German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
|German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina e. V.|
|purpose||National Academy of Sciences|
|Chair:||Gerald Haug (President)|
|Establishment date:||January 1, 1652, January 13, 1992|
|Number of members:||1609 (as of April 17, 2020)|
|Seat :||Halle (Saale) , Germany|
The German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina - National Academy of Sciences , or Academia Leopoldina for short , is the oldest scientific and medical scholarly society in German-speaking countries and the oldest permanent natural research academy in the world.
The institution, later named after Emperor Leopold I , was founded in 1652 by Johann Laurentius Bausch as Academia Naturae Curiosorum (also called Academia Imperialis Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum ) in Schweinfurt and today has the legal status of a registered association .
The academy, which is now located in Halle an der Saale, was named the National Academy of Sciences on July 14, 2008 . The legal basis was the resolution of the Joint Science Conference of the Federation and the Länder on February 18, 2008. Since then, the Leopoldina has been under the patronage of the Federal President . It is independent and committed to the common good. The idea behind the establishment of a national academy was the creation of a legitimized institution which, independently of economic or political interests, works scientifically on important future social issues, communicates the results of politics and the public and represents these issues nationally and internationally.
The facility is now 80 percent financed by the federal government and 20 percent by the state of Saxony-Anhalt .
According to its statutes, the Leopoldina has, among other things, the following tasks: "Its task is to promote science through national and international cooperation, according to its tradition" for the benefit of man and nature. " To this end, it holds scientific events, sets up commissions and publishes the results. It awards awards and prizes and supports young scientists.
With the appointment to the National Academy of Sciences, the Leopoldina officially takes over the representation of the German scientists in the international committees in which other national academies of the sciences are represented and it participates in the science-based advice of the public and politics. "
Advice to politics and society
A central task of the academy is to advise politics, society and business on current scientific and science-political issues. Its aim is to issue statements and recommendations for coping with pressing societal challenges as well as to identify important questions about the future. In doing so, important developments that are hinted at in science and that may gain social significance in the future should be recognized early, analyzed and commented on accordingly.
The Leopoldina provides policy advice together with the Union of German Academies of Sciences , including the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences , and acatech - German Academy of Science and Engineering . The work is controlled by a standing committee under the leadership of the Leopoldina.
By cooperating with academies in other countries, the Leopoldina promotes international exchange on topics such as energy, climate change and health. This takes place, among other things, through joint symposia or statements in the scientific advice of the G7 summit meetings of the heads of state and government. To this end, the Leopoldina works in international umbrella organizations in which other national academies, such as the Royal Society in London, the Académie des Sciences in Paris, the Chinese Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Sciences in the USA are represented.
These are for example:
- InterAcademy Council (IAC)
- InterAcademy Panel (IAP)
- InterAcademy Medical Panel (IAMP)
- Federation of the European Academies of Medicine (FEAM)
- Human Rights Committee (HRC)
- European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC)
The Leopoldina Library was founded in Nuremberg in 1731 and comprises over 260,000 volumes, monographs and journals from the natural sciences and medicine. The focus of the collection is on publications on the history of science, in particular the natural sciences and medicine, as well as publications by scientific societies and associations. The collection was mainly created through the exchange of the Academy publications with partners all over the world and through donations from academy members.
As one of the oldest academy archives in the world, the Leopoldina archive stores around 1,700 linear meters of documents from more than 350 years. The core holdings of the Leopoldina Archive include the matriculation and protocol books as well as résumés, lists of publications and portraits of the members, but also series of correspondence and extensive administrative documents of the Academy. In addition, it keeps around 50 estates from important scientists, more than 10,000 photographs on the history of academies and science, and various objects of art (paintings, drawings and medals).
Since 1997, the Leopoldina has been supporting outstanding young postdocs in the Leopoldina funding program ("Leopoldina Fellowship Program") with postdoc grants. These are aimed at German scientists who want to work abroad (as well as scientists from Austria and Switzerland who want to do research in Germany). The program enables them to spend up to three years on independent research at a foreign (or German) academic institution.
The award of the scholarships and their financial resources are based on the guidelines of the German Research Foundation .
The Leopoldina has a total of seven commissions (as of January 2013) made up of high-ranking scientists who are usually members of the Leopoldina. The commissions can be supplemented by external members from business and society. In their area, the commissions are supposed to "help shape the scientific discussions, advise important topics in the future and use them to derive topic proposals for political and social advice". The existing commissions are:
- Demographic change
- Life sciences
- Climate, energy and the environment
- Science acceptance
- Science ethics
- Future report science
Honors, medals and prizes
The Leopoldina recognizes outstanding scientific achievements by awarding honors, medals and prizes:
- Honorary Member : This title has been awarded since 1922 to members with outstanding services to science and academia and is restricted to a few people.
- In addition, the Cothenius Medal in gold, a foundation of the royal Prussian court and personal physician Christian Andreas Cothenius (1708–1789), is the most important award of the Leopoldina. It is awarded to the outstanding life's work of a Leopoldina member.
- Carl-Friedrich-von-Weizsäcker-Preis : This personal science award of the Stifterverband together with the Leopoldina in the category “Science and Society” is awarded to scientists or research teams who have made a contribution to the scientific processing of socially important problem areas. The prize is endowed with 50,000 euros and was awarded for the first time in 2009 with funds from the Stifterverband. It is awarded every two years.
- Leopoldina Early Career Award from the Commerzbank Foundation: This prize has been awarded every two years since 2010. It is awarded for outstanding achievements by young scientists in a subject represented in the Leopoldina, alternating between the Leopoldina classes and is endowed with 30,000 euros. The prize replaces the Leopoldina Research Prize - also donated by the Commerzbank Foundation, which was awarded until 2007 for outstanding achievements in a field represented in the Leopoldina.
- Carus Foundation: On the occasion of the 50th service anniversary of the XIII. Leopoldina President Carl Gustav Carus was founded on November 2, 1864 with a capital of 2000 thalers. In 1896 the first laureate was awarded the Carus Prize. The Carus Foundation lost its capital due to war and inflation. With effect from December 15, 1937, the foundation mandate was changed and from 1938 the Carus Medal was awarded.
- Carus Medal : The Carus Medal, endowed with 5000 euros, goes to a foundation in favor of the XIII. Leopoldina President Carl Gustav Carus (1789–1869) and has been associated with the Carus Prize donated by the Leopoldina founding city of Schweinfurt since 1961. Both are awarded for outstanding scientific or medical research achievements.
- Schleiden Medal : This medal, which shows the picture of Matthias Jacob Schleiden , has been awarded every two years since April 28, 1955 for significant achievements in the field of cell research .
- Gregor Mendel Medal : Since 1965, the Leopoldina has awarded a Mendel Medal to the founder of genetics Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) for special research achievements in the field of molecular biology and genetics .
- Darwin plaque : When Charles Darwin's work On the Origin of Species celebrated its 100th birthday in May 1959 , the Leopoldina decided at its annual meeting to honor 18 personalities once. The scientists had helped develop Darwin's ideas further. On the 150th anniversary of the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species , the Leopoldina honored an evolutionary researcher with the Darwin plaque for the second time: In 2009, academician Svante Pääbo received this honor for new findings in evolutionary research and anthropology.
- Merit Medal : This award was created in 1961 for great services to the Leopoldina and has been awarded since 1962.
- Leopoldina Prize for Young Scientists: This prize was first awarded in 1993. The prize money is 2000 euros. The prize money comes from a donation from Karl Lohmann . This is awarded every two years to scientists who have achieved outstanding achievements in the natural sciences, medicine or the history of science and who have not yet passed the age of 30.
- Georg Uschmann Prize for the History of Science : This prize was donated in 1997 by the couple Eugen and Ilse Seibold and is endowed with 2000 euros. Every two years since 1999, the dissertation or the habilitation of a scientist in the fields of science, medicine or technology history has been awarded.
- Prize of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina: The prize is endowed with 15,000 euros and is awarded by the Commerzbank Foundation. It was awarded for the first time in 2001.
- Honorary Senator of the Leopoldina: At the annual meeting on April 24, 1993, Hans-Dietrich Genscher was awarded this honorary title because of his foreign and domestic political services in restoring the unity of Germany . On December 7, 2005, Berthold Beitz was also presented with this award in recognition of his pioneering, successful promotion of the merging of scientific and academic competence on a national and international level.
- Honorary sponsor: With this title, the Leopoldina honors non-members who have made a decisive contribution to the well-being of the Academy.
- Kaiser Leopold I. Medal: The Kaiser Leopold I. Medal was donated on the occasion of the 325th return of the privilege of the Academy by Emperor Leopold I in 1687 and awarded for the first time in 2012. It honors people in public life who have rendered outstanding services to the Leopoldina and to science as a whole.
In order to promote the interdisciplinary discussion between scientists and to disseminate their scientific findings, the Leopoldina holds symposiums and meetings together with universities, research institutes and other academies. The Leopoldina Lectures and Leopoldina Talks are aimed at the general public.
