Henry E. Sigerist
Henry E. Sigerist was the son of the Schaffhausen merchant Ernst Heinrich Sigerist (1860-1901) and Emma Wiskemann (1865-1901) from Zurich. He attended schools in Paris and (from the age of 10) in Zurich . He first studied Oriental Studies (1909–1912 in Zurich and London ), then medicine (1912–1917 in Zurich and Munich ). In 1917 he was in Zurich at Max Cloëtta Dr. med. PhD. In 1916 he married Emmy Escher from Zurich, the two daughters Erica and Nora were born in 1918 and 1921. On September 13, 1943, Sigerist received US citizenship.
In 1919 Sigerist visited Karl Sudhoff in Leipzig. He then shifted his main focus to the field of medical history and completed his habilitation in Zurich in 1921 with a thesis on early medieval antidotaria.
After the first international congress for the history of medicine in Antwerp, the “Société Internationale d'Histoire de Médecine” was founded in 1921. Strong forces in this society obtained a boycott against Germany and against the nations allied with Germany in the war . Karl Sudhoff in Leipzig and Max Neuburger in Vienna were particularly affected by this boycott . Thereupon Sigerist boycotted the 1925 congress in Geneva together with the Anglo-Saxon medical historians Fielding Hudson Garrison , Arnold C. Klebs , Victor Robinson and Charles Singer . The remaining American group that took part succeeded in passing a resolution stipulating that all nations could be members of the international society in the future.
In 1925 Sigerist took over the chair for the history of medicine in Leipzig from Karl Sudhoff as a full professor. His employees in Leipzig included Johann Daniel Achelis , Ernst Hirschfeld, Walter Pagel , Stephen d'Irsay , Erwin H. Ackerknecht and Owsei Temkin .
In 1926 the first chair in the history of medicine in America was established at Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore) with William Henry Welch as chair holder. In 1927 Welch went on a study trip to Europe. It was there that the Leipzig Medical History Institute made the deepest impression on him. In 1928 he was one of the founding members of the Paris Académie internationale d'histoire des sciences . In 1930/31 Sigerist did a research stay in the USA with a focus on Baltimore. During this time he transferred the interim management of the Leipzig Institute to Temkin. In 1932 Welch brought Sigerist to Baltimore as his successor. Sigerist took Owsei Temkin with him from Leipzig. To Marcel H. Bickel (2002):
- "Both the Nazi enemy Sigerist and the Jew Temkin would have had no future in Germany just a year later."
From 1932 to 1947, Sigerist was Welch's successor to the Chair of the History of Medicine in Baltimore. In 1933 he founded the "Bulletin of the History of Medicine", which appeared in the first six years as an organ of the institute under the name "Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine".
Karl Sudhoff, who joined the NSDAP on May 1, 1933, was honored with lectures on November 27, 1933 in Baltimore on the occasion of his eightieth birthday. In an obituary Sigerist 1939 described his teacher Sudhoff: "He was an outspoken personality, a natural leader , as he liked to call himself, fierce in his sympathies and his antipathies."
Due to his close contact with Welch, Sigerist was a kind of persona grata during his lifetime. That changed when Sigerist began to publicly comment on controversial discussions and current events. In Leipzig he had already understood the history of medicine as part of general cultural history and raised this beyond the limiting description of the development of a specialist discipline. During the years in America he continued in this direction and now also took up social, economic and political conditions that influence the course of medicine. This enabled him to present the developments in medicine in a problematic and critical manner and to include them in the general historical process.
New Deal - National Health Insurance
From 1932 to 1947, Sigerist was in charge of the Chair of Medical History in Baltimore. 1932 to 1945 was the time of the New Deal Roosevelt. When Sigerist came to America in 1932, the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care (CCMC) published its results in a report. This report summarized the opportunities for health care in the United States and provided an impressive description of the inequalities in the health care system. In response, plans were developed that aimed at ensuring that medicine should be equally available to the entire American population. The discussion about that report and about national health insurance was in full swing. Sigerist has taken a stand on these controversies and has advocated compulsory national health insurance.
Under Roosevelt, the Social Security Act was passed in 1935 with guidelines for old age pensions, unemployment insurance and assistance programs for the needy. National health insurance legislation was not included in this administrative act. It was only realized in 2010 in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care). The main obstacle was the opposition of the powerful American Medical Association (AMA), which viewed all attempts at national health insurance as an encroachment on the part of the state in the medical field and labeled it "state medicine" (nationalized medicine) and "un-American" - were too strong. As early as 1930, the AMA had defamed the socio-political demands of the " Association of Socialist Doctors in the USA " as "made in Germany".
