The ball game Badminton is a non-return game , which with a badminton ( shuttlecock ) and each with a badminton racket is played per person. The players try to hit the ball over a net in such a way that the other side cannot hit it back according to the rules. It can be played by two players as a single, as well as by four players as a double or mixed . It is held in the hall and requires a high level of physical fitness due to the speed and high intensity of the running . Badminton is played by over 14 million players in more than 160 nations around the world.
The term is often mistakenly badminton with the Leisure Games badminton equated the long unlike Badminton possible rally to the target has, while badminton is a competitive sport and is played according to fixed rules.
It is somewhat similar to tennis , but differs from it in fundamental technical and tactical aspects. The badminton field is much smaller compared to the tennis field. A badminton racket is much lighter than a tennis racket. The ball ( shuttlecock ) must not touch the ground. It is equipped with a spring or plastic wreath, which gives it its special flight characteristics.
Badminton places high demands on reflexes, basic speed and stamina and still requires the ability to concentrate and tactical skills for a good game. Long rallies and playing time without real breaks require well-developed stamina. The fact that changes in the direction of the stroke can be achieved with the light racket without significant backward movements makes badminton an extremely ingenious and deceptive game. The fast attacking game can only be countered with good reflexes and very agile walking work. The alternation between hard hit attack balls, faked feint and precise, soulful play on the net is what makes badminton so fascinating.
It is counted according to points and sentences. Since 2006, counting has been based on the so-called rally point method . The game is played on two sets of wins up to 21 points and each party scores one point if the opponent makes a mistake, regardless of the right to serve. In the years before, two sets of wins up to 15 points were played (exception is the women's singles - up to 11 points), whereby only the serving party could score.
Among other things, it is considered a fault if the ball does not fly over the net or touches the floor / wall / hall ceiling (or objects hanging under it), whereby depending on the hall height, contact with the ceiling can always result in a repetition or only when it is served. Touching the net with your body or club is also a mistake. In contrast to most other return games, badminton continues to play if the ball touches the net when serving, as long as it continues its way into the opponent's service area.
Long before the name badminton came about, there were setback games that were similar to today's shuttlecock. Cave drawings found in India show that small wooden balls studded with chicken feathers were hit there with flattened wood as early as 2000 years ago . Setback games with feathered balls were also known among the Incas and the Aztecs . In Europe at the time of the Baroque , a badminton game known as Battledore and Shuttlecock or Jeu de Volant developed into one of the most popular leisure activities of the court nobility . The aim of this variant of the badminton game was that two players use simple clubs to pass a badminton ball as often as possible without it touching the ground. A recorded record dating from 1830 is 2117 strokes for a rally between members of the Somerset family.
Today's game is named after the English country estate of the Duke of Beaufort from the county Gloucestershire . The game called Poona , brought from India by the British colonial officer and known as the Poona , was presented at this country estate called Badminton House . The first badminton association was founded in England in 1893, and the first All England Championships took place as early as 1899, and these days they have the same status among badminton fans as the Wimbledon tournament is for tennis fans.
The new sport was very popular. It was only difficult to find suitable sports facilities. It often had to be played in unusual places, because the only unrestrictedly suitable rooms at that time were churches. The high nave of a church offered the shuttlecock a free flight path, and the pews served as box seats for the spectators. In the mid-1920s, the organized badminton sport spread increasingly in Northern Europe, France, Australia and North America, so that the International Badminton Federation (IBF) , the world umbrella organization (today BWF), was founded in July 1934 .
Development in Germany
The first badminton sports club on the European mainland was founded in Germany in 1902 - the Bad Homburg Badminton Club . However, the lack of rackets and shuttlecocks prevented the sport from spreading further in the country, and the Homburg club also disbanded. It was not until the beginning of the 1950s that badminton experienced a new surge in popularity in Germany.
