Author abbreviations for botanists and mycologists

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The author abbreviations of botanists and mycologists are used worldwide initials for authors of botanical or mycological first descriptions , new combinations of taxa or authors of important publications on systematics in botany and mycology, which as part of the botanical name of Customer ( nomenclature are to be considered). They mean: Use of the name in the sense of this author (s).

The authoritative set of rules and recommendations for the naming of organisms that belong to botany (algae, plants and fungi) is the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature , abbreviated ICBN or ICN.

According to the rules of the Code, a species name is only valid if it has been published. The name of the author of the first description or the new combination (comb. Nov.) Is then placed after the name of the taxon (consisting of the generic name and the species epithet or infraspecific name). Abbreviations (author's abbreviations) have become commonplace for this.

In the past, the abbreviations were handled inconsistently because there was no internationally recognized standard. In the meantime it has become common international practice to use the abbreviations according to the 1992 standard work Authors of Plant Names by Richard Kenneth Brummitt and C. Emma Powell. Since 1998 this work has also been listed as a database within the International Plant Name Index "IPNI" at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew . Authorities such as the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) still use the printed “static” version of Brummitt and Powell's work; however, the replacement by the dynamic database version, which is constantly updated by the global research community, is in preparation or in some cases already common practice.

Formatting options for the author's quotation

& or "et"

If two or more authors are involved in the description and naming of a species, their names are connected with a comma or “&” or “et” (Latin for 'and').


If a species that has already been described was later transferred to another genus, the author of the older description is also named in brackets (one also speaks of the "bracketed author"); The authors who made the recombination are named after the brackets.


If two authors have assigned the same name for two different types (that is, homonyms have been created), the author can be appended to the unsuitable designation here preceded by “non” (Latin for “not”) to indicate the likelihood of confusion. This happens mainly in taxonomically oriented work.


"Ex" (Latin for "from ... out", here in the sense of "according to" or "loud") denotes the first person to describe it, if the name was previously used elsewhere. The “ex” is not set in small caps. For example, the name says

Opuntia versicolor Engelm. ex JMCoulter

from the fact that G. Engelmann used the name Opuntia versicolor , but J. M. Coulter made the first description.


Not common. When a name, lengthy notes, illustration, or other important data is contributed by one descriptor, but the name is formally published by someone else (whether contemporary or not), the contributing worker name may be given by "Apud" (Latin for with ) is separated from the editor. As with C. canadensis Klotzsch apud Berkeley or Annona conica Ruiz, Pav., Ruiz & Pav. Apud Lopez .


If an author has described a taxon in another author's publication or under combined authorship, the descriptive author should be given, separated from the publishers by "in". As with C. wilsonii Smith in Smith and Morse .


Not common. For use with "ex" in the following situation: Only in groups with a later start or sanction date can the name of an author who described a taxon between 1753 and the later start or sanction date be given and separated from validation or sanctioning name of the author with “per” (Latin for through ). As in Agaricus citrinus Schaeffer per frieze . Schaeffer (1779) suggests the name Agaricus citrinus . The name is later sanctioned by Fries (1821; starting point work). The name can be quoted as A. citrinus Schaeffer per frieze . "Ex" is considered out of date here.


The sign “!” Indicates a personal examination and approval. It is used after citing a type instance. The "!" Indicates that the author saw and approved the type.


An "=" indicates a taxonomic (or optional) synonym. Two names believed to represent contax entities based on two different types. A taxonomic act, not a nomenclature. So Ramaria rubella Schaeffer per Krombholz = Ramaria acris (Peck) Corner


In taxonomic publications, other elements of the author's citation often follow, either just the year of publication or the (mostly abbreviated) title. For the abbreviations of important older titles there are abbreviations comparable to the author abbreviations ("Taxonomic Literature, 2nd Edition, TL2").

In practice, the author's abbreviations are often not mentioned if the context does not lead to any confusion. In the scientific literature, however, the additional naming of the author's abbreviations is practically indispensable and means: Name in the sense of this author.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. (Eng.)
  2. ^ R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell: Authors of plant names. A list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations . Royal Botan. Gardens, Kew 1992, ISBN 0-947643-44-3
  3. (Engl.)
  4. (Engl.)
  5. ^ Robert Zander : Zander. Concise dictionary of plant names. Edited by Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold . 17th edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8001-3573-6 , pp. 11-14.
  6. Jump up ↑ J. McNeill, FR Barrie, WR Buck et al .: Article 46.4, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 . Regnum Vegetabile 154, Koeltz Botanical Books, 2012, ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 (English)
  7. Robert Zander : Zander hand dictionary of plant names . Ed .: Fritz Encke , Günther Buchheim, Siegmund Seybold . 13th, revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-8001-5042-5 , pp. 634 .