During the Spanish Civil War, Sigerist represented the Republican side and worked in the “Bureau for Medical Aid for Spain”. He participated in the organization of the American Soviet Medical Society, for whose journal he was the editor. During McCarthy's anti-communist smear campaigns , Sigerist's acquaintance with Owen Lattimore was an additional source of defamation as a communist and propagandist. Finally, he was even summoned to a meticulous investigation by the "Civil Service Commission", where he had to comment on alleged communist activities and contacts.
He visited the Soviet Union in 1935, 1936 and 1938 and published a work on the Soviet health system in 1937 , which he described as the most advanced system at the time. In doing so, he took over Russian statistics without critical examination and, according to the judgment of his student Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht, had Potemkin villages shown to him . During his stay in 1938, he visited his friend, the Jewish doctor and medical historian Richard Koch in the Caucasian seaside resort of Jessentuki , to which the Koch family had emigrated in 1936. Sigerist supported the Koch family and was probably also involved in their emigration. In any case, Koch wrote to his son in 1946 that Sigerist “did so much for us in the hour of need” .
The eleventh International Congress for the History of Medicine took place in Yugoslavia in autumn 1938. Sigerist also used this congress to see the progress that has been made in the Yugoslav health system with the collaboration of his friend Andrija Štampar . In 1939, Sigerist wrote a comprehensive report for the Bulletin of the History of Medicine with details on the history and state of the Yugoslav health system.
This report also contains many comments and allusions to the political tensions in Europe in the autumn of 1938. From Switzerland, Sigerist took the Simplon-Orient-Express via Italy to Zagreb and he had a large inscription with the when he left the Simplon tunnel Italian motto «CREDERE - OBBEDIRE - COMBATTERE (Believe - Obey - Fight)». That reminded him of another large poster with the inscription "EIN VOLK - EIN REICH - EIN FUEHRER" that the Germans had put up in Breisach across from France. The French replied with a poster of the same size with the words “LIBERTÉ - ÉGALITÉ - FRATERNITÉ”.
According to Sigerist's observation, the size of the delegation that each country sent to the Congress was dependent on the influence that these countries wanted to exert on Yugoslavia. So Germany sent the largest, well-disciplined delegation with Paul Diepgen as leader , which not only represented the German Reich and the University of Berlin, but also the University of Vienna. The second largest delegation with a dozen members was from Italy. The absence of some very prominent members of the International Association was noticeable. Arturo Castiglioni , who so far had not been absent from any congress and was the official representative of Italy on the association's committee, had not received an exit permit from his government. The same was true for the Viennese medical historian Max Neuburger and for other outstanding colleagues who, on racist grounds, had not received permission to leave their country.
From August to December 1939, Sigerist stayed in South Africa at the invitation of the South African Universitie's Lectureship Committee . There he held lectures at the University of Cape Town , Huguenot University College in Wellington , Rhodes University College in Grahamstown and at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg . At the invitation of the Ministry of Education, he gave a lecture in Pretoria and the official part ended with a speech in front of the Pietermaritzburg and Durban branches of Natal University College . But Sigerist also came to South Africa to study. He visited health care facilities wherever and whenever he could. He summarized the impressions he gained in a radio address that he was able to give on the occasion of his departure from South Africa. He came to the conclusion:
- "I got the impression that only by gradually building up a public health service can health be brought to all people in South Africa, regardless of their race and income."
In 1944 the Socialist Government of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan won an election with the promise, among other things, of introducing a comprehensive system of social health services. To carry out this promise, it set up a Health Services Survey Commission. Sigerist was invited by the newly elected Prime Minister Tommy Douglas to lead this commission and he toured the province from September 3 to October 3, 1944. In closing, he presented the Minister of Health with a report outlining a program for the gradual socialization of the health system in Saskatchewan.
From October 24 to December 24, 1944, Sigerist was part of a team of foreign doctors invited to the country by the Indian colonial government. An Indian Health Survey and Development Committee had analyzed the conditions in the Indian health system and set up a program for the reorganization of this system after the war. The team of foreign doctors was asked to get an idea of the situation on site and to advise the Indian Committee. The team of foreign doctors consisted of:
- United Kingdom: John Alfred Ryle , Janet Vaughan and Weldon Dalrymple-Champneys
- Australia: John Howard Lidgett Cumpston
- USA: Joseph Walter Mountin and Henry E. Sigerist
Erwin H. Ackerknecht, who wrote a dissertation with Sigerist in Leipzig in 1931, entitled Contributions to the History of the Medical Reform of 1848 , remembered his teacher Sigerist in 1957:
- "For better or for worse, he never became a Marxist, despite his political sympathies."