The first German championships took place on January 17th and 18th, 1953 in Wiesbaden . On the same weekend, the German Badminton Association (DBV) was launched and joined the IBF in the same year. The first president of the DBV was the industrialist Hans Riegel from Bonn (HARIBO). In the same year, he had the Haribo Center built directly on the company premises in Bonn-Kessenich, Germany's first pure badminton hall. In May of the following year, the DBV was accepted as the 26th professional association in the German Sport Federation (DSB), and in 1967 it was one of the founding members of the European Badminton Union (EBU) . In 1958, a badminton association was established in what was then the GDR , the regional associations of which were incorporated into the DBV in 1990. The most important tournament of the DBV are the International German Championships , the German Open , which have been held since 1955 .
While membership stagnated to a certain extent in the 1960s, there was a real badminton boom in the 1970s with the construction of numerous new sports halls. This upswing, with membership in associations and clubs tripling in some cases, continued until the end of the 1980s, when many tennis halls were converted into badminton centers. In the 1990s, a slight stagnation became noticeable again, and since the turn of the millennium the number of members in the DBV has even declined slightly, despite the integration of badminton into school sport.
The German Badminton Association currently has 16 regional associations with around 217,000 members in 2,700 clubs. In addition, there are around 4.5 million non-club recreational players who practice badminton more or less regularly in one of the many centers.
Badminton enjoys great popularity in its European and Asian strongholds of England, Denmark, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, India and Korea. In these countries, major badminton events are as important as football or athletics in Germany . In the winners' lists of the major international tournaments, therefore, you will mainly find Danish or Asian names. In 1934 the International Badminton Federation (IBF) was founded as an umbrella organization. The name of the association was changed to Badminton World Federation (BWF) in 2006 . There are currently 156 nations, including Germany , with a total of over 14 million players in the BWF.
World championships have been held since 1977 and every two years since 1983. In 2006 there was a change to an annual rhythm. The team world championships in badminton are comparable to the Davis Cup in tennis: since 1949 the Thomas Cup for men's national teams and since 1957 the Uber Cup for women's national teams. In 1989 the Sudirman Cup was launched, the official national team world championship for mixed teams (women and men). The tournament takes place every two years and was originally linked to the individual World Cup. The Sudirman Cup has been held as an independent event since 2003 .
The then IBF introduced the Grand Prix Circuit in 1983 . The international championships of the various countries have been summarized here. From 1983 to 1999 the year always ended with the Grand Prix Final , a tournament in which the best players of the year competed against each other. After the Asian crisis at the end of the 1990s, the tournament no longer took place. In 2007 the BWF introduced the BWF Super Series , which replaced the Grand Prix after 23 years. The Super Series includes twelve tournaments in which the tournament organizers must raise a minimum prize money of US $ 200,000. Eight tournaments are held in Asia and four in Europe (England, Switzerland, Denmark and France). The International German Championships - German Open - that have been held since 1955 are no longer part of it. They are currently endowed with prize money of US $ 120,000.
As early as 1972 at the Summer Olympics in Munich , badminton was represented as a so-called demonstration sport , but was only included in the 1992 Olympic program by the IOC in 1985 . In 1988 in Seoul , badminton was able to score again as a demonstration sport of the future Olympic discipline with sold out competitions, before it was regularly represented in the program of the games in 1992 in Barcelona with four competitions. Then in 1996 all five disciplines , including the mixed doubles, were played at the Atlanta Games.
As a rule, badminton is played indoors, as even slight movements of the air can greatly influence the trajectory of the ball. The hall must have a minimum height of 5 m. Usually it is considered a mistake if the ball touches the ceiling during the game, but if it touches the ceiling when serving or if it touches parts hanging down (e.g. the ceiling structure) a repetition is decided. A hall can only be used without restrictions from a ceiling height of 9 m and therefore every contact with the ceiling is a mistake.
The playing field is very similar to that of tennis , but is significantly smaller at 13.40 m long and 6.10 m wide. According to the rules, the net is to be tensioned so that the net height at the posts is 1.55 m and in the middle of the net is 1.524 m. The lines are 4 cm wide and are part of the playing field that they delimit. The distance from the net to the front service line is 1.98 m.
- In detail, the inner boundary line represents the side of the field, so the playing field is only 5.18 m wide. The service may be executed from the front service line to the back baseline.
- In the case of doubles, the entire field must be played, but the service must be played between the front and back service lines.
