1891

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1891
Kilimanjaro, Kibo and Mawensi as seen from New Moshi
German East Africa becomes a German colony .
Charles Terront
The French Charles Terront wins the first Paris – Brest – Paris cycle race .
Cover sheet of the Erfurt program
The Social Democratic Party of Germany decides on the Erfurt program .
Trans-Siberian Railway line
Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway begins in Vladivostok .
1891 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1339/40 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1883/84 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)
Baha'i calendar 47/48 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1296/97 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2434/35 (southern Buddhism); 2433/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the metal rabbit辛卯 ( at the beginning of the year metal tiger 庚寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1253/54 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4224/25 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1269/70 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1308/09 (August 6/7)
Japanese calendar Meiji 24 ( 明治 24 年);
Koki 2551
Jewish calendar 5651/52 (October 2-3)
Coptic calendar 1607/08 (September 11th / 12th)
Malayalam calendar 1066/67
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1306/07 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2201/02 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2202/03 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2433/34 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1947/48 (turn of the year April)

events

Politics and world events

German Empire

Wilhelm II of Württemberg

Switzerland

Other events in Europe

Africa

Franz Karl Hutter with local soldiers in Bali, Cameroon around 1891

Asia

  • May 11: During the Ōtsu incident , Tsarevich Nikolaus is assassinated during a visit to Japan , the police officer Tsuda Sanzo slightly injured the future Russian emperor. The assassin is sentenced to life imprisonment. He dies of pneumonia on September 30th.

America

Battle of Concón

Pacific Ocean

business

Trade fairs and exhibitions

Rudolf Bruner-Dvořák: Photo of the large gate of the anniversary exhibition

Patents and trademarks

Postal service

travel and traffic

The Augusta Victoria 1891,
drawing by CW Allers
The arrival of the first train in Zermatt

Business start-ups

care

science and technology

Lilienthal with the Derwitz apparatus in the spring of 1891

Culture

architecture

Herz-Jesu-Kirche Graz

Visual arts

Paul Gauguin: Women on the Beach (1891)

literature

Music and theater

miscellaneous

religion

Disasters

The fall of utopia , drawing by Georgina Smith
  • March 17: In the port of Gibraltar, the British passenger ship Utopia collides with a battle cruiser and sinks within five minutes. 535 passengers and crew members die.
The scene of the accident in Münchenstein
  • June 14: In the biggest railway disaster in Switzerland to date, the railway accident in Münchenstein , the railway bridge over the Birs , designed by Gustave Eiffel , collapses under a train coming from Basel . Three cars and both locomotives crash into the flooding river. 78 people are killed and 131 injured.
Railway accident on the Bostian Bridge

Sports

Image of the first basketball court from 1891

Born

January

Zora Neale Hurston
  • 0January 7th: Zora Neale Hurston , American writer and anthropologist († 1960)
  • 0January 8: Walter Arndt , German zoologist and physician († 1944)
  • 0January 8: Jean Gaupillat , French entrepreneur and racing car driver († 1934)
  • 0January 8: Walter Gotsmann , German painter and conservationist († 1961)
Walther Bothe, 1954

February

March

  • 0March 3: Arthur Drewry , British football official, FIFA President († 1961)
  • 0March 5: Sultan al-Atrasch , Syrian nationalist and general commander († 1982)
  • 0March 5: Gitz Rice , Canadian singer, pianist, composer and entertainer († 1947)
  • 0March 6: Phil Donnelly , American politician, governor of Missouri († 1961)
  • 0March 7th: Janko Ravnik , Slovenian composer, music teacher and director († 1981)
  • 0March 7th: Gildardo Magaña , Mexican politician, revolutionary and anarcho-syndicalist († 1939)
  • 0March 8: George Froeschel , Austrian-American writer and screenwriter († 1979)
  • 0March 8: Sam Jaffe , American actor († 1984)
  • 0March 9: Kurt Latte , German philologist († 1964)
  • 0March 9: José P. Laurel , Philippine politician and president († 1959)
  • March 11th: Max Kaus , German painter and graphic artist († 1977)
  • March 12: Adolf Wilhelm Baum , German painter, draftsman and graphic artist († 1977)
  • March 12: Michael Polanyi , Hungarian-British chemist and philosopher († 1976)
  • March 13: Felix Aderca , Romanian poet, author and essayist († 1962)
  • March 13: Hermann RO Knothe , German landscape and portrait painter († 1961)
  • March 13: Omer Létourneau , Canadian organist and pianist, composer, music publisher and teacher († 1983)
  • March 15: Ferruccio Ferrazzi , Italian painter and sculptor († 1978)
  • March 15: Heinrich Ochsner , German philosopher and publisher's editor († 1970)
  • March 16: Dezyderiusz Danczowski , Polish cellist and music teacher († 1950)
  • March 16: Zoltán Oroszlán , Hungarian archaeologist, art historian and museologist († 1971)
  • March 16: Juozas Žilevičius , Lithuanian composer, organist, music pedagogue and scholar († 1985)
  • March 17: René Fülöp Miller , American writer and sociologist of Austrian-Romanian origin († 1963)
  • March 19: Earl Warren , Governor of California and Chief Justice of the USA († 1974)
  • March 19: Josef Blatný , Czech composer and organist († 1980)
  • March 20: Edmund Goulding , British-American film director († 1959)
  • March 21: Helmuth Gmelin , German actor and theater director († 1959)
  • March 22nd: Giovanni Bianconi , Swiss teacher, wood carver and local researcher († 1981)
  • March 22nd: Alexis Roland-Manuel , French composer and music critic († 1966)
  • March 24: Helmut de Boor , German Germanist and literary historian († 1976)
  • March 24th: Charley Toorop , Dutch painter and lithographer († 1955)
  • March 24th: John Knittel , Swiss writer († 1970)
  • March 26: Thomas Roch Agniswami , Bishop of Kottar († 1974)
  • March 27: Clemens Adams , German politician († 1962)
  • March 27: Adolphus Peter Elkin , Australian ethnologist, anthropologist and linguist († 1979)
  • March 28: Johann Heinrich Suhrkamp , German teacher, dramaturge, director and editor; Founder of Suhrkamp Verlag († 1959)
  • March 29: Alfred Neubauer , German racing director of the Mercedes Grand Prix team († 1980)
  • March 29: Aimé Nezeloff , French racing car driver († 1963)
  • March 29: Yvan Goll , Franco-German writer († 1950)
  • March 30th: Arthur William Sidney Herrington , American engineer, designer of the Jeep († 1970)
  • March 30: Leo Reuss , Austrian-American actor († 1946)
  • March 31: Oszkár Asbóth , Hungarian engineer and aviation pioneer († 1960)

