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Vladivostok ( Russian Владивосто́к , scientific transliteration Vladivostok - translated: Rule the East; Chinese海參崴 / Hǎishēnwǎi - translated: Sea cucumbers march ) is a city on the Japanese Sea with around 600,000 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). It is Russia's most important port city on the Pacific , an important business location and administrative center of the Far East Federal District and the Primorye Region . Around 800,000 people live in the agglomeration of Vladivostok, which also includes the city of Artyom .
Vladivostok is located south of the Federal District Far East belonging Primorye , is a port city on the Sea of Japan , a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean , and is situated at the southern end long of about 30 kilometers and 13 kilometers wide Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula , the Peter- the Great Bay divides into Amur and Ussuri Bay . The city center is located on the Golden Horn Bay . South of Vladivostok, the Eastern Bosporus separates the city from the Russky Island . The urban area covers an area of 56,154 hectares, including about 50 islands. The highest point of the city is the mountain Cholodilnik with 257 m .
The distance to Moscow is 9,288 kilometers via the Trans-Siberian Railway and 6,430 kilometers as the crow flies. Vladivostok is located seven time zones east of Moscow and borders the Artyom district in the north .
Vladivostok is about the same latitude as Florence , but winters are cold and dry. Summers are rainy and mild due to the proximity to the monsoon zone.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Vladivostok
- Soviet ski
The region around Vladivostok originally belonged to the Chinese Outer Manchuria and was populated by Jurchen and Manchu . A French whaler who entered the Solotoi Rog Bay in 1852 discovered huts owned by Chinese-Manchurian fishermen on the bank. The place was called Haishen-wie at the time . From the mid-19th century, Russia began to expand its dominance in Central Asia and the Far East . With the Treaty of Aigun in 1856, China was forced to cede its territory to the left of the Amur (Heilong Jiang) from the Argun to the mouth of the ocean to the Russian Empire . This "unequal treaty" was followed by the Beijing Convention on October 18, 1860 , with which China completely lost its coastal area east of Ussuri and Lower Amur. Already on June 20th jul. / July 2, 1860 greg. Russian sailors occupied Haishen-wie and gave the place the defiantly imperialist name Vladivostok ("Rule the East"). In 1862 a port was built in Vladivostok. An elaborate system of fortresses was built between the 1870s and 1890s. In 1880 Vladivostok received city status. The city's coat of arms with the Siberian tiger was adopted in March 1883. In August 1890, the Vladivostok Fortress was appointed the headquarters of the Eastern Siberian Military District of the Eastern Siberian Military Governor, Major General Paul Unterberger was appointed military governor and ataman of the Ussurian Cossacks . For his services to Vladivostok, he was given honorary citizenship of Vladivostok after 9 years in office.
The economy experienced an upswing from 1903 with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway , which connects Vladivostok with Moscow and Europe. Vladivostok quickly developed into an international trading center. At the turn of the century, many foreign merchants settled there, some of whose buildings still shape the cityscape (e.g. the trading company Kunst und Albers , founded in 1864 ). The rapid increase in population is closely related to economic development. In 1907, Vladivostok had just under 120,000 inhabitants.
During the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905, Vladivostok was besieged by Japanese warships. After the outbreak of the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War , the city was occupied by Entente troops. In April 1918 individual Japanese and British associations landed . They were followed by an 8,000-strong American expeditionary force, the American Expeditionary Force Siberia . As a result, a meeting point for the White Army and its supporters was created here (see Far Eastern Republic and Siberian Intervention ). After the city was captured by Red Army troops under Jeronimas Uborevičius in 1922, which was preceded by extensive fighting, Vladivostok became the headquarters of the Soviet Pacific Fleet and the location of important military and industrial facilities. The city's population rose to over 200,000 by the mid-1930s. In 1937 the entire Korean minority in the region around Vladivostok was deported to Central Asia by order of Josef Stalin and was only able to return decades later.
