist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 12, 1809|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||The Mount|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 19, 1882|
|Place of death||Downe|