- "Is it more than a coincidence that his favorite century in medical history was the cosmopolitan 18th century,
- aristocratic even in its revolutionaries, philanthropic, enlightening and yet devoted to beauty? "
The medical historian Sigerist began in 1919 as a student of Sudhoff, that is, as a philologically oriented medical historian. He completed his habilitation in 1921 with a thesis on early medieval antidotaries and in 1927 he edited the late antique Pseudo-Apuleius together with the classical philologist Ernst Howald . His grand plan to collect and analyze all early medieval medical manuscripts, on which he worked intensively until 1934, remained unfinished. Around 1930, sociological considerations began to appear more and more prominently in his work, until they became dominant in his American era and became his real legacy.
After Sigerist's death, large parts of his extensive medical history library came to the Medical History Institute of the University of Zurich . His scientific legacy can be found in the Medical History Archive there .
- From 1932 membership in the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina in Halle (Saale)
- 1933 Awarded the Karl Sudhoff Medal by the German Society for the History of Medicine, Science and Technology
- 1945 election to the American Philosophical Society
- 1950 Awarded the Welch Medal by the American Association for the History of Medicine
- 1951 elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 1954 Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP)
- Studies and texts on early medieval recipe literature. Barth, Leipzig 1923 (= studies on the history of medicine. 13); Reprint Vaduz 1977.
- A German translation of Ketham's gynecology. In: Archives for the History of Medicine. 14, issue 5/6 (December 1923), pp. 169-178
- The birth of western medicine. In: Charles Singer, Henry E. Sigerist (eds.): Essays on the History of Medicine presented to Karl Sudhoff on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Oxford University Press, London and Zurich 1924, pp. 185–205
- German medical manuscripts from Swiss libraries. Part 1: The manuscript 297 of the Einsiedler Abbey Library. In: Archives for the History of Medicine. 17, 1925, pp. 205-240.
- The historical view of medicine. In: Archives for the History of Medicine . Volume 18, 1926, pp. 1-19.
- Together with Ernst Howald (ed.): Antonii Musae De herba vettonica liber, Pseudoapulei Herbarius, Anonymi De Taxone liber, Sexti Placiti Liber medicinae ex animalibus etc. Leipzig / Berlin 1927 (= Corpus medicorum latinorum. Volume 4).
- Ancient medicine. Ernst Heimeran Verlag, Munich 1927 ( archive.org ).
- The history of medicine in academic teaching. Results of a survey by the institute. In: Kyklos. Volume 1, 1928, pp. 147-156.
- William Harvey's Position in European Intellectual History. In: Archives for cultural history. Volume 19, (Münster) 1928, pp. 158-168.
- The special position of the sick. In: Kyklos. Volume 2, 1929, pp. 11-20 (English translation in: Milton Irwin Roemer [Ed.]: Henry E. Sigerist. On the sociology of medicine. New York 1960, pp. 9-22)
- Measures and weights in the medical texts of the early Middle Ages. In: Kyklos. Volume 3, 1930, pp. 439-444.
- To Herbarius Pseudo-Apulei. In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 23, 1930, pp. 197-204.
Introduction to Medicine. Georg Thieme, Leipzig 1931.
- CD Josephson ( transl. ): Medicinens grundvalar. A. Bonniers Förlag, Stockholm 1931.
- Margret Galt Boise (translator): Man and medicine. WW Norton, NY 1932, and G. Allen & Unwin, London 1932.
- Maurice Tenin (transl.): Introduction à la médecine. Payot, Paris 1932.
- JG De Lindt (translator): Geneeskunde. HE Stenfert Kroese, Leiden-Amsterdam 1933.
- Ku Chien-Chi (translator): Jen Yü I Hsueh. The Commercial Press, Shanghai 1936,
- Gustavo Barbensi (transl.): Introduzione alla medicina. GC Sansoni, Florence 1938.
- Problems of Medical Historiography. In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 24, 1931, pp. 1-18.
Great doctors. A history of medicine in images of life. JF Lehmanns Verlag, Munich 1932; 2nd, increased edition there in 1936 (6th edition Munich 1970).
- Eden Paul, Cedar Paul (translator): Great doctors. A biographical history of medicine. G. Allen & Unwin, London 1933.