April

  • 0April 1: Bertha Dudde , German medium († 1965)
  • 0April 1: Hans Döllgast , German architect and graphic artist († 1974)
  • 0April 1: Hans Kayser , German composer and music theorist († 1964)
Max Ernst, 1909
Sergei Prokofiev, 1918

May

June

July

August

September

Hans Albers (right), 1946
  • September 22: Hans Albers , German actor and singer († 1960)
  • September 22: Edward J. Flynn , American politician († 1953)
  • September 24: William Friedman , American military cryptologist at SIS († 1969)
  • September 26: Charles Münch , French conductor († 1968)
  • September 26: Hans Reichenbach , German physicist, philosopher and logician († 1953)
  • September 27: Lilly Ackermann , German actress and drama teacher († 1976)
  • September 27: Karl Münichreiter , member of the Republican Protection Association and Austrian resistance fighter († 1934)
  • September 28: Bernhard Schwentner , German pastor († 1944)
  • September 28: Robert Seitz , German writer († 1938)
  • September 30: Ernest Dainty , Canadian pianist, organist, composer and conductor († 1947)
  • September 30: Otto Juljewitsch Schmidt , Soviet geophysicist and Arctic researcher († 1956)
  • September 30th: Wilhelm Zangen , German entrepreneur, military economist and head of the Reichsgruppe Industrie († 1971)

October

November

  • 0November 2: Leopold Hainisch , Austrian actor and theater, film and television director († 1979)
  • 0November 5: Karl Grünberg , German journalist and writer († 1972)
  • 0November 5: Greasy Neale , American football coach and baseball player († 1973)
  • 0November 6th: Galaktion Tabidze , Georgian writer († 1959)
  • 0November 7th: Gregor Gog , German Nazi victim, "King of the Vagabonds" († 1945)
  • 0November 7th: Luis Concha Córdoba , Colombian clergyman, Archbishop of Bogotá and Cardinal († 1975)
  • 0November 9: Theodor Geiger , German sociologist († 1952)
  • November 12: Seth Barnes Nicholson , American astronomer († 1963)
  • November 13: Floyd B. Olson , American politician († 1936)
Frederick Banting
  • November 14th: Frederick Banting , British medic and Nobel Prize winner († 1941)
  • November 14: Josef Magnus Wehner , German writer and playwright († 1973)
  • November 14: Ted Meredith , American athlete and Olympic champion († 1957)
  • November 15: Pierre Audiat , French journalist, Romance studies and literary scholar († 1961)
  • November 15: Erwin Rommel , German field marshal, commander of the German Africa Corps († 1944)
  • November 16: Walter Maximilian Bastian , American lawyer († 1975)
  • November 16: Julius Leber , German politician and MdR († 1945)
  • November 17: Frank Fay , American actor and comedian († 1961)
  • November 18: Gio Ponti , Italian architect († 1979)
  • November 19: Margerita Trombini-Kazuro , Polish pianist, harpsichordist and music teacher († 1979)
  • November 21: Erik Robert Lindahl , Swedish economist († 1960)
  • November 21: Just Göbel , Dutch football player († 1984)
  • November 21: Karl Hubbuch , German art professor († 1979)
  • November 22nd: Edward Bernays , Austrian-American PR consultant (Public Relations Counselor) († 1995)
  • November 22: Victor Ehrenberg , German-British ancient historian († 1976)
  • November 23: Kume Masao , Japanese writer († 1952)
  • November 24th: Max Amann , German politician and publicist († 1957)
  • November 27: Arsène Becuwe , Belgian composer and conductor († 1992)
  • November 29: Richard Donovan , American composer, organist, conductor and music teacher († 1970)
Julius Raab, 1961
  • November 29: Julius Raab , Austrian Federal Chancellor († 1964)

December

Otto Dix

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

January February

Nicolaus August Otto

March April

Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke

May June

John Macdonald, 1868
Wilhelm Eduard Weber, 1856

July August

September October

Herman Melville

November December

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1891  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files