The shape of the badminton racket is comparable to that of a tennis racket. However, it is a bit smaller, significantly lighter than the tennis variant and has thinner strings. In the simplest version with steel shaft and steel head, a badminton racket weighs around 120 grams . More upscale models consist of one piece (carbon) and weigh only 70 to 80 grams.
The stiffer the frame, the more precisely you can play with it. A good punching technique is required, however, since if the ball is not hit accurately, vibrations occur which are transmitted through the stiff frame and possibly lead to the so-called tennis elbow . The more flexible the frame, the less precise the hard hit, but the more arm-friendly the racket is during normal play.
The manufacturers offer different types of strings for covering. In the beginner area, rackets are mainly strung with simple but inexpensive synthetic strings. Advanced and professional players tend to use the more expensive natural gut strings or multi-braided synthetic strings, which offer better ball control and longer durability. Depending on the type of player, badminton rackets can be strung with different levels of hardness (tensile load approx. 70 - 130 N, corresponding to the weight of 7 - 13 kg). In contrast to the tennis racket, the cross strings of a badminton racket are usually 0.5 - 1 kg harder than the main strings. Depending on the stringing, the hitting properties of a racket change. With the help of a harder covering, hits can be executed more precisely. However, this requires a lot more playful skills and is therefore only suitable for experienced players. A softer covering allows a stronger ball acceleration with comparatively less effort due to the further yielding covering.
An additional grip tape is usually used to improve the grip . It is used to achieve better control of the club, better cushioning or even better grip when it comes to grip.
In competitions, natural shuttlecocks are used in the higher game levels and on an international level. The head is made of cork , the feather wreath usually consists of 16 goose or duck feathers that are glued into the cork and tied together. Shuttlecocks are mainly handmade in Asia and are characterized by special flight characteristics.
Due to the special arrangement of the springs, the approx. 5 g light natural shuttlecock is set in rotation around its longitudinal axis by the air flowing through it during flight , which stabilizes the flight. Nevertheless, it is particularly influenced by the ambient conditions such as temperature , air pressure and humidity . The altitude, speed and thus the range of a long-hit ball can vary greatly in halls at different altitudes. In order to compensate for such influences, natural shuttlecocks are available in different speeds . Before a game, the players test the speed of the shuttlecocks used by means of what is known as punching through , in which the balls are hit flat over the net from the back baseline with powerful underhand blows. Those who land within the field of 53 to 99 cm from the opposite baseline are at the correct speed. All others are usually sorted out directly at international games, or an attempt is made to influence the speed of the ball by bending the top 2 to 3 mm of the spring tips outwards or inwards. As a result, the ball offers more or less air resistance and accordingly flies shorter or further. It must be ensured that there are always enough balls of one type available for the duration of the game. This is to avoid that particularly poor fitness players use the punching of new balls in the middle of a set as a break.
Natural feathers break relatively easily, especially if the blows are technically improperly executed. Due to the greater wear and tear and the slightly higher cost of natural shuttlecocks, imitations made of plastic have become established in the leisure and youth sector . They are cheaper and more durable, but have different flight characteristics than natural shuttlecocks and offer fewer opportunities for a varied, fast game. If a natural shuttlecock falls almost vertically after a clear (long, high trajectory), the plastic ball still largely follows a parabolic trajectory , which makes it easier to run across wide balls.
There are different ways to grip the badminton racket. A typical beginner's mistake and known from the leisure sector is the so-called frying pan handle , which is only useful in two situations for efficient play. The killing online and the drive in front of the body with the Rush-handle executable. All other strokes can only be implemented inadequately.
With the optimal stick position, the striking surface forms an extension of the open palm. To do this, place the palm of your hand on the covering and guide your hand towards the handle without changing the angle to the racket. At the lowest end, just before the noticeable bulge, the hand encloses the handle. The narrow side of the racket lies in the V formed by the index finger and thumb. In principle, all forehand strikes can be performed with this grip position.
For backhand hits, the club is turned slightly so that the thumb can apply pressure on the broad side of the handle.