During the existence of the Soviet Union, the population of Vladivostok rose rapidly, from just over 100,000 in 1926 to almost 650,000 in the early 1990s. Since the city was strategically important as the main base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, especially during the Cold War , it was completely closed to foreigners from 1958 until the end of the Soviet Union in 1991. For example, tourists were never allowed to take the Trans-Siberian Railway to the end of the traditional route from Moscow to Vladivostok, but instead had to switch to the port city of Nakhodka just under 100 kilometers to the east . Exceptions were, among other things, prominent visits: In 1974, for example, the Soviet head of state Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Gerald Ford met in Vladivostok for talks on arms limitation ( SALT ).
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , there was an economic recession in all of Russia, which also affected Vladivostok. Although the Pacific metropolis opened, numerous industrial plants had to close and the city's population fell. In the meantime, however, the trend has reversed. Taking advantage of its good geographical location, Vladivostok is increasingly building on its earlier trade and industrial functions and is establishing itself as an important economic center in the East Asian region.
A prestigious symbol of the city's economic “renaissance” is the Russky Bridge , a cable-stayed bridge with the world's largest span at 1104 meters. It was opened to traffic in June 2012 and connects the offshore island of Russki with the city.
Of the 1,960,000 inhabitants Primorjes, the southeastern subject of the Russian Federation, who live according to the results of the population census of 2018 604 901 in Vladivostok, in addition to the majority of Russians and Koreans ( Koryo-Saram ) and Ukrainians . Many Chinese have also immigrated since the early 1990s .
Foreigners have only been allowed to visit the city again without a special permit since 1991; Due to the high military presence and the port, which is used as the main base of the Pacific Fleet, this was prohibited until 1991 for reasons of military security.
As in many Russian cities, the population of Vladivostok rose steadily until the collapse of the Soviet Union . In 1989, almost 634,000 people lived in the city. In the following years, the population fell relatively sharply and in 2005 was only about 586,000. In recent years, however, there has been a clear recovery, and in 2013 the mark of over 600,000 inhabitants was reached again.
Note: census data
Politics and administration
As the capital of the Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok is the seat of the regional administration. The administration building, also known as the “White House”, is located at the port.
Vitaly Werkeenko has been mayor since December 2017, and the city council consists of 35 deputies.
There are numerous general and honorary consulates in Vladivostok.
Vladivostok lists the following thirteen twin cities :
- Dalian ( People's Republic of China ) (1992)
- Busan ( South Korea ) (1992)
- Juneau ( USA ) (1992)
- San Diego (USA) (1991)
- Tacoma (USA) (1992)
- Akita ( Japan ) (1992)
- Niigata (Japan) (1991)
- Hakodate (Japan) (1992)
- Wŏnsan ( North Korea ) (2009)
- Manta ( Ecuador ) (2009)
- Kota Kinabalu ( Malaysia ) (2010)
- Yanbian (People's Republic of China) (2011)
- Incheon (South Korea) (2012)
In the rank of a consulate
In the rank of honorary consulate
Economy and Infrastructure
Vladivostok is one of Russia's most important Pacific ports. The main economic sectors are the port, the fishing industry and the naval base . The main export products are fish, wood and metals. The main imports are used cars, clothing, shoes and other consumer goods.
The city is about 100 kilometers from the People's Republic of China, and so the Chinese represent an important factor in economic life. One of the economic factors is gambling, which is prohibited in the People's Republic of China.
In October 2015, the Tigre de Cristal Casino was opened with 68 gaming tables, 321 slot machines and a 5-star hotel. All games of chance have been banned in Russia since 2009, with the exception of four attractive special gaming zones for gambling tourism in 2010: In addition to Vladivostok, also Azov Kaliningrad (Koenigsberg), the Altai region in Siberia and the Rostov region in southern Russia . In 2014, Crimea and Sochi on the Black Sea were added.
The client (€ 110 million) and operator is Summit Ascent Holding Ltd. with the casino operators NagaCorp from Cambodia and Melco Crown from China, behind which the casino investor Lawrence Ho Yau Lung stands.
40 kilometers north near Artyom is the international airport Vladivostok (IATA code VVO, ICAO code UHWW), which connects the city with numerous airports in Russia, East and Southeast Asia. It was the headquarters of the airline Vladivostok Avia and has been expanding since 2009; the inland terminal was renewed in 2006.