The Leopoldina makes their scientific discussions accessible to the public. The magazine Nova Acta Leopoldina reflects the spectrum of lectures, meetings and symposia of the academy. It is the continuation of the first medical and scientific journal in the world and dates back to 1670. The journal Acta Historica Leopoldina is dedicated to the history of science, especially the history of the academy. The Academy's yearbook, which has been published since 1990, documents the activities of the Leopoldina in each calendar year. The historical-critical LA edition Goethe. The Writings on Natural Science was an academy project of the Leopoldina and was completed in 2011. The edition contains all of Goethe's texts on natural research and shows the connections that exist between these and the literary work as well as the intellectual and scientific currents of his time. The edition comprises 11 text and 18 explanatory volumes.
Together with the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, the Leopoldina founded the Young Academy in June 2000 . The number of members is limited to a maximum of 50. Outstanding representatives from the young academics with a doctorate are elected as members for five years. The main task of the Junge Akademie is to maintain the interdisciplinary scientific discourse among outstanding young scientists and to promote initiatives at the interfaces between science and society.
Fields of work
The members get involved in academy and thematic groups. A selection includes:
- Genetic engineering
- Innovation and technology
- Protection of laboratory animals
- Stem cells
- Synthetic biology
The Leopoldina is represented by three organs: the General Assembly, the Presidium and the Senate. The academy's office is in Halle; the capital office of the academy on Reinhardtstrasse in Berlin.
The academy is organized as a non-profit registered association and is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (80%) and the state of Saxony-Anhalt (20%).
Structure, structure and organs
The Leopoldina is a supranational scientific association. More than a quarter of the members come from abroad. The members are elected to the academy by the executive committee in a multi-stage selection process at the suggestion of academy members. Each member belongs to a section according to their scientific discipline. Each section elects a representative for the Senate from among its members. The Senate, to which other personalities from scientific organizations and the public belong, elects the members of the Presidium, reviews the reports and determines the Academy's scientific strategy. The executive committee as defined by law is made up of the president and four vice-presidents. The Executive Committee, supplemented by other members, is responsible for the Leopoldina's activities.
The academy is run by a presidium whose members are elected by the senate. Their term of office is five years and they can be re-elected once. The Presidium usually meets once a month and prepares all of the academy's important decisions.
The Leopoldina Presidium is composed as follows (as of October 2018):
- Gerald H. Haug , paleoclimatologist, Mainz / Zurich
- Gunnar Berg , physicist, Halle (Saale)
- Ulla Bonas , geneticist, Halle (Saale)
- Martin Lohse , pharmacologist, Würzburg / Berlin
- Regina T. Riphahn , economist, Nuremberg
Class I secretaries: mathematics, natural and technical sciences
- Sigmar Wittig , technology scientist, Karlsruhe
Class II: Life Sciences
- Claus Rainer Bartram , human geneticist, Heidelberg
Class III: Medicine
- Hans-Peter Zenner , ENT specialist, oncologist, Tübingen
Class IV: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences
- Frank Rösler , psychologist, Potsdam
Further members of the executive committee
- Thomas Lengauer , computer scientist, Saarbrücken
- Wolfgang Baumjohann , dermatologist, Vienna
- Martin Quack , chemist, Zurich
Representative of the Presidium for archive, library and long-term projects (with advisory vote)
- Heinz Schott , medical historian, Bonn
Secretary General (in an advisory capacity)
- Jutta Schnitzer-Ungefug , neuroscientist, Halle (Saale)
Former members of the President (in an advisory capacity)
- Volker ter Meulen , virologist, Würzburg
- Benno Parthier , plant biochemist , Halle (Saale)
- Harald zur Hausen , virologist, Heidelberg
- Gunter S. Fischer , chemist, Halle (Saale)
- Bärbel Friedrich , microbiologist, Berlin
Members, Sections and Classes
Since it was founded, the Leopoldina has sponsored numerous scientists, including Nobel Prize winners such as Marie Curie and Albert Einstein. The election as a member of the Leopoldina is considered to be one of the highest scientific awards given by a German institution. The number of members under the age of 75 is limited to 1,000. Outstanding scholars from all over the world are elected as members. In addition to natural scientists from Germany , Austria and Switzerland , a third of its members come from 27 other countries around the world. With currently around 1470 members (as of June 2013) in more than 30 countries, the Leopoldina is the academy with the largest number of members in Germany. The members are organized in specialist sections, which in turn are assigned to four classes. The new classes introduced in 2009 are intended to involve members more closely than before in the preparation of statements and recommendations and to strengthen interdisciplinary exchange. The classes focus on the natural sciences, life sciences, medicine, and behavioral, social and human sciences. They also form the platform for international exchange and for the election of new members.
From the foundation to the settling down in Halle
The Leopoldina was founded on January 1, 1652 in the imperial city of Schweinfurt by the doctors Johann Laurentius Bausch (1605–1665), Johann Michael Fehr (1610–1688), Georg Balthasar Metzger (1623–1687) and Georg Balthasar Wohlfahrt (1607–1674) Academia Naturae Curiosorum was founded as a private company , perhaps in the office of the city physician Bausch in the kennel of the bridge gate . The latter is not documented, but has been suggestively illustrated by an emblematic copperplate engraving since the middle of the 19th century. The inaugural meeting, which was ceremonially held on New Year's Day in the age of “ gallant Europe”, could also have been held in Bausch's house, in the dignified setting of the representative medical library established by his father Leonhard Bausch (1574–1636). Johann Laurentius Bausch inherited these in full in 1636 (thus evidently also with the consent of his brother, the pharmacist Johann Heinrich Bausch (1608–1670), in exactly the same way that JL Bausch later wrote down in his own will for the future, always as one Doctor in the family). This library also contained the medical-pharmaceutical monographs, which are named in the leges of the young natural scientist academy as models for future work.
The establishment of an academy based on Italian models, which JL Bausch got to know at his peregrinatio academica - like his father Leonhard, who as the son of a penniless farrier who had immigrated from the Rhön and had presented an unprecedented career as a city physicist and councilor of Schweinfurt - got to know more deeply medical and scientific knowledge and the improvement of communication between the naturalists of the time. Similar learned societies emerged after the Thirty Years' War in England ( Royal Society , 1660) and France ( Académie des sciences , 1666). The Leopoldina is the oldest scientific and medical academy; later it opened up to the empirical humanities, social and behavioral sciences. “Nunquam otiosus” = “Never idle” is their motto.
In an initial ambitious work program, she wanted to complete the literary tradition that culminated at the turn of the previous century and around 1630, of developing comprehensive encyclopedic monographs for all objects from the mineral, plant and animal kingdoms, which make all knowledge available to the doctor since antiquity should publish “ad normam et formam Academiae Naturae Curiosorum”, in other words, create an “encyclopedia of remedies” from a uniformly scientific point of view.
Only a few members were able to carry out this enormous amount of work, which was initially required every six months (!) For an object of their choice. The first such monograph appeared nine years after the academy was founded; it was the Ampelographia by Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb (1627–1672), who had joined the Academy in 1658, an octave volume of 670 pages about the vine. For this, Sachs was honored with the academic nickname (in the tradition of learned societies as agnomen , later cognomen ) “Phosphorus”, “as a true morning star, which with this book of his shined all other colleagues”, as noted in the contemporary chronicle . More important for the further development of the academy was that Sachs recognized the signs of the times and, following the example of the English and French academies, launched a magazine, the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica Academiae Naturae Curiosorum sive Ephemeridum medico-physicarum germanicarum , which has been published annually since 1670 curiosarum , and at the same time aimed at the imperial recognition of the young academy, not least with the dedication of the magazine to Leopold I (1640–1705).
In the magazine, the members were able to fulfill their duties by communicating medical and scientific observations (observationes) and the connection to contemporary science communication was established, through a lively exchange with the London Royal Society. Groundbreaking publications from the Philosophical Transactions were also distributed on the continent in extensive appendices to the Miscellanea , translated into the international scholarly language of Latin. The academic epithets of those who call themselves “Argonauts”, initially reserved for the founders and members with fulfilled work tasks, have been given occasionally since 1668 and regularly since 1681 when they joined the society.
In 1677, the independent academy of Emperor Leopold I, known for his keen interest in the arts and sciences of his time, was officially confirmed as the "Academy of the Holy Roman Empire" and on August 7, 1687, it was granted imperial privileges by decree. President and Director ephemeridum , responsible for the publication of the magazine, as well as their successors were elevated to imperial personal physicians and to the nobility. The Palatinate of the Small Comitive comprised numerous rights, including the right to award doctorates and coat of arms. More important for the further work of the academy, however, was the granted freedom from censorship. Since then it has been known as Sacri Romani Imperii Academia Caesareo-Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum , from which today's short form Leopoldina is derived. Emperor Charles VI. (1685–1740) provided significant support for the publication of the magazine in 1712 and approved the change of name to Imperial Leopoldine-Carolinian Academy of Natural Scientists ; Emperor Charles VII (1697–1745) confirmed and supplemented the Academy's privileges in 1742. After his death, the next volume of the magazine, which appeared in 1748, was to be dedicated to his successor, Emperor Franz I (1708–1765), and this intended dedication is expressed in the title with the change of the academy's name - mind you, only in this one volume - to [. ..] Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Franciscanae Naturae Curiosorum from. As reported in the Protocollum (handwritten chronicle of the academy) of those years, however, "for various very serious reasons and because of various obstacles", such a dedication was not made, possibly because of the death of the academy's protector, Prince Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim (1674–1746), "Bishop of Bamberg and Würzburg, Councilor of His Holy Imperial Majesty in difficult imperial affairs and secret minister of state" (so entered as fourth protector in 1730 in the protocol ), the connection to the imperial court was missing. After a new protector - Maximilian Joseph (1727–1777), “Archtruchseß and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of both Bavaria and Upper Palatinate, etc.” - had been won, the next volume of the magazine was handed over to and accepted in 1752 by Emperor Franz I occupied. However, this volume reappeared under the former academy name, going back to the "patrons and patrons" (described in AE Büchner's history of the academy from 1755 in Sectio IX with the heading "De fautoribus et patronis Acad. Nat. Cur." And p. 549/550 with reference to the "profusely declared privileges that can never be overridden", emphasizes) Leopold I. , Karl VI. and Charles VII as Acta [from 1757 Nova Acta ] Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum , with dedications to the emperor and protector, now digitized and directly visible.