- Francisco Arasa, Manuel Scholz Rich (translator): Los grandes medicos. Historia biographica de la medicina. Ediciones Ave, Barcelona 1949.
America and Medicine. Thieme, Leipzig 1933.
- Hildegard Nagel (translator) American medicine. WW Norton, New York 1934.
- Problems of historical-geographical pathology. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 1, 1933, pp. 10-18.
- Karl Sudhoff, the man and the histotian. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, pp. 3-6.
- Karl Sudhoff the mediaevelist. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, pp. 22-25.
- The medical literature of the early Middle Ages. A program and a report of a summer of research in Italy. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, pp. 26-50.
- Notes and comments on Hippocrates. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, pp. 190-214.
- The history of medicine and the history of science. An open letter to George Sarton, editor of ISIS. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 4, 1936, pp. 1-13.
- The medical student and the social problems confronting medicine today. In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 4, 1936, pp. 411-422.
- Socialised Medicine in the Soviet Union. With a foreword by Sidney Webb . Victor Gollancz, London 1937.
- Issues appeared in New York (1937 and 1947), London (1937), La Habana (1944), Bombay (1947), Shanghai (1950) and Osaka (1952). It was particularly widespread in the former British Empire through the initiative of the Left Book Club, which printed a special edition and sold it at an extremely low price. A summary version was published in October 1942 during the German occupation in Belgium by some doctors from the Belgian underground with the title “Dr. Antoine, à propos d'un cas d'ulcus duodénal “ printed.
- Together with Julia Older. Medicine and Health in the Soviet Union. Jaico Publishing House, Bombay 1947 ( archive.org )
- Yugoslavia and the XIth International Congress of the History of Medicine. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine Volume 7, 1939, pp. 93-147.
- A Boerhaave pilggrimage in Holland. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 7, 1939, pp. 257-275.
- A physician's impression of South Africa. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 8, 1940, pp. 22-27.
Medicine and human welfare. Yale University Press, New Haven 1941.
- Vincente P. Quintero (translator) La medicina y el bienestar humano. Editiones Iman, Buenos Aires 1943.
- Gertrud Hübner (translator) The healing art in the service of humanity. Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart 1954.
- The people's misery: mother of diseses. To address, delivered in 1790 by Johann Peter Frank. Translated from the Latin with an introduction. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 9, 1941, pp. 81-100.
- Laudanum in the works of Paracelsus. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 9, 1941, pp. 530-544.
- A book on nymphs, sylphs, pygmies, and salamanders, and the other spirits. By Theophrastus von Hogenheim called Paracelsus. In: Henry E. Sigerist (Ed.) Four treatises of Theophrastus von Hohenheim called Paracelsus. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1941, pp. 213-253.
- War and culture. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 11, 1942, pp. 1-11.
- American spas in historical perspective. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 11, 1942, pp. 133-147.
- Introduction to "Maurice Arthus' Philosophy of Scientific Investigation". In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 14, 1943, pp. 368-372.
- as editor: The earliest printed book on wine by Arnold of Villanova, 1235-1311, now for the first time rendered into English and with an historical essay, with facsimile of the original edition 1478. New York 1943.
Civilization and Disease. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (New York) 1943 ( archive.org )
- Ramon Aguirre Favila (translator) Civilisacion y enfermedad. Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico 1946.
- Emilie Marie Mostert (translator): Illness and civilization. History of the destruction of human health. Metzner, Frankfurt / Main Berlin 1952.
- From Bismarck to Beveridge. Developments and trends in social security legislation. 1. The period of Bismarck. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 13, 1943, pp. 365-388
- Twenty-five years of health work in the Soviet Union. In: American Revue of Soviet Medicine, 1, 1943, pp. 66-78
- Medical care through medical centers in the Soviet Union. In: American Revue of Soviet Medicine, 1, 1943, pp. 176-190
- Medical care for all the people. In: Canadian Journal of Public Health 35, 1944, pp. 253-267
- A fifteenth-century treatise on wine. In: Bulletin of the history of medicine. Volume 15, 1944, pp. 189-200
- The need for an Institute of the History of Medicine in India. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 17 (1945), pp. 113-126
- Protection of health in the USSR In: Responsibility of victory. Report of the New York Herald Tribune Annual Forum on current problems, pp. 78-82. Herad Tribune, NY 1945
- Nationalism and Internationalism in medicine. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 21 (1947), pp. 5-16
- On American-Soviet medical relations. In: American Revue of Soviet Medicine, 5, 1948, pp. 4-8
- Medical History in the United States, past, present, future; a valedictory address. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 22 (1948), pp. 47-64
- A history of medicine. Volume 1: Primitive and archaic medicine. Oxford University Press, London 1951
- On the way to social medicine. In: Die neue Weltschau , Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1953, pp. 100–118
- Memories of Karl Sudhoff. In: Sudhoffs Archive for the History of Medicine , 37, 1953, pp. 97-103
- The world of Hippocrates. In: Gesnerus , 10, 1953, pp. 19-25 (digitized version )
- Landmarks in the history of hygiene. Oxford University Press, London 1956
Works published posthumously
A history of medicine . Volume 2: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian medicine . Oxford University Press, London 1961
- German translation of Volume 1 (1951) and Volume 2 (1961): Beginnings of Medicine. From primitive and archaic medicine to the golden age in Greece. Europa Verlag, Zurich 1963
- Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht . Henry E. Sigerist. In: Gesnerus. Swiss Journal of the History of Medicine and Sciences. Volume 14, 1957, pp. 65-68 ( e-periodica.ch digitalisat).