Vladivostok is the terminus of the M60 highway from Khabarovsk. The A188 heads east to Nakhodka. Two new bridges were completed in 2012: The Solotoi Bridge over the Golden Horn connects the city center and Churkina districts . Russki Island can be reached by car via the Russky Bridge .
From the ferry port in Vladivostok next to the train station, a ferry from the DBS Cruise Ferry company runs regularly to Donghae , South Korea and from there to Sakaiminato on the Japanese main island of Honshu .
The city's public transport is carried out by bus and trolleybus lines as well as by trams (see Vladivostok tram ). As is the case everywhere in Russia, there are also a large number of minibus lines, so-called " marshrutki ".
- Far Eastern management college
- Far Eastern State Academy of Oceanography
- Far Eastern State Academy for Economics and Administration
- Far Eastern State Technical University
- Far Eastern State Technical University of Fisheries Management
- Far Eastern State University
- Far Eastern trading institute
- Far Eastern State Art Institute
- Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- Branch of the Russian Customs Academy
- Branch of the St. Petersburg State Engineering and Economics Academy
- Branch of the State Pedagogical Institute Komsomolsk-na-Amure
- Petersburg University Branch of Trade Union Associations
- Institute for International Tourism
- Department of Management and Business of the Far Eastern State University
- College for International Tourism
- Pacific Military Naval Institute
- Vladivostok Branch of the Legal Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia
- Vladivostok State Medical University
- Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service
In Vladivostok, especially in the suburbs, there is a lot of air and environmental pollution. It took ten years to prepare the Ecocenter environmental report. It is based on 30,000 samples of air, water, snow and human tissue taken between 1985 and 1993. The samples show significant increases in heavy metals over the study period, such as cadmium , cobalt , arsenic and mercury , which attack the respiratory and central nervous systems.
According to Ecocenter, environmental pollution has various causes. 80 industrial companies have set up shop in Vladivostok. While this is not much compared to the large industrial locations in Russia, there are very polluting industrial companies in the vicinity of the city, such as shipbuilding and repair, power stations, mining and fur farms. Vladivostok's geography increases the pollution effect: the wind cannot blow the air pollution away from the most polluted parts of the city because they are located in a kind of basin. In addition, very little snow falls in winter, which could bind the pollutants.
Museums and music
Museums in Vladivostok include the Vladimir Arsenyev Museum , the Art Gallery, the History Museum, the Border Troops Museum , which Sukhanov Museum , the Classic Car Museum and the Museum Ship Krasny Vympel .
With Mumi Troll , a Russian rock band was founded in Vladivostok, which quickly became one of the most popular.
The top-class soccer team in the city is the club FK Lutsch Vladivostok , which plays in the second division and plays its home games in the 10,500-seat Dinamo stadium. BK Spartak Primorye plays in the highest Russian basketball league PBL . Its home ground is the Olimpijez sports complex, which seats 1,100 spectators.
In 2013 an ice hockey club was founded with HK Admiral Vladivostok , which was accepted into the KHL for the 2013/14 season . Its home arena is the multi-purpose sports hall Fetissow-Arena , completed in 2013 , which has almost 5,500 seats and is used not only for ice hockey games but also for concerts with a capacity of up to 7,500 seats.
The Russian Open are Russia's open international championships in badminton . They have been held since 1992. Since 2007 the championships have been part of the BWF Grand Prix and thus belong to the upper class of badminton competitions.
Most of the residents of Vladivostok belong to the Russian Orthodox Church . Vladivostok is the seat of an Orthodox eparchy.
The oldest church building in Vladivostok is the Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's Church , built in 1907 . It is located at Ulitsa Pushkinskaya 14 and was built by the German architect Georg Junghändel. It is one of the most important architectural monuments in the city - with a bizarre history spanning more than a hundred years, during which it served as a sailors' club, cinema and for decades as a military museum.
There are also some churches of other Christian denominations in the city, a Buddhist center and a synagogue , whose congregation has around 300 active members.