The academy achieved international renown at an early stage and also worked across confessional boundaries. In the 19th century, under President Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck (1776–1858), its reformed magazine, now known as Nova Acta Leopoldina , with its excellent copperplate engravings, had a considerable scientific impact, but it remained until the second half of the 19th century arrested in the late Goethe period.
It was not until Wilhelm Friedrich Georg Behn (1808–1878) brought it back to the modern scientific organization with a “Great Reform”. With a new, democratically decided statute of 1872, the specialization of the sciences was taken into account with the introduction of sections, the organization with a senate made up of chairmen of the specialist sections and the boards of the regional adjunct circles as the legislative branch and the presidium as the executive branch spread over broad shoulders and casually abandoned the practice of giving members a company name. Although the right to award doctorates from the old imperial privileges was also no longer included in the new statutes, it was still exercised a few times (until 1891), although only foreign scholars were awarded doctorates in order not to come into conflict with the universities. That happened anyway, and under President Karl von Fritsch , the right to award doctorates and the right to award coats of arms, which had also become obsolete, were finally given up (the latter in 1904, also made public).
Since 1878, under the then President Hermann Knoblauch (1820–1895) , the academy has had its headquarters in Halle an der Saale, which resulted in a new library building on the initiative of the Halle university librarian Oscar Grulich (1844–1913), who was in charge of the Leopoldina library and thus led to the permanent seat of the academy in the city of Saale. Previously, the seat was determined by the place of residence of the respective president; Thus for the first 200 years the Leopoldina was in Schweinfurt, Nuremberg , Augsburg , Altdorf , Erfurt , Halle, then again in Nuremberg, Erlangen , Bonn , Breslau , Jena , Dresden and finally again in Halle, where it remained from then on. The library, which was built in Nuremberg in 1731, only had to move to five cities to its current domicile, where the “suffering of a wandering library”, as Oscar Grulich impressively conjured, finally came to an end. Another decisive factor for Halle was the reputation of the university that flourished in the second half of the 19th century, today's Martin Luther University .
In the statutes of the Leopoldina, which originally only comprised 15 paragraphs, it was stipulated, among other things, that the place of residence of the respective president should always be the academy's office. This was only actually abolished with the inauguration of the Academy's library on April 23, 1904, without anchoring it in the statutes. Nevertheless, after Knoblauch, only university professors from Halle were elected presidents. A certain provincialization of the academy was not to be missed as a result. The world-renowned geologist Johannes Walther (1860–1937) introduced monthly meetings for the first time in 1924, but also increasingly shifted decisions from the Senate of the Academy (adjuncts of the German-speaking countries and chairmen of the specialist sections) to the circle of Halle members. Broken financial circumstances and additional embezzlement of a librarian led to his early resignation in 1931.
His successor, the physiologist Emil Abderhalden (1877–1950), took office in 1932 and wanted to give the academy an international profile again, but was soon confronted with a completely different zeitgeist.
Period of National Socialism and World War II
- → See also Academies of Science in the Nazi Era
After the National Socialist seizure of power in 1933, the academy management under Emil Abderhalden consistently implemented the law to restore the civil service (April 7, 1933) insofar as no more Jewish members were accepted, while Abderhalden had numerous Jewish scholars after he took office the year before Albert Einstein himself had suggested. To exclude members for political reasons, Abderhalden initially refused to oppose the Nazi-minded Vice President Johannes Weigelt (noted by Abderhalden after June 5, 1933). It was Julius Tandler , he was "politically disreputable (communist)" and the anatomist and rector of the University of Halle Hermann Stieve would otherwise resign and "the reason for his resignation to the Minister of the Interior, Dr. Frick and the Minister of Education, Dr. Tell Rust ". By virtue of his authority, Abderhalden was able to fend off Stieve's resignation as well as the motion then put forward by Weigelt to delete Tandler, "because according to the statutes of our academy an exclusion is not possible". However, he was no longer able to maintain this position when in the same year - from which side can no longer be clarified, nor the exact time - the motion came to expel Einstein. In the matriculation book, under Einstein's name, “deleted!” Is written in pencil, without a date, but his name is already missing in the membership register from 1933, presumably as a reaction to the breaking off of all his contacts with Germany.
The reasons for some more pencil deletions in 1936 and 1937 are not documented. Only for Henry E. Sigerist (deleted in 1937, without an exact date in the relevant entry in the matriculation book) is "Abderhalden's correspondence with the Reich and Prussian Ministry for Science, Education and National Education and shows that Sigerist because of his' attitude against the present Germany ', that is against the Nazi rulers, and was therefore excluded from the academy for political reasons ”. These membership deletions cannot be interpreted as premature obedience , as is sometimes assumed, because for the international ceremony in 1937 a complete list of members was printed again in which most of the Jewish members were presented to the public and thus to the numerous Nazi celebrities who appeared, an affront that lacks any anticipatory obedience, initially without any demonstrable consequences.
Only after the explicit order to the science academies in the cartel of academies , to which the Leopoldina was not a member, was it referred to in the board meeting on November 23, 1938 and a decision was made to “stamp out the rest of the Jewish members. You should not wait until a corresponding command comes. The members concerned are not notified. ”Most of the Jewish members were deleted on November 30, 1938 with the exact date. However, you should continue to receive the issues of the current year of the Nova Acta Leopoldina, so in view of the events at other German academies and scientific societies, you could not even suspect.
The fact that the deletions were made in pencil is probably due to the fact that the Leopoldina's statutes did not provide for any possibility of exclusion, as Abderhalden had emphasized in 1933, because the few members who left at their own request were written in ink at the same time, if at all registered. It is more important that the index cards of the members who were thus "never officially" (as Abderhalden called it in his letter in 1947, see below) removed from the membership file and - with more than half of them, even without any note for exclusion! - were placed in a separate file and hidden behind a curtain, which was reversed on May 9, 1945, one day after Germany's surrender . In any case, nothing was erased or re-entered in the bulky matriculation books, which only the archivists saw anyway. The public probably did not find out about these tacit exclusions because, during the National Socialist era, no full lists of members were published. As Abderhalden explained in a letter to Vice President Otto Schlueter in 1947 , this was precisely the intention and should be justified with a lack of paper if necessary.
In a letter dated December 7, 1938, which was recorded almost verbatim a week later in a presidium resolution, Abderhalden wrote to the Gauleiter and Minister, “that our academy only includes non-Jewish people. Since 1933, all proposals by researchers have been meticulously checked for their ancestry. Furthermore, in earlier times elected members of Jewish descent were exterminated, so that for some time the composition of the membership of our academy has been in full accordance with the requirements of the time, "which means that such an order could definitely be averted. According to a more recent publication by W. Berg, this should be read by the recipients like anticipatory obedience , but is in reality a protective claim, since it can be proven to contain untruths. Significantly, the minutes of the board meeting did not include the phrase “for some time”. "Abderhalden wanted to distract the party and the state from the Leopoldina by giving the - false - impression of a long-running obedience."
On the one hand, not all Jewish members were deleted; on the other hand, this alleged condition had only been tacitly established a week before, which Abderhalden was able to record through the exact dating in the register books (in a striking difference to all earlier occasional deletions) instead of backdate them or just - how earlier also - to be noted with the year, as if at least posterity should be able to conclude this discrepancy when they got their hands on the shameful letter, because at that time these archives were not accessible to outsiders.
Why some Jewish members were not deleted remains unclear. In the case of foreigners it may have been ignorance, but not in the case of the sugar chemist and science historian Edmund Oskar von Lippmann , who was excluded from the University of Halle in 1935 because of his Jewish origins and yet remained untouched in the Leopoldina. The fact that the statement in Abderhalden's letter to the Gauleiter and Minister was knowingly wrong is proven by a letter from Lippmanns, who did not receive an invitation to the ceremony in 1937, but with the inset "(I hadn't expected her at the moment)" showed understanding and only asked for a commemorative publication, which Abderhalden promptly prompted. Abderhalden probably failed to invite von Lippmann (who of course was in the 1937 membership directory and was not marked as struck in any of the lists used in the Secretariat for current invitations etc.) in order to avoid the well-known and popular scholar from being among the local Nazi celebrities the eyes came. Later he was able to plead that he did not know about the Jewish origin of the Evangelical baptized von Lippmann and that he had therefore never deleted him because the university leaders were afraid to name the real reason for his exclusion from the university, as evidenced by the withdrawal in 1933 permission to teach, which Rector Stieve justified with von Lippmann's old age (he was 76 in 1933). The ophthalmologist Karl Wessely , 1929 a. a. elected a member at the suggestion of Abderhalden, was never deleted, although he was dismissed from Munich University in 1935. On his index card there is the singular note “In Kartei d. Lebenden ", which shows that the Academy will have learned of his exclusion, but Abderhalden still did not cancel him (analogous to von Lippmann).
