As a geologist academically trained scientists or technicians are called, who professionally or in private initiative with the geology deal and related sciences or with their technical application.
The main fields of work of geologists are
- global issues of geology (composition and structure of the earth's body as a whole, its past and development, global plate tectonics , research areas on the edge of geophysics , etc.)
- geological survey (field work and mapping for geological maps , documentation of samples and results, input into geographic information systems (GIS), etc.)
- Regional geology - based on the above geological land survey , with satellite photos, drilling , etc. - the special investigation into certain formations and their over geologic changes that have occurred and their causes ( tectonic )
- Geodynamics - measurement of changes (e.g. of earth crust movements ) with geological means and in cooperation with geodesy , locally also soil mechanics ; Investigation of the processes that shape the earth's surface
- Technical or building geology - application to the safety of larger buildings and major projects in civil engineering .
- the exploration and evaluation of raw materials such as crude oil , natural gas , ores , bulk raw materials such as sand , gravel and limestone , but also groundwater and geothermal energy
Name of the discipline
Until the 19th century, geologists often referred to themselves as geognosticists - even though the term geology in its current sense appeared as early as 1778 by Jean-André Deluc and shortly afterwards was established as a fixed term by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740–1799).
See the list of geologists with an alphabetical list of famous or outstanding geologists or geoscientists.