When playing more advanced, more racket positions are common. The club is held in different positions depending on the stroke, such as: B. the so-called. Tweezer handle for a game on the net or when serving or the rush handle when driving in front of the body. The grip position is also adapted to the hardness of the stroke. For the long, powerful strokes, the base (long grip ) is more likely to be used. With short and precise net play, however, the hand moves further the handle up ( short handle ).
The stroke repertoire of a good badminton player includes a number of basic strokes that can be used in numerous variations. The main strokes are:
- Long, high ball to the baseline as a free hit ( 1 ); hence the name ( Clear , Eng .: clear, free ). One variant is the so-called attack clear ( 2 ), which is played flat and fast to put the opponent under pressure. Another variant is the so-called underhand clear , which is played close to the net.
- Fast, flat ball at eye level, hit just over the net ( 3 ).
- The classic attack. A hard hit, straight blow down steeply ( 4 ). The ball can reach an initial speed of over 300 km / h.
- Also called a stop ball . Short ball just behind the net ( 5 ). It is particularly effective when a clear or smash is faked in the stroke movement . A distinction is made between the slow and the fast drop.
- The slow drop is hit very close behind the net and is intended to force the opponent to hit the lowest possible position, making it difficult to get the ball back up to the rear of the field. Therefore, it is often used as a prelude to the attacking game, as in the best case the opponent is forced to play the ball steeply upwards and thus offers the opportunity for a smash . Due to the slow flight, however, it carries the risk of being " killed " by the enemy while on the network . The quick drop, also known as the “ cut drop”, is characterized by a fast ball flight in order to give the opponent little time to reach the ball. However, it should not fly further than the front service line, otherwise the advantage of this stroke is lost.
- Stop (drop on the network)
- Also network game called. The ball must be lifted as close as possible over the edge of the net ( 6 ).
These strokes can be played in a straight line ( longline ) or diagonally ( cross ). This results in typical moves that each player adapts to himself and his game and tries to incorporate into his game.
With the individual strokes, one also differentiates where the ball is hit. The exact description of a badminton shot is composed of the type of shot and the range of the shot. Examples:
|Meeting site||Meeting area||Stroke type||direction||cut|
|VH (forehand)||ÜK (overhead)||Clear||along the line|
|RH (backhand)||UH (underhand)||Drop||Cross||Cut|
|VH (forehand)||SH (side hand)||Drive||along the line|
In addition to the basic strokes from the game, there are numerous serve variants . However, a basic distinction is made between forehand and backhand serves. With forehand serves, the racket is accelerated sideways past the player's body and the ball is thrown into the path of the racket. This variant is particularly suitable for the high premium. In doubles and in higher divisions also in singles, the backhand serve is mostly used. In this case, the club is placed in front of the body with the handle facing up, the ball is brought into position in front of it and then played using the thumb and with a twist of the wrist.
The service in badminton hardly offers the opportunity to score directly, e.g. B. in tennis , volleyball or fistball , but the player tries to gain an advantage when serving and to gain the upper hand for the upcoming rally.
In badminton, a regular serve must be made in the diagonally opposite part of the playing field. Furthermore, the serving player must stand with both feet in the service area, without touching the lines, and hit the ball below his waist level. If the ball touches the net when serving, this is not a mistake, unlike many other ball sports.
- Short serve
- The short serve ( 1 ) is the standard opening of the game in doubles and has predominantly prevailed in higher game classes in singles. The trajectory of the ball should have its highest point before crossing the net and should be as flat as possible so that it is difficult or impossible for the opponent to react with a direct attack. A deceived (e.g. cut) short serve towards the outside line can be used as a successful variant, especially in doubles, if the opponent tries to attack the serves particularly aggressively.
- Drive surcharge
- A surprise surcharge, in which an attempt is made to use a fast, hard and flat surcharge z. B. to play the backhand side of the opponent or to hit the body directly ( 2 ). The racket is taken as high as possible, but it must meet the rule that the racket shaft is pointing downwards (handle up) and the ball is hit below the waist. One variant is the drive surcharge from the edge of the field ( 3 ). The ball coming from the side is difficult to gauge and service acceptance is difficult when the ball is played to the backhand side.