According to Abderhalden's letter to Schlueter in 1947, the academy treated the deletions like dormant memberships: “We never officially had Jews during the Nazi era. Members deleted, rather I ordered that they should no longer be used. "The preceding sentences in this letter (" I never even dreamed of making changes with announcement. A new list of members should be drawn up in the small committee of the board of directors The domestic and foreign members should never find out about it. ") are marked in pencil by Schlüter, who as Vice President of the Academy was in charge of official business in Halle, and he noted in the margin," This is almost worse ". What was misunderstood in the earlier literature was that this passage criticized by Schlueter referred to Abderhalden's suggestion in this correspondence, now - after the war - to send a list of members to the responsible authorities in Berlin, this time omitting the members of the Nazi group. in order not to endanger the admission of the academy, another manipulation with which Schlüter did not agree. But since he did not complain about the comparison with the procedure in the Nazi era, he indirectly confirmed Abderhalden's statement.
The facts confirm that this is not an afterthought: the index cards in question were verifiably not destroyed, but rather sorted out and hidden behind a curtain, as described above. When they were sorted again on May 9, 1945 in order to create a new, complete list of members by typing, this was done with the original matriculation numbers, as they had not been assigned to others as having been released as in the case of definitive repayments. The latter is documented by JBS Haldane , who resigned in 1933 in protest against the dismissals and persecution of Jewish scholars in Germany, a remarkable, albeit unique example, whereupon a new member received his matriculation number (Haldane was later re-admitted).
Nevertheless, the inventory remains shameful. According to the latest research, a total of 94 members were excluded for political or racial reasons. The non-Jewish pediatrician Ernst Freudenberg , who emigrated to Switzerland in 1938, because he did not want to separate from his Jewish wife, was also deleted. Eleven members of the Leopoldina lost their lives as a result of the Nazi tyranny:
- Otto Blumenthal (1876–1944), mathematician
- Karl Bornstein (1863–1942), physician
- Max Flesch (1852–1943), anatomist
- Werner Magnus (1876–1942), botanist
- Hans Leopold Meyer (1871–1942), chemist
- Georg Pick (1859–1942), mathematician
- Hans Leo Przibram (1874–1944), zoologist
- Peter Rona (1871–1945), biochemist
- Emil Starkenstein (1884–1942), pharmacologist
- Leon Wachholz (1867–1942), medical examiner
- Arthur von Weinberg (1860–1943), chemist
With the exception of the Kraków coroner and criminologist Wachholz, all were of Jewish origin. In his presidential speech at the 1991 annual meeting, Benno Parthier made it his business to come to terms with the history of the Academy and apologized to the children and grandchildren of the victims of the Holocaust. In October 2009, the Leopoldina set up a publicly accessible memorial stele for nine Nazi victims in Halle (Saale), which was financed by the Leopoldina Friends' Association.
The Leopoldina was not directly involved in National Socialist racial hygiene , solely due to the lack of research institutes , but its most important representatives were elected as members, as in other academies, especially since they were recognized to represent the scientific genetics and anthropology of the time. As President Abderhalden was partly responsible for this, even if only a few, as far as verifiable, were suggested by himself.
In 1939 Abderhalden published in the academy publication Nova Acta Leopoldina a contribution on race and heredity from the point of view of the fine structure of blood and cell proteins , in which he claimed, among other things, that the proteins of the tissue and blood contain racial characteristics: that the individual races could be clearly distinguished by means of the AR [Abderhalden reaction, based on the so-called defense enzymes from Emil Abderhalden ]. In no single case was there a misdiagnosis regarding the question of whether a certain animal belongs to a certain breed [pig and sheep breeds (and also varieties of genetic test plants) were examined]. "Although nothing is said about human races in the entire paper, it was later indirectly associated with Nazi race research, because his biochemical method was also taken up in Nazi race research (→ see in detail Emil Abderhalden, Critique 2. Lack of demarcation from National Socialist racial theory ).
In 1943, the Leopoldina relocated its valuable library holdings to the disused potash plant Vereinigte Ernsthall in Wansleben am See to protect against bombing attacks - over 20,000 volumes, including unique manuscripts, Goethe letters, scientific diaries and several private archives of scholars. The use was only very limited because in June 1944 the SS set up a satellite camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp there for underground armaments production. The most lasting damage was caused by the fact that the majority of these treasures were transported by the Soviet occupying power to the USSR, from where only a fraction was returned after decades of efforts.
Soviet occupation and German Democratic Republic
Despite immediate efforts to retrieve the goods from the United Ernsthall potash plant after the end of the war, the valuable library was moved to the Soviet Union after the occupying power changed in July 1945. Soviet General Kotikov announced their return on the occasion of the reopening of the University of Halle on February 1, 1946; In 1958 a part (around 12,000 books) was returned, a large part of the most valuable books disappeared, including writings by Avicenna , Giordano Bruno and Johannes Kepler . “A final overview of the repatriation of the salvaged goods from January / February 1958 shows that the historical and biographical archive has come back almost completely, about half of the estate archive and a quarter of the writings of the members 'archive (the monographs of the members' archive are missing). Half of the manuscripts have been returned. The library with its approx. 7000 volumes is missing. ”Since the 1980s, a few copies have appeared in auction houses in New York and Hamburg, which were probably stolen by Americans single-handedly before the Soviet takeover of the shaft.
At the same time, the re-admission of the academy, which in fact still existed on the territory of the Soviet occupation zone and GDR, was fought for. The connection to the state academy of the sciences of the GDR (at that time "German academy of sciences in Berlin") - or also to the Saxon academy of sciences in Leipzig, to the cultural association or as an institute of the university (!) - could be prevented; the Leopoldina remained as an all-German association. Vice-President Otto Schlüter (1872-1959) ran the business of the academy for the absent President Abderhalden, who was forcibly evacuated to the West with numerous scientists from the region when the Americans withdrew in June 1945 so that they would not be left to the Soviets who were advancing (because Abderhalden was entrusted with the management, this forced evacuation is known in the literature as Abderhalden-Transport).
In tough negotiations with the East German authorities and the Soviet Military Administration (SMAD), Schlüter achieved the re-approval of the Leopoldina, which took place in 1952 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Academy with a ceremony attended by high government representatives and an official torchlight procession by students from the University of Halle traditional pictures in the blue shirt of the Free German Youth ( FDJ ) - was celebrated. An anniversary event in Schweinfurt that followed in the same year took place by mutual agreement and with a greeting from Schlüter, presented by the Halle science historian Rudolph Zaunick (1893–1967). Previous efforts on the part of the West German side, encouraged by misunderstandings in letters between Abderhalden and Schlueter, to reopen the Leopoldina as a West Academy there, had been gently averted.
After Abderhalden's death (1950), the vacant presidential office was elected after the re-admission of the academy to the geographer Otto Schlueter, who for reasons of age tried hard to find a younger successor, so that in 1954 the botanist and plant physiologist Kurt Mothes (1900-1983) had this Took office. The office of Director Ephemeris , which was abolished in 1872, was reintroduced in 1954 for Rudolph Zaunick, who was thus responsible for all of the Academy's writings.
Like Abderhalden, Mothes endeavored to maintain the Academy's international reputation with targeted member elections from abroad, without making differences between East and West in the approaching Cold War , but at the same time tried to make up for elections that were previously neglected for political reasons. The contacts with the members who were tacitly excluded in the Third Reich and reinstated in 1945 were carefully maintained on the occasion of special birthdays and the congratulations on Einstein's 75th birthday were thanked by the jubilee, which other German academies were unlucky with.
The Academy intensified the scientific exchange - now especially between East and West - through scientific symposia and the annual meetings held every two years, these alternating with the meetings of the Society of German Natural Scientists and Doctors (GDNÄ). The scientific results were documented in the volumes of the Nova Acta Leopoldina NF , under the same name under which the Academy magazine von Abderhalden was revived. In addition to the new annual journal Leopoldina (R. 3) , today continued as a yearbook , with reports on the monthly scientific meetings, the Acta Historica Leopoldina, a science-historical journal, was launched in 1961 , in which monographs and conference reports are published to this day.
The all-German character of the academy was emphasized by the change in annual meetings between Halle and Schweinfurt, which was only possible until the Wall was built. In protest, Mothes canceled the annual meeting planned for October 1961 in Schweinfurt without replacement because not all members from the East were allowed to attend. With the same affront, he countered the ban on the entry of scientists from Israel to a planned amyloid symposium in 1970, although in 1961 the ministry made serious accusations of unauthorized refusal.
During the entire GDR era, the Leopoldina did not have any officially valid statutes. New versions approved by the Senate at the end of the 1960s remained unconfirmed by the ministry and were only applied within the academy, as no agreement could be reached with the responsible ministry. As a means of pressure - for example after the cancellation of the 1961 annual meeting in Schweinfurt, "to paralyze the Leopoldina by all means" - cuts in state financial support were used, the academy the subliminal threat that the Senate, dominated by West German members, would take over the seat to relocate the Leopoldina to the Federal Republic. A clear signal was the permanent establishment of a West German member as "foreign" Vice President, first noticed by Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt (1903-1995) from 1955 to 1960 .