Due to the anti-religious policy of the Soviet Union, the proportion of actively practicing believers of all religions is relatively low, and there is also a large number of non-religious believers.
sons and daughters of the town
- Sergej von Freymann (1882–1946), Russian-Uzbek chess master
- Nikolai Alexander von Transehe (1886–1960), naval officer and polar explorer
- Michail Raslovlev (1892–1987), publicist
- Georgi Buritschenkow (1894–1953), major general
- Alexandra Biryukova (1895–1967), Russian-Canadian architect
- Georg Faehlmann (1895–1975), Estonian sailor
- Igor Tamm (1895–1971), physicist (Nobel laureate in physics)
- Peter A. Boodberg (1903–1972), American sinologist and linguist
- Godber Nissen (1906–1997), German architect and university professor
- Mary Losseff (1907–1972), Russian and British operetta singer (soprano) and actress
- Vladimir Ossipoff (1907–1998), American architect
- Otto Beckmann (1908–1997), Austrian sculptor
- Reginald Bretnor (1911-1992), American science fiction writer
- Harry Igor Ansoff (1918–2002), mathematician and economist
- Yul Brynner (1920–1985), Russian-Mongolian-Swiss-American actor
- Irino Yoshirō (1921–1980), Japanese composer
- Stanisław Hantz (1923–2008), Polish survivor of various National Socialist concentration camps
- Nonna Polyakowa (1930-1999), sprinter
- Boris Pustynzew (1935–2014), dissident and human rights activist
- Alexander Sajzew (1935–1971), chess player
- Erik Galimow (* 1936), geochemist
- Felix Gromow (* 1937), fleet admiral and former commander in chief of the Russian Navy
- Igor Kassatonov (born 1939), admiral
- Boris Gryslow (* 1950), politician
- Viktor Tyulkin (* 1951), politician
- Mikhail Abramov (* 1956), fleet admiral
- Tatjana Assejewa (* 1959), soil scientist and university professor
- Andrei Tyumensev (* 1963), handball player
- Igor Tschumak (* 1964), player agent, handball trainer and player
- Maximilian Presnyakov (* 1968), artist
- Ilja Simin (1972–2006), journalist and television reporter
- Vladimir Nikolayev (* 1973), politician, mayor of Vladivostok
- Diana Gustilina (* 1974), basketball player
- Irina Ruslyakova (* 1975), badminton player
- Igor Kunitsyn (born 1981), tennis player
- Dietrich Brauer (* 1983), Lutheran theologian and Archbishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of European Russia
- Georg Potrebitsch (* 1984), German triathlete
- Bella Sterlikowa (* 1984), Russian skeleton pilot
- Natalja Pogonina (* 1985), chess player
- Igor Portnyagin (* 1989), football player
- Mark Schulschizki (* 1989), racing car driver
- Artur Nigmatullin (* 1991), football player
- Roman Prutschai (* 1991), pool player
- Wladislav Boyarinzew (* 1994), ski jumper
- Eduard Sachartschenko (* 1995), Ukrainian-Russian ice hockey goalkeeper
- Igor Velichko (* 1995), beach volleyball player
- Vitaly Krawzow (* 1999), ice hockey player
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- Leonid Luks: History of Russia and the Soviet Union. ISBN 3-7917-1687-5 .
- Panorama of World History, Volume III. Bertelsmann Verlag.
- The new mayor of Vladivostok took his oath (Russian) , TASS, April 5, 2019
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- From Beyond Death Der Spiegel (March 31, 1969), accessed October 10, 2017
- Deutschlandradio Kultur : Where the Trans-Siberian Railway ends. January 4, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010
- Vladivostok is the new capital of the Far East
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- A Chinese 'Invasion' (dt .: A Chinese invasion ) , published in 2003; accessed on December 13, 2014.
- 33. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным обраязованиям на 1 янваниям на 1 январ. (German: number of resident population in the Russian Federation for the municipalities as of January 1, 2013 ) ( RAR ; 895 kB)
- Taken from the Russian Wikipedia, estimate up to the end of the year.
- Article ru: Владивосток # Население (Vladivostok) in the Russian Wikipedia
- Casinos in Russia ✅ Tigre de Cristal. In: Casino Spielbank. Retrieved July 25, 2019 .
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