- Swip surcharge
- With this variant, a short serve is faked, but at the last moment the club accelerates from the wrist and the ball flies over the opponent ( 4 ). The service must be carried out in such a way that the opponent does not catch the ball in the flyby, but only while running back. The trajectory should not be too high either, in order to give the opponent as little time as possible to run into the ball. If this risky serve fails, a smash usually ends the rally to the disadvantage of the server.
- Big premium
- The high serve is usually performed with the forehand. It is an alternative to a short serve, especially in individual cases. The ball is hit as powerfully as possible and as far as the back base line of the field ( 5 ). Ideally, the highest point on the trajectory is just before the baseline. The opponent is forced to run to the end of the field to reach the ball. The fast and steep fall of the ball also makes it difficult to estimate the optimal ball point for the return. However, the direct attack possibility of the opponent has a disadvantage, which is why this service variant is seen less and less as the level of the opponent and the league increases.
In order to be able to quickly reach the corners of the field from the starting position, the middle of the field, a sophisticated running technique is required. In the course of time, different running techniques developed, especially in the internationally successful badminton nations. For example, until a few years ago the English preferred long, soft, expansive steps without jumps, while the Chinese at the end of the 1980s began to integrate quick, short steps combined with a final jump to the ball in their game. These techniques have been copied successfully by most Asian players, as the English step sequences were not sufficiently effective for them due to their usually smaller body size.
Good running technique is characterized by the fact that the player reaches the ball as quickly as possible and with as little energy as possible and then returns to the middle of the field. Automated step sequences ensure that this is energy-saving, expansive and effective, but these can only be achieved through years of training.
Central elements of running technique are:
- Caulking step
- The caulking step is often used in situations in which the player has a lot of time to spare (for example, after a high serve in singles). With this technique, the leg on the hitting hand is first placed behind the body. An imprint from this back leg initiates the forward movement. The automatically resulting rotation of the upper body can be used for effective and energy-saving forehand strikes.
- In order to reach a ball in the front or to the side of the field of play, at the end of his forward movement the player places the leg on the striking hand side with a large lunge forward, similar to a fencer doing a push. As a result, he abruptly brakes his forward movement and can immediately return to a backward movement after the blow.
- With this technique, the backward movement is stopped after a blow. When hitting, the hips rotate during the jump, and the leg on the opposite side of the body from the hitting hand is moved backwards to cushion the backward movement and accelerate the body forwards again.
- China Leap
- This technique was developed in the People's Republic of China and is used to reach a ball while jumping. In contrast to the jump , however, the movement is stopped with the leg on the side of the punch, which is anatomically unfavorable due to the slight twisting of the upper body during the punch , but is nevertheless effective in practice. Both the take-off and the landing always take place here with both legs at the same time. A China jump can be both parallel to the mains on the forehand and backhand side as well as diagonally done backwards. However, the hit that is executed during the jump is always a forehand hit.
- Jump smash
- Another Chinese technique. The player jumps up into the air with both legs and hits the ball with full body effort into the opposing field, similar to a volleyball smash . Investigations have shown that although this cannot generate higher speeds, the player can reach an earlier point of contact and a better angle.
- Malay Step
- Technology that allows you to reach the rear backhand corner as economically as possible (for right-handers, the rear left corner). The aim is to run around the backhand and achieve greater variability with the more effective left-of-the-head hit. The Malaysian step is characterized by an expansive step with the left to the back, a small jump with the left to turn the hip, and one to three readjusting steps.
Like tennis or volleyball , badminton is played by sets. The so-called rally point counting method (also called running score ), which has been introduced on a test basis at international IBF competitions since February 1, 2006 , has been valid for all IBF member associations since the last IBF General Assembly on May 6, 2006 in Tokyo . In the area of the German Badminton Association (DBV), the new counting method has been in effect since August 1, 2006, i.e. since the 2006/2007 season.
Due to the rule that applied up to this point that points could only be achieved with one's own right to serve, the duration of the game varied greatly. B. was difficult to achieve at tournaments. A field test during the Dutch International 2006 showed that short games on average last a little longer than with the old counting method, but the average playing time with the Rallypoint counting method over an entire tournament is reduced by approx. 10 minutes per game. Overall, the planning and organization of tournaments is simplified by the more uniform playing time.