The gain in prestige through the participation of international scientific celebrities at the annual meetings of the Leopoldina in Halle and the international resonance ultimately counted more for the GDR leadership than paralyzing them, so that the academy was largely free of state influence and remained true to its all-German character, both in the two ten-year term (according to the statutes since 1872) of Mothes and under his successor since 1974, the physicist Heinz Bethge (1919-2001).
With the biology historian Georg Uschmann (1913–1986) as director of the archive since 1967, the academy's own work on the history of science was gradually expanded in a modest institutional framework, while a similar request from the ministerial side after the reopening in 1952, “the Leopoldina a science history institute affiliate ”, was repelled by the academy in order not to open the archive to outside access.
Bethge was able to build a modern lecture hall building on the property acquired by the academy foresight in connection with the library building in 1903/04 with funds from the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation with the participation of the Volkswagen Foundation , which was inaugurated in 1988. The plant biochemist Benno Parthier (* 1932) was elected in favor of a younger successor in 1989 , without any idea that the change of office in June 1990 would coincide with the monetary union and the year of German reunification .
Since 1991 the Leopoldina has had the status of a registered association under private law (statute of April 5, 1991, officially registered since January 1992, with the reduction of the presidential term from ten to seven, since 1998 to five years with one-time re-election). With the abolition of the German-German border, the role of the academy as an effective bracket function for the sciences from both German states became superfluous, but at the same time it created new fields of activity, international and interdisciplinary, as well as with a Leopoldina funding program for young scientists in 2000 also with the establishment of the Young Academy for Young Talent, together with the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences .
Among the 100,000 loot books returned by Georgia in 1996 were some from the Leopoldina's possession, which is still missing 6,902 copies. On July 11, 2008, German journalists found another 100,000 books in Tbilisi , including copies of the Leopoldina. These should be returned in autumn 2009. A return has not yet taken place.
The academy in the 21st century
In 2008 the Leopoldina was promoted to the National Academy of Science. As such, it is intended to promote cooperation between politics and science and, depending on the subject area, work primarily with the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (BBAW) and the German Academy of Engineering Sciences (acatech) . The Leopoldina is a member of the Alliance of German Science Organizations .
Benno Parthier , as President of the Leopoldina, had repeatedly apologized for the involvement of members of the Academy “in the inhumane work of extermination of the National Socialist regime”, but Abderhalden was attested that he “largely [succeeded] in protecting the Leopoldina from totalitarian state intervention to preserve under National Socialism, as far as that was possible at that time ”. Academy President Volker ter Meulen inaugurated on October 1, 2009, a memorial stele for Nazi victims from the Leopoldina in the presence of the country rabbi Flonemann and laid in his speech here, the extent of involvement Abderhaldens open. On its homepage, the Leopoldina lists the presidium's resolution to delete all Jewish members of November 23, 1938 and the corresponding notification of execution to the Gauleiter and Minister of December 7, 1938. However, according to recent research results, both are viewed as "protective claims instead of anticipatory obedience". The uncommented publication of these documents, as if they reproduced facts (which has been proven to be incorrect), led to the prejudice of Abderhalden's allegedly hasty obedience to the deletion of Jewish members, because he himself had suggested this to the authorities - to protect the academy. Instead, it was overlooked that, thanks to Abderhalden's wise foresighted actions, the Leopoldina remained the only German academy and scientific society “that did not discriminate against its Jewish members in public through exclusion”.
On September 22, 2009, the Leopoldina acquired the former lodge house Zu den Drei Degen , which was renovated by the end of 2011, inaugurated in May 2012 as part of a ceremony and has since been used as the academy's headquarters. On November 9, 2010, the "laying of the foundation stone" took place. Since July 2009 the Leopoldina has had an office in the capital on Reinhardtstrasse in Berlin.
On October 1, 2009 the Senate of the Leopoldina elected Jörg Hacker as full-time president in a secret ballot. On February 26, 2010, he was solemnly given the office that he took up on March 1, 2010. In 2014 he was re-elected. At the end of 2019, climate researcher Gerald H. Haug was elected as his successor after Hacker was unable to run for two terms. Haug advocates bringing the Leopoldina into play more effectively as an advisory body for politics through accelerated clarification processes and statements. Often the Leopoldina took so much time with its papers, Haug is quoted in Die Zeit , that the political decisions on the day of publication had almost been made or were no longer on the agenda. In addition, he is aiming for a higher proportion of women in the Leopoldina than the current quota of 14 percent.
The academy issued statements on various topics. The statements on national climate policy in July 2019 - especially on the introduction of a CO 2 tax - were particularly effective in the media . In 2020, the Leopoldina presented a statement on the coronavirus pandemic , which, according to Chancellor Merkel, should form an essential basis for decision-making for the design of further measures against the spread of COVID-19 in Germany. In addition, it was said at the time that this statement by the Leopoldina, which was also supposed to point a way back to normality, had "been literally dismantled by some experts": "too many phrases, the proposals unrealistic." In a publication by the Leopoldina by In 2016 , regarding the functionality of the health system, the fact that there are 1,646 hospitals in Germany and not one hospital for 250,000 inhabitants as in Denmark - which would correspond to 330 hospitals in Germany - was characterized as a “structural problem”.
With term of office and company name
- 1652–1665: Johann Lorenz Bausch - Jason I ( Schweinfurt )
- 1666–1686: Johann Michael Fehr - Argonauta I. (Schweinfurt)
- 1686–1693: Johann Georg Volkamer - Helianthus I. ( Nuremberg )
- 1693–1730: Lukas Schröck - Celsus I ( Augsburg )
- 1730–1735: Johann Jakob Baier - Eugenianus I ( Altdorf near Nuremberg )
- 1735–1769: Andreas Elias Büchner - Bacchius ( Erfurt , Halle)
- 1770–1788: Ferdinand Jakob Baier - Eugenianus II. (Nuremberg)
- 1788–1791: Heinrich Friedrich Delius - Democedes II. ( Erlangen )
- 1791–1810: Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber - Theophrastus Eresius IV. (Erlangen)
- 1811–1818: Friedrich von Wendt - Diocles Carystius IV. (Erlangen)
- 1818–1858: Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck - Aristoteles III. (Erlangen, Bonn , Breslau )
- 1858–1862: Dietrich Georg Kieser - Scheuchzer I. ( Jena )
- 1862–1869: Carl Gustav Carus - Cajus II. ( Dresden )
- 1870–1878: Wilhelm Behn - Marco Polo I (Dresden)
- 1878–1895: Hermann Knoblauch - Thomas Johann Seebeck (Halle)
- 1895–1906: Karl von Fritsch (Halle)
- 1906–1921: Albert Wangerin
- 1921–1924: August Gutzmer
- 1924–1931: Johannes Walther
- 1932–1950: Emil Abderhalden
- 1952–1953: Otto Schlüter
- 1954–1974: Kurt Mothes
- 1974–1990: Heinz Bethge
- 1990–2003: Benno Parthier
- 2003–2010: Volker ter Meulen
- 2010–2020: Jörg Hacker
- since March 1, 2020: Gerald Haug
Honorary Leopoldina membership is the Academy's highest honor for members who have made outstanding contributions as scientists and for the Academy.