- Elisabeth Berg-Schorn. Henry E. Sigerist (1891-1957). Medical historians in Leipzig and Baltimore (= work of the research center of the Institute for the History of Medicine at the University of Cologne. Volume 9) Cologne 1978. It also contains a detailed bibliography.
- Marcel H. Bickel : Henry E. Sigerist. On the 50th anniversary of death. ( saez.ch PDF; 143 kB).
- Marcel H. Bickel: Henry Ernest Sigerist. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . November 25, 2011 , accessed January 31, 2020 .
- Marcel H. Bickel: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 24, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-428-11205-0 , p. 397 f. ( ). In:
- Dietrich von Engelhardt (ed.): Biographical encyclopedia of German-speaking doctors. KG Saur, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-598-11462-1 .
- Hans Fischer : Henry E. Sigerist. In: Schaffhausen City Archives. Pp. 292–303 ( stadtarchiv-schaffhausen.ch PDF).
- Richard Koch: Time before your time. Autobiographical records. Edited by Frank Töpfer and Urban Wiesing. Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7728-2226-6 ( Medicine and Philosophy. Volume 8).
- Richard Koch: Letter from Richard Koch to Henry E. Sigerist dated 07/30/1945. Edited by Frank Töpfer and Urban Wiesing . University of Tübingen, Tübingen 2005 ( hdl.handle.net full text).
- Felix Marti-Ibañez (Ed.): Henry E. Sigerist on the History of Medicine. MD Publishing, New York 1960 (Library Of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-6646).
- Ortrun Riha : Sigerist, Henry Ernest. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1330.
- Milton I. Roemer (Ed.): Henry E. Sigerist on the Sociology of Medicine. MD Publishing, New York 1960 (Library Of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-6647).
- Literature by and about Henry E. Sigerist in the catalog of the German National Library
- Henry E. Siger is in the professorial catalog of Leipzig University
- Henry Ernest Sigerist In: Encyclopaedia Britannica .
- Janet Farrar Worthington: Flawed Apostle. ( Memento of August 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Hopkins Medical News. Winter 1999.
- Title of his dissertation: Experimental studies on the effects of chronic camphor intake on the normal and pathological heart.
- Elisabeth Berg-Schorn: Henry E. Sigerist (1891-1957). Medical historian in Leipzig and Baltimore (= work of the research center of the Institute for the History of Medicine at the University of Cologne. Volume 9). Cologne 1978, p. 5.
- Bruno Gebhard . HE Sigerist - a Disappointed American? In: Medizinhistorisches Journal, Volume 4 (1969), pp. 89-98, here: p. 96
- International Congresses for the History of Medicine 1920-1938: Antwerp 1920, Paris 1921, London 1922, Brussels 1923 (as part of the International Congress of Historians), Geneva 1925, Leiden-Amsterdam 1927, Oslo 1928 (as part of the International Congress of Historians), Rome 1930, Bucharest 1932, Madrid 1935, Yugoslavia 1938
- Statutes of the "International Society of the History of Medicine". In: Annals of Medical History. B. Hoeber, New York, Volume 4, 1922, pp. 388-389 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).
- Entry in the membership directory of the Académie.
- Elisabeth Berg-Schorn: Henry E. Sigerist (1891-1957). Medical historian in Leipzig and Baltimore (= work of the research center of the Institute for the History of Medicine at the University of Cologne. Volume 9). Cologne 1978, pp. 83-84.