Another reason for the introduction of the new counting method was that it is no longer possible for players with poor fitness to postpone a score. This is intended to take greater account of the performance concept. Last but not least, this also leads to a shortened playing time.
Rally point counting method
Each party can score regardless of the serve. Two winning sets of up to 21 points per set are played. Break rule: "If the leading party reaches 11 points in a sentence, there is a break of a maximum of one minute. Between two sentences (first to second or second to third) there is a break of a maximum of two minutes each." A party has won a set if it is the first to reach 21 points and has at least 2 points more than the opposing party. At 20:20 the game is extended until one party leads with 2 points or has achieved 30 points. A sentence result of 30:29 is therefore possible.
One point is awarded for each rally won. In addition, the party that won the previous rally receives the right to serve.
At the beginning of the game, a draw is made to determine who receives the choice of side or the first serve. A common method of drawing lots is to throw up a badminton ball or, conversely, place it on the edge of the net and drop it. The party to which the cork base of the ball points may choose
- whether she wants to make the first serve,
- whether she wants to make the first setback or
- on which half of the field you want to start (side selection).
The other party chooses one of the remaining options. The draw can also take place with another lot instead of a shuttlecock. The sides are switched after each sentence. The party that won the previous set has the right to serve in the following set. If there is a third sentence, the side is changed again as soon as one of the two parties has reached 11 points. When choosing sides, it makes sense, for tactical reasons, to play on the side with the “worse” view first, because then in the final phase of a possible third set you can play on the “better” side again.
The rule, largely unknown in other return games , of being able to decide between the first serve and the first return, mainly made sense according to the earlier counting method in the double disciplines, when points could only be scored if you had the right to serve.
Another innovation is the expansion of the coaching rule. A coach sitting on the field may now give his player advice by shouting between rallies. However, this must not disturb the opponent and must not happen during an ongoing rally.
There are other changes. The German Badminton Association does not publish the rules itself. However, it is possible to view and download the rules valid from August 1st, 2006 on the websites of various regional associations.
Special features of the counting method in the Bundesliga
In the national leagues, the same rally point counting method applies as usual, but shortened sets are played. Instead of two winning sets up to 21, three winning sets up to 11 are played here. If the score is 10:10, it will be extended until one party leads with two points or a final score of 14:15 has been reached. So if it happens that the score is 14:14, the upcoming rally will decide which party wins the set.
Earlier counting method
Until July 31, 2006, a point could only be achieved by the party that performed the serve. Made the serving party a mistake, they got a right to serve. In doubles, each side had two serving rights: one for each player, starting with the player on the right at the time. Exception: In the event of an error after the very first service of a set, the right to serve changes directly to the opposing party.
As a rule, a set was considered to have been won if one party had scored 15 points (exception: in women's singles on 11). A game was won if either party won two sets. Page change took place after each sentence. In a decision set ( 3rd set ), the side was changed when one party had achieved 8 (in women's singles 6) points.
Special rule "extra time": With a score of 14:14 the party could extend to 17 (in the women singles from 10:10 to 13), which had reached the score of 14 (or 10 in the women singles) first. If this right was waived, the game would end at 15 points (11 points).
An even older rule, to be extended from 13:13 to 18 when the score was reached, was deleted on August 1, 1998. This old rule explains the set results of earlier games of e.g. B. 18:17. It was also possible to extend the women's singles from 9: 9 or 10:10 to 12 before this time.
A game of badminton in the higher divisions and in international competitions is led by a team of referees ("technical officials").
Similar to tennis, the referee sits on a high chair and is responsible for the course of the game, for the field of play and for things that are directly related to the field of play. He is supported by a service judge who specifically observes the serving player and reports any rule violations by calling errors and appropriate hand signals. In addition, up to five linesmen are assigned to each half of the field, who observe the side, middle and base lines and also report out-balls with call and hand signals. This elaborate rule can be deviated from in lower divisions or in tournaments. Then either a single referee leads a game, or the players themselves decide on rule violations, good or out-balls. Since everyone expects the same fairness from the other that they are willing to give themselves, this regulation is thoroughly practicable and proven. Even in the Badminton Bundesliga, there is typically only one referee and possibly a few linesmen for critical lines.