- 1922: Albert Wangerin (1844–1933), Halle, Mathematics
- 1925: Karl Joseph Eberth (1835–1926), Berlin, anatomy
- 1925: Ernst Ehlers (1835–1925), Göttingen, Zoology
- 1925: Adolf Engler (1844–1930), Berlin, botany
- 1925: Paul Fürbringer (1849–1930), Berlin, dermatology
- 1925: Einar Lönnberg (1865–1942), Stockholm, Zoology
- 1925: Felix Marchand (1846–1928), Leipzig, Pathology
- 1925: Ludwig Radlkofer (1829–1927), Munich, botany
- 1925: Alexander Anton Rosenberg (1839–1926), veterinary medicine
- 1925: Georg Schweinfurth (1836–1925), Berlin, botany
- 1925: Bernhard Solger (Anatom) (1849–1935), Anatomy
- 1925: Rogier Verbeek (1845–1926), Geology and Paleontology
- 1925: Paul Clemens von Baumgarten (1848–1928), Dresden, pathology
- 1925: Wilhelm von Branco (1844–1928), Munich, geology and paleontology
- 1925: Paul Zweifel (1848–1927), Leipzig, obstetrics and gynecology
- 1928: Otto Küstner (1849–1931), obstetrics and gynecology
- 1932: Carl Friedrich Geiser (1843–1934), Küsnacht, Mathematics
- 1932: Gottlieb Haberlandt (1854–1945), Berlin, botany
- 1932: Albert Heim (1849–1937), Zurich, geology and paleontology
- 1932: David Hilbert (1862–1943), Göttingen, Mathematics
- 1932: Sir Frederick Hopkins (1861-1947), Cambridge, Physiology
- 1932: Wilhelm Ostwald (1853–1932), Leipzig, physical chemistry
- 1932: Lord Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937), Cambridge, Physics
- 1932: Anton von Eiselsberg (1860–1939), Vienna, surgery
- 1932: Richard von Hertwig (1850–1937), Munich, Zoology
- 1932: Oskar von Miller (1855–1934), Munich, Physics
- 1932: Julius Wagner Ritter von Jauregg (1857–1940), Vienna, psychiatry, medical psychology and neurology
- 1932: Richard Willstätter (1872–1942), Munich, chemistry
- 1933: Hermann Christ (1833–1933), botany
- 1933: Friedrich Schmidt-Ott (1860–1956), Berlin, pharmacology
- 1935: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849–1936), Leningrad, Physiology
- 1935: Sven Hedin (1865–1952), Stockholm, geography
- 1936: Ludwig Aschoff (1866–1942), Freiburg (Br.), Pathology
- 1941: Max Planck (1858–1947), Berlin, Physics
- 1942: Bernhard Nocht (1857–1945), Wiesbaden, microbiology and immunology
- 1942: Theodor Draw (1862–1950), Wiesbaden, Psychiatry, Medical Psychology and Neurology
- 1943: Hans Fischer (1881–1945), Munich, chemistry
- 1943: Hans von Euler-Chelpin (1873–1964), Stockholm, chemistry
- 1943: Paul von Walden (1863–1957), chemistry
- 1943: Adolf Windaus (1876–1959), Göttingen, Chemie
- 1954: Otto Schlüter (1872–1959), Halle, geography
- 1956: Otto Hahn (1879–1968), Göttingen, Chemistry
- 1956: Otto Warburg (1883–1970), Berlin, cell biology
- 1958: Max Born (1882–1970), Göttingen, Physics
- 1958: James Franck (1882–1964), Chicago, Physics
- 1958: Otto Renner (1883–1960), Munich, botany
- 1960: Adolf Butenandt (1903–1995), Munich, biochemistry and biophysics
- 1960: Georg Sticker (1860–1960), Zell am Main, history of science and medicine
- 1960: George de Hevesy (1885–1966), Stockholm, chemistry
- 1963: Alfred Kühn (1885–1968), Tübingen, Zoology
- 1965: Karl Freudenberg (1886–1983), Heidelberg, chemistry
- 1967: Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), Munich, Physics
- 1969: Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900–1981), Oxford, Biochemistry and Biophysics
- 1969: Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899–1986), New York, NY, biochemistry and biophysics
- 1970: Pjotr Leonidowitsch Kapiza (1894–1984), Moscow, physics
- 1971: Hans Hermann Weber (1896–1974), Heidelberg, Physiology
- 1973: Jan Hendrik Oort (1900–1992), astronomy and astrophysics
- 1977: Hans Erhard Bock (1903–2004), Tübingen, internal medicine and dermatology
- 1977: Albert Frey-Wyssling (1900–1988), Meikirch, Botany
- 1977: Otto Kratky (1902–1995), Graz, physical chemistry
- 1987: Eugen Seibold (1918–2013), Freiburg (Br.), Geosciences
- 1990: Klaus Betke (1914–2011), Lochham, Gynecology and Pediatrics
- 1992: Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912–2007), Starnberg, Physics
- 1997: Reimar Lüst (1923–2020), Hamburg, Physics
- 2002: Gottfried Geiler (1927–2018), Leipzig, pathology and forensic medicine
- 2005: Joachim-Hermann Scharf (1921–2014), Halle, Anatomy and Anthropology
- 2010: Volker ter Meulen (born 1933), Würzburg, microbiology and immunology
- 2014: Paul J. Crutzen (born 1933), Mainz, geosciences
A total of 179 members of the Leopoldina have received a Nobel Prize so far.
Famous members of the Leopoldina were among many others:
- Carl Caspar von Siebold (1736–1807), Medicine Section
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), Botany Section
- Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), Natural Scientists Section
- Adelbert von Chamisso (1781–1838), Botany Section
- Charles Darwin (1809–1882), Naturalists Section
- Werner von Siemens (1816–1892), Physics Section
- Theodor Billroth (1829–1894), Medicine Section
- Marie Curie (1867–1934), Physics Section
- Richard Willstätter (1872–1942), Chemistry Section
- Otto Hahn (1879–1968), Chemistry Section
- Albert Einstein (1879–1955), Physics Section, was the first member to be deleted in 1933 during the Nazi era
- Niels Bohr (1885–1962), Physics Section
- Georg von Békésy (1899–1972), Physiology Section
- Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), Physics Section
- Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912–2007), Physics Section
- Category: Member of the Leopoldina (broken down by the century of admission to the Academy)
The Leopoldina as namesake
- Uwe Müller, Claudia Michael, Michael Bucher, Ute Grad: The Bausch Library in Schweinfurt . Schweinfurt 2004, ISBN 978-3-8047-2090-9 .
- Johann Ferdinand Neigebaur : History of the imperial Leopoldino-Carolinian German academy of natural scientists during the second century of its existence . Frommann, Jena 1860 ( google.de digitized)
- Festschrift for the commemoration of the foundation of the German Academy of Natural Scientists (Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch German Academy of Natural Scientists) in Schweinfurt 300 years ago. Schweinfurt 1952 (= publications of the historical association Schweinfurt. Volume 2).
- Benno Parthier : The Leopoldina. Existence and change of the oldest German academy. Druck-Zuck, Halle 1994.
- B. Parthier, D. von Engelhardt (Ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina. Claim and Reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002
- Uwe Müller: On the 400th birthday of the founder of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum (German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina) Johann Laurentius Bausch (1605–1665). In: Tempora mutantur et nos? Festschrift for Walter M. Brod on his 95th birthday. Edited by Andreas Mettenleiter , Akamedon, Pfaffenhofen 2007, pp. 368–372
- Sven Röbel, Nico Wingert: The forgotten secret . In: Der Spiegel . No. 38 , 2005, p. 46-50 ( online ).
- Volker ter Meulen (Ed.): German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina. History, structure, tasks . 10th edition. Hall 2007. Brochure ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.8 MB)
- Jörg Hacker (Ed.): Leopoldina - National Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-3-8047-3063-2 .
- Georg Uschmann: German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina 1652–1977. Halle an der Saale, Die Akademie, 1977. In: Acta historica Leopoldina. Supplement, 1
- Georg Uschmann: The imperial privilege of the Leopoldina from August 7, 1687. In: Acta historica Leopoldina. No. 17, German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, Halle an der Saale, 1987
- Leopoldina: A tour of the German Academy of Natural Scientists - National Academy of Sciences, Halle 2001.
- Leopoldina: The new main building of the National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Halle 2012 ISBN 978-3-8047-3062-5
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Heidrun Hallmann, Wieland Berg: The Leopoldina in the Third Reich. In: Christoph J. Scriba (ed.): The elite of the nation in the Third Reich. The relationship of academies and their scientific environment to National Socialism (= Acta historica Leopoldina. 22). Halle / Saale 1995, pp. 167-212.
- Michael Kaasch and Jochim Kaasch: “For the life of the academy, its center is of the greatest importance here in the narrower central German area” - The Leopoldina and its members in Halle, Jena and Leipzig from 1945 to 1961. In: Uwe Hoßfeld , Tobias Kaiser, Heinz Mestrup (Ed.): University in Socialism: Studies on the History of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (1945–1990) Volume 1, Cologne 2007, pp. 762–806 ( books.google.de ).
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Jens Thiel, Rüdiger vom Bruch : The Leopoldina. The German Academy of Natural Scientists between the German Empire and the former GDR . be.bra Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-95410-026-2 .
- Wieland Berg: An honorable lie: Abderhalden's letter to delete Jewish members of the Leopoldina - hasty obedience or protective claim? In: Sudhoff's archive . Volume 99 (2015), no . 1, pp. 105-115 ( zeit-geschichten.de PDF).
- Wieland Berg: Emil Abderhalden and the Jewish members of the Leopoldina - balance sheet of a search for clues. Part 1 in: EKKEHARD New Series 23 (2016), Issue 2, pp. 42–56; Part 2 ibid., Issue 3, pp. 65–75 ( zeit-geschichten.de PDF).
- Thomas Schnalke : Leopoldina intern. The German Academy of Natural Scientists around 1750 as reflected in their correspondence. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 22, 2003, pp. 158-166.
- Willi Ule: History of the imperial Leopoldine-Carolinian German academy of natural scientists during the years 1852–1887. Printed by E. Blockmann and Son, Dresden 1889, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dgeschichtederka00knobgoog~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3DDigitalisat%20im%20Internet%20Archive~PUR%3D
- Official website
- Entry by the Leopoldina library in the online edition of the manual of historical book collections
- The first medal of merit of the Leopoldina , contribution to the history of the city in the Kulturfalter , in September 2008
- No. 7 of the Science
- German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina: About us - About the Leopoldina - Presidium and committees - President. Retrieved April 14, 2020 .
- Academy. Retrieved April 13, 2020 .
- Stendal VR 20649
- Leopoldina - Home. Retrieved April 13, 2020 .
- BMBF Internet editorship: The Academies of Sciences - BMBF. Retrieved April 13, 2020 .
- Helmut Keller: Dr. Johann Laurentius Bausch, 1605–1665, founder of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum . Würzburg 1955 (medical dissertation, University of Würzburg, 1955).
- Werner E. Gerabek : Encyclopedia Medical History. P. 23 ( books.google.de ).
- Leopoldina becomes a National Academy. BMBF press release , February 18, 2008.
- Jörg Hacker (ed.): A tour through the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina - National Academy of Sciences.
- Statutes of the Leopoldina.