- Marcel H. Bickel. Owsei Temkin (1902-2002): a 20th century medical historian. In: Gesnerus. Swiss Journal of the History of Medicine and Sciences. Volume 59, No. 3–4, 2002, pp. 224–241, here: p. 226 ( e-periodica.ch digitalisat).
Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, pp. 3-6.
Henry E. Sigerist: Karl Sudhoff, the Man and the Historian. Pp. 7-9.
Fielding Hudson Garrison : Karl Sudhoff as Editor and Bibliographer. Pp. 10-15.
John Rathbone Oliver : Karl Sudhoff as Classical Philologian. Pp. 16-21.
Owsei Temkin: Karl Sudhoff, the Rediscoverer of Paracelsus. Pp. 22-25.
Henry E. Sigerist. Karl Sudhoff the Mediaevalist.
- Henry E. Sigerist. Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938). In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 7, 1939, p 804. In the original: " Hey what to outspoken personality, a natural leader as he liked to call himself, violent in his sympathies and antipathies. ”
- Henry E. Sigerist. Socialized Medicine. In: The Yale Review. Spring 1938, pp. 463-481. Reprinted in: Milton I. Roemer (Ed.): Henry E. Sigerist on the Sociology of Medicine MD Publishing. New York 1960, pp. 39-53.
- Elisabeth Berg-Schorn. Henry E. Sigerist (1891-1957). Cologne 1978, p. 116
- Letter from Richard Koch to Henry E. Sigerist dated 07/30/1945. Edited by Frank Töpfer and Urban Wiesing . University of Tübingen, Tübingen 2005, introduction by the editor ( hdl.handle.net full text).
- Postcard Richard Koch to his son Friedrich from June 2, 1946, in the Tübingen Koch estate. Quoted from: Letter from Richard Koch to Henry E. Sigerist of July 30, 1945.
- Henry E. Sigerist. Yugoslavia and the XI-th International Congress of the History of Medicine. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Baltimore, Volume 7, 1939, pp. 99-147.
- Literally: “ It seems to me, therefore, that the only possibility of bringing health to all the people of South Africa, irrespective of race and income, is the gradual development of public services. ”
- Henry E. Sigerist: A physician's impression of South Africa. A Farewell Address broadcast from the Cape Town Studio of the South African Broadcasting Corporation on December 11, 1939. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Volume 8, 1940, pp. 22-27.
- Henry E. Sigerist: The Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine during the academic year 1944-1945. … III Field Work in Canada and India. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Volume 18, 1945, pp. 230-231.
- Henry E. Sigerist: Saskatchewan health services survey commission. In: Milton I. Roemer (Ed.): Henry E. Sigerist on the Sociology of Medicine. MD Publishing, New York 1960, pp. 209-228.
- Bhore Committee, headed by Sir William Joseph Bhore (1878 - 1960)
- Henry E. Sigerist: The Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine during the academic year 1944-1945. … III Field Work in Canada and India. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Volume 18, 1945, pp. 231-232.
- Henry E. Sigerist: Report on India. In: Milton I. Roemer (Ed.): Henry E. Sigerist on the Sociology of Medicine. MD Publications, New York 1960, pp. 288-296.
- Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht: Henry E. Sigerist. In: Gesnerus. Volume 14, 1957 p. 66 and p. 68.
Henry E. Sigerist In: Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Volume 2, 1934, N ° 1 (March), pp. 22-25.
Karl Sudhoff the mediaevalist. Pp. 26-50.
The medical literature of the early middle ages. A program - and a Report of a Summer of Research in Italy. N ° 10 (December), pp. 559-610.
A summer of research in European libraries.
- Henry E. Sigerist: Problems of Medical Historiography. Based on a lecture given at the 8th International Congress for the History of Medicine in Rome on September 23, 1930. In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 24, Issue 1, January 10, 1931, pp. 1-18.
- Henry E. Sigerist: Introduction to Medicine. Leipzig 1931, pp. 365-376.
- H. Prefix -Harburg: Medical history or sociology? In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 25, 1932, pp. 110-112.
- Member History: Henry E. Sigerist. American Philosophical Society, accessed January 27, 2019 .
- Welch Medal Winners .
- Elisabeth Berg-Schorn: Henry E. Sigerist (1891-1957). Medical historian in Leipzig and Baltimore. Cologne 1978, p. 120.
|SURNAME||Sigerist, Henry E.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Sigerist, Henry Ernest (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swiss medical historian and medical theorist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 7, 1891|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 17, 1957|
|Place of death||Pura , Canton Ticino|