- Jörg Hacker (ed.): A tour through the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina - National Academy of Sciences.
- see page about the Leopoldina Fellowship Program
- page about the commissions
- Members. Retrieved April 13, 2020 .
- Richard Toellner : In the grove of the academy to be inquisitive about nature. Four doctors from the Free Imperial City of Schweinfurt found the Academia Naturae Curiosorum . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002, OCLC 907786711 , S. 15-42 . ; Uwe Müller: The Leopoldina under the presidents Bausch, Fehr and Volckamer (1651–1693) . S. 45-93 .
- Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck : Die Kaiserl. Leopoldinisch-Carolinische Akademie der Naturforscher celebrates its bicentenary with the gathering of natural scientists and doctors in Wiesbaden . Printed by Grass, Barth and Comp. (W. Friedrich), Breslau 1852. See also Johann Daniel Ferdinand Neigebaur : History of the Imperial Leopoldino-Carolinian German Academy of Natural Scientists during the second century of its existence . Jena 1860.
- Alexander von Gleichen-Russwurm : Das galante Europa. Sociability of the big world 1600–1789 . Verl. Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart 1911, p. 53 .
- Science and books in the early modern period. The library of the Schweinfurt city physician and founder of the Leopoldina Johann Laurentius Bausch (1605–1665) . In: Uwe Müller (Hrsg.): Publications of the city archive of Schweinfurt . No. 12 . Schweinfurt 1998 .; Uwe Müller, Claudia Michael, Michael Bucher and Ute Grad (editing): The Bausch Library in Schweinfurt - catalog . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 32 . Stuttgart 2004.
- Uwe Müller: The Leges of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum 1652–1872 . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 243-264 .
- Philip Beeley: A story of two cities. The dispute over the real origins of the Royal Society . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 135-162 . ; Claude Debru: The Foundation of the Paris Academy of Sciences in a Political and Scientific Context . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 163-173 .
- See illustration of the frontispiece of the Miscellanea Curiosa (Decuria II, Annus VII), in the upper center the motto of the academy: “Nunquam otiosus” (Never idle).
- Wieland Berg: The early writings of the Leopoldina - mirror of contemporary "Medicine and its relatives" . NTM, series for the history of natural sciences, technology and medicine 22/1, Leipzig 1985, p. 69 . Cf. Wieland Berg and Jochen Thamm: The systematic research into natural objects. To the program of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum from 1652 and its prehistory . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 285-304 .
- Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb: Ampelographia sive Vitis Viniferae [...] Vitus Jacob Trescher; Christian Michaelis, Leipzig; Wroclaw 1661.
- Uwe Müller, Danny Weber and Wieland Berg: Protocollum Academiae Caesareo-Leopoldinae Naturae Curiosorum. Edition of the chronicle of the Imperial Leopoldine Academy of Natural Scientists . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 60 . Stuttgart 2013, p. 41 .
- Uwe Müller: Johann Laurentius Bausch and Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb. From the founding of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum to the Imperial Academy . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 13-41 .
- Wieland Berg: Notes on the translation . No. 17 . Leipzig 1987, p. 70 . In: The Imperial Privilege of the Leopoldina of August 7, 1687. Edited at the 1987 annual meeting by the Academy's Presidium. Translated into German by Siegried Kratzsch, Halle, and introduced by Georg Uschmann, Jena. With a facsimile of the original and 4 illustrations . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina .
- Johann Ferdinand Neigebaur : History of the imperial Leopoldino-Carolinian German academy of natural scientists during the second century of its existence . Frommann, Jena 1860, p. 10f. ( Digitized version )
- Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Franciscanae Naturae Curiosorum […] Volume VIII ( digitized version )
- Wieland Berg and Jochen Thamm: The systematic research into natural objects. To the program of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum from 1652 and its prehistory . In: Richard Toellner, Uwe Müller, Benno Parthier, Wieland Berg (eds.): The foundation of the Leopoldina - Academia Naturae Curiosorum - in a historical context. Johann Laurentius Bausch on the 400th birthday . No. 49 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2008, p. 285-304, spec. P. 303, note 11 .
- Uwe Müller, Danny Weber and Wieland Berg: Protocollum Academiae Caesareo-Leopoldinae Naturae Curiosorum. Edition of the chronicle of the Imperial Leopoldine Academy of Natural Scientists . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 60 . Stuttgart 2013.
- Andreas Elias Büchner: Academiae Sacri Romani Imperii Leopoldino-Carolinae naturae curiosorum historia . Hall 1755 ( echo.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de - digitized).
- Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum […] Volume IX ( digitized version )
- Kai Torsten Kanz, Johanna Bohley, Dietrich von Engelhardt: The Leopoldina between the French Revolution and internal reform. The presidencies of Nees von Esenbeck, Kieser and Carus from 1818 to 1869 . p. 121-150 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002,
- Georg Uschmann: Brief history of the academy . p. 44 ff . In: Presidium of the Academy (ed.): Deutsche Akademie der Leopoldina 1652–1977 . Scientific publishing company Suppl. 1, Leipzig 1977,
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: From the academy reform to consolidation and continuity in the crisis - The Leopoldina under the presidents Behn, Knoblauch, Freiherr von Fritsch and Wangerin from 1870 to 1921 . p. 157 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002,
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: From the academy reform to consolidation and continuity in the crisis - The Leopoldina under the presidents Behn, Knoblauch, Freiherr von Fritsch and Wangerin from 1870 to 1921 . p. 164 f . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002,
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: From the academy reform to consolidation and continuity in the crisis - The Leopoldina under the presidents Behn, Knoblauch, Freiherr von Fritsch and Wangerin from 1870 to 1921 . p. 159 f . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002,
- Mechthild Hofmann: Oscar Grulich (March 1, 1844 - October 20, 1913). First librarian at the Leopoldina in Halle . In: German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina - Yearbook 1994, Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 40. Halle 1995, p. 479-488 .
- Oscar Grulich: Sorrows and joys of a wandering library . In: Centralblatt für das Bibliothekwesen 2 . Leipzig 1885, p. 117-135 ( digizeitschriften.de ).
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: Between the loss of inflation and the greater German claim - the Leopoldina under Presidents Gutzmer and Walther from 1921 to 1932 . p. 187-225 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002,
- Benno Parthier: Existence and change of the oldest German academy. Commemorative publication by the Presidium of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina on the 300th anniversary of the founding of today's Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg in 1994 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 1994, p. 49 .
- Wieland Berg: Emil Abderhalden and the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina after 1932 - a project sketch . In: Yearbook 1991, Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 37. Halle 1992, p. 265-284 .
- Wieland Berg: Emil Abderhalden and the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina after 1932 - a project sketch . In: Yearbook 1991, Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 37. Halle 1992, p. 279 . ; this is only evidenced by marks in a typewritten list of the elections from the previous year that cannot be assigned to the specific authors; Theoretically, that could have come from Abderhalden, even if Einstein himself suggested it, but it is more likely an objection from the National Socialist-minded Vice President Weigelt.
- Benno Parthier: The enigmatic 'deletion' of Albert Einstein's membership in the Leopoldina's register book. A circumstantial report in the absence of clear evidence . No. 45 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2005, p. 413-429 .
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: "... that the honor I have received is not for the person but for the subject" - The Leopoldina and the history of science . tape 15 . Negotiations on the history and theory of biology, Berlin 2010, p. 231 .
- Andreas Frewer: Medicine and Morals in the Weimar Republic and National Socialism. The magazine "Ethik" under Emil Abderhalden . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-593-36582-0 , p. 192 ( google books ).
- Emil Abderhalden: Directory of the members of the academy and its sponsors, composition of the board and senate. In: Report on the activities of the Imperial Leopoldine-Carolinian German Academy of Natural Scientists from April 1, 1933 to March 31, 1937 . Halle 1937, p. 33-59 . ; see. also Wieland Berg: Emil Abderhalden and the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina after 1932 - a project sketch . In: Yearbook 1991, Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 37. Halle 1992, p. 278 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Heidrun Hallmann and Wieland Berg: The Leopoldina in the Third Reich. In: Eduard Seidler, Christoph J. Scriba, Wieland Berg (ed.): The nation's elite in the Third Reich. The relationship of academies and their scientific environment to National Socialism. (= Acta Historica Leopoldina ). No. 22 , 1995, p. 177 .
- Wieland Berg: An honorable lie: Abderhalden's letter on the deletion of Jewish members of the Leopoldina - anticipatory obedience or protection? In: Sudhoff's archive . Volume 99 (2015), Issue 1, pp. 105–115 ( zeit-geschichten.de PDF).
- Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina and its Jewish members in the Third Reich . In: Yearbook 1993, Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 39. Halle 1994, p. 376 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina and its Jewish members . No. 64 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2014, p. 425 , fn. 24 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina and its Jewish members . No. 64 . Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2014, p. 419-446 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Eduard Seidler: “… fully adapted to the requirements of the time.” The Leopoldina between 1932 and 1945. In: 350 Years of Leopoldina - Claims and Reality, Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 242 .
- zeit-geschichten.de (PDF).
- Rüdiger vom Bruch : Comments on the history of science classification of the former Leopoldina President Emil Abderhalden . Berlin 2015 ( leopoldina.org [PDF]).
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: "... that the honor I have received is not for the person but for the subject" - The Leopoldina and the history of science . In: Negotiations on the History and Theory of Biology . tape 15 . Berlin 2010, p. 232 .
- Wieland Berg: Emil Abderhalden and the Jewish members of the Leopoldina - balance of a search for traces. Part 1 In: EKKEHARD New Series 23 (2016), Heft 2, pp. 42–56; Part 2 ibid., Issue 3, pp. 65–75 ( zeit-geschichten.de PDF).
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Heidrun Hallmann, Wieland Berg: The Leopoldina in the Third Reich. In: Christoph J. Scriba (ed.): The elite of the nation in the Third Reich. The relationship of academies and their scientific environment to National Socialism (Acta historica Leopoldina; 22). Halle / Saale 1995, p. 182.
- Leopoldina President Volker ter Meulen, speech at the inauguration of the memorial stele on October 1, 2009 (PDF; 71 kB)
- Benno Parthier: Address by the President . In: Nova Acta Leopoldina NF Band 67 , no. 281 . Heidelberg 1992, p. 26 .
- See press release of October 1, 2009 at http://www.leopoldina.org/de/presse/pressemitteilungen/pressemitteilung/press/733/
- Leopoldina Archive, cf. Footnote 5 in zeit-geschichten.de (PDF).
- Emil Abderhalden: Race and heredity from the point of view of the fine structure of blood and cell proteins . In: Nova Acta Leopoldina NF Band 7 , no. 46 . Halle 1939, p. 75 .
- Andreas Frewer: Medicine and Morals in the Weimar Republic and National Socialism. The magazine "Ethik" under Emil Abderhalden . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-593-36582-0 , p. 169 ( Google books ).
- Sven Röbel, Nico Wingert: The forgotten secret . In: Der Spiegel . No. 38 , 2005, p. 46-50 ( online ).
- Nico Wingert: Looted art moldy in the basement, 2nd part . stern.de, July 13, 2008.
- Mechthild Hofmann, Jochen Thamm: Hope for a late return. The fate of the holdings of the Leopoldina Library that were outsourced during the Second World War . In: Yearbook 1993. Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 39. Halle 1994, p. 411-426 .
- Nico Wingert: The Odyssey of Books. stern.de, July 15, 2008.
- Mechthild Hofmann, Jochen Thamm: Hope for a late return. The fate of the holdings of the Leopoldina Library that were outsourced during the Second World War . In: Yearbook 1993. Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 39. Halle 1994, p. 420 f .
- Mechthild Hofmann, Jochen Thamm: Hope for a late return. The fate of the holdings of the Leopoldina Library that were outsourced during the Second World War . In: Yearbook 1993. Leopoldina . R. 3, vol. 39. Halle 1994, p. 424 .
- Source-based overall representations in: Benno Parthier: Existence and change of the oldest German academy. Commemorative publication by the Presidium of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina on the 300th anniversary of the founding of today's Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg in 1994 . Pressure twitch. p. 263-291 . Halle 1994, pp. 57-72; Sybille Gerstengarbe and Benno Parthier: “Suddenly I had to take over business.” The Leopoldina from 1945 to 1954 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002,
- Michael and Joachim Kaasch: Intelligenztreck towards the west. Emil Abderhalden: “I often think back to Halle with sadness. I left too much behind - especially a lot of my soul ” . In: scientia halensis . No. 3/1995 . Halle 1995, p. 19-21 .
- Leopoldina Archive, illustrated book presented by the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg for the 300th anniversary of the Leopoldina, an example given in Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - claim and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Hall 2002, p. 276 .
- Otto Schlüter: Report on the course of the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the German Academy of Natural Scientists (Leopoldina) on February 16 and 17, 1952 in Halle / Saale, presented by Otto Schlüter President of the Academy . In: Nova Acta Leopoldina NF Band 15 , no. 104 . Leipzig 1952, p. 31-42 .
- Festschrift for the commemoration of the foundation of the German Academy of Natural Scientists (Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch German Academy of Natural Scientists) 300 years ago in Schweinfurt . In: Publications of the historical association Schweinfurt . Issue 2. Schweinfurt 1952 .; and: Erich Saffert and Rudolph Zaunick: Report on the celebration held in Schweinfurt from June 13th to 15th, 1952 to commemorate the foundation of the Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch German Academy of Natural Scientists in Schweinfurt 300 years ago . In: Nova Acta Leopoldina NF Band 16 , no. 114 . Leipzig 1954.
- Letter from Abderhalden / Gademann, City Archives Schweinfurt, Sign. Nat. Qu 60.1 (the industrialist Ferdinand Gademann had been in contact with the Schweinfurt Historical Association with Abderhalden since the 1930s and also published two articles in the Schweinfurt Festschrift 1952).
- See also Benno Parthier's contribution to the discussion in: Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina in the conflict-ridden years 1958–1962 . No. 36 . Scientific publishing company, Heidelberg 2000, p. 104 .
- Benno Parthier and Sybille Gerstengarbe: “The fate of Germany is the fate of our academy” - The Leopoldina from 1954 to 1974 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 293-326 .
- Rüdiger vom Bruch , Jens Thiel, Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina. The German Academy of Natural Scientists between the German Empire and the former GDR . be.bra Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-95410-026-2 ; see. the full wording of the congratulations and the answer in Benno Parthier: The enigmatic 'deletion' of Albert Einstein's membership in the Leopoldina's register book. A circumstantial report in the absence of clear evidence . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 45 . Stuttgart 2005, p. 428 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina in the conflict-ridden years 1958–1962 . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 36 . Heidelberg 2000, p. 82, 88 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe: The Leopoldina in the conflict-ridden years 1958–1962 . In: Acta Historica Leopoldina . No. 36 . Heidelberg 2000, p. 83-87 .
- Hermann-J. Rupieper: "... the office demands a lot of duties and work, and you are measured against your predecessors" - The XXIII. President Heinz Bethge from 1974 to 1990 . In: Benno Parthier and Dietrich von Engelhardt (eds.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 327-351 .
- Sybille Gerstengarbe, Benno Parthier: "Suddenly I had to take over business." The Leopoldina from 1945 to 1954 . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 288 (note 127).
- Ceremonial handover of the office of President from Heinz Bethge to Benno Parthier on June 30th, 1990 in the Goethe Theater in Bad Lauchstädt . In: Werner Köhler (Ed.): Nova Acta Leopoldina NF Band 65 , no. 278 . Leipzig; Heidelberg 1990.
- Benno Parthier: "Responsibility ... is particularly great in freedom" - The Leopoldina in the present . In: Benno Parthier, Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina - aspiration and reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 355, 359 .
- B. Parthier, D. von Engelhardt (Ed.): 350 years of Leopoldina. Claim and Reality. Festschrift of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina 1652–2002 . Druck-Zuck, Halle 2002, p. 359ff.
- Nico Wingert: The Odyssey of Books Part 2 . stern.de, July 15, 2008.
- Nico Wingert: Looted art moldy in the cellar . stern.de, July 13, 2008.
- Nico Wingert: Looted art is returning . stern.de, December 18, 2008.
- Volker ter Meulen (Ed.): German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina. History, structure, tasks . 10th edition. Halle 2007, p. 10. Brochure ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.8 MB)
- Emil Abderhalden
- Rüdiger vom Bruch : Comments on the history of science classification of the former Leopoldina President Emil Abderhalden . Berlin 2015 ( leopoldina.org [PDF]).
- Gerald Haug elected as the new President of the Leopoldina . Leopoldina press release of December 11, 2019. Accessed on December 13, 2019.
- Anne Hähnig: Leopold who? The National Academy of Sciences was practically unknown until now - until it published a corona study. For them there was criticism. Now everything should get better. In: Die Zeit , May 28, 2020, p. 31 ( online version ; accessed June 19, 2020.)
- z. B. The wake-up call. Researchers at the Leopoldina castigate the failings of environmental policy with surprising severity. It was about time. A comment by Andreas Sentker , accessed August 21, 2019
- Publications. Opinions. @ leopoldina.org
- National recommendations. Climate goals 2030: Ways to achieve a sustainable reduction in CO2 emissions (2019) , accessed on August 21, 2019
- Third ad hoc statement: Coronavirus pandemic - Overcoming the crisis sustainably (April 13, 2020) , accessed April 14, 2020
- What the Leopoldina report advises Merkel , article by Ragnar Vogt in Der Tagesspiegel of April 13, 2020, accessed on April 15, 2020.
- Anne Hähnig: Leopold who? The National Academy of Sciences was practically unknown until now - until it published a corona study. For them there was criticism. Now everything should get better. In: Die Zeit , May 28, 2020, p. 31 ( online version ; accessed June 19, 2020.)
- On the relationship between medicine and the economy in the German health system: 8 theses on further development for the benefit of patients and society. Discussion No. 7. German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina eV - National Academy of Sciences, Halle (Saale) 2016, ISBN 978-3-8047-3656-6 , p. 10 f. ( PDF ).
- Christel Dell, Danny Weber, Thomas Wilde: The Academy Awards . Honorary membership. In: Jörg Hacker (Ed.): German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina . Structure and members. German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina eV, Halle (Saale) 2015, p. 352–354 ( online [PDF; accessed September 27, 2016]).
- List of all members of the Leopoldina with a Nobel Prize. leopoldina.org, accessed April 28, 2019.
- Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Volume 1 in the Google Book Search