Badminton is competed in five different disciplines:
- Ladies singles
- Men's singles
- Ladies doubles
- Men's doubles
- Mixed doubles
Women's and men's singles
In the individual discipline, two players of the same sex face each other. When serving, the server must stand in his half-court, the receiver in the field diagonally to it. When serving, the shuttlecock must be played in the diagonally opposite service area. While the rally is in progress, both players may stay anywhere in their half of the field.
If the server has an even score (0, 2, 4, ...), the serve is from the right half of his field of vision, if the score is odd (1, 3, 5, ...) from the left. Both players can score points regardless of their right to serve. Every mistake automatically leads to a point gain for the opponent. If the opponent was the receiver in the previous rally, he also receives the right to serve.
For tactical reasons, one tries to get the opponent into trouble by playing in the corner of the playing field. In order to be able to reach all corners of the field equally quickly, every player tries to get into the best starting position for the next opposing ball as quickly as possible after each ball played. This is about one stride behind the T-point . From here, all field areas can be reached with a few short, quick steps.
Women's and men's doubles
In the double discipline, two pairs of players of the same sex face each other. When serving, the server and receiver are in the respective service half-field; the service must be played diagonally. The two players not involved in the service may position themselves anywhere on the field of play.
According to the old way of counting, the first service of a set and each first service took place after changing the right to serve from the right service field. With the new rally point counting method, however, the order of the servers changes after each error as follows:
- First server (0-0, start in the right service area)
- Partner of the first receiver
- Partner of first server
- First hit
- First server etc.
Contrary to the old way of counting, there is no longer a second serve . The rule to always serve from the right when changing the right to serve no longer exists.
The positions of the players in a double remain in place on service or return until they score a point on their own service. Only then do they change half-field for the next serve. If a point is won with a simultaneous change of service, the position is not changed. The players remember their last position, no longer (as in the past) the line-up at the beginning of the sentence.
From the service order in connection with the new method of counting in doubles it follows that the service field is always determined by one's own number of points when the service is changed (as in singles):
- Service change with own even score (0, 2, 4,…): Service by the player standing on the right
- Service change with one's own uneven score (1, 3, ...): Service from the left
"0" is an even number, so the first serve of each set is carried out from the right with the new counting method.
Points can be scored on every rally. Each double has the right to serve until it makes a mistake. Then the opposing party receives one point, and the right to serve changes to the opposing doubles according to the service order.
If the set changes, the double that won the last set serves.
The formation of both players in a double pairing during the ongoing rally is arbitrary and is made dependent on the current game situation and the technical skills of the players. Ideally, both stand next to each other to defend themselves and cover their own side of the pitch. In contrast, when attacking you stand one behind the other, the one behind attacks with hard attack balls that are hit steeply downwards ( smash ) or with stop balls that are carefully hit just behind the net ( drop ), while your partner acts in front of the net and tries to hit badly defended opponent balls achieve and utilize. This constantly changing line-up within a rally requires years of practice, a keen eye for the game situation and understanding when interacting with your partner.
Exemplary sequence of a double
Double A: First server A1 and partner of the first server A2 .
Double B: first receiver B1 and partner of first receiver B2 .
- 0: 0 serve A1 (first server) from the right.
- Double A.
- The double A serving changes positions, double B does not.
- 1: 0 serve A1 (first server) from the left.
- Error caused by double A.
- Service change, all positions are retained.
- 1: 1 serve B2 (partner of the first receiver) from the left.
- Error from serving double B.
- Service change, all positions are retained.
- 2: 1 serve A2 (partner of first server) from the right.
- Double A.
- Double A serving changes positions, double B does not.
- 3: 1 serve A2 (partner of first server) from the left.
- Error caused by double A.
- Service change, all positions are retained.
- 3: 2 Service B1 (first receiver) from the right.
In the example, Double B scored two points, but did not switch positions because the points were not scored on its own serve. Double A, on the other hand, scored two of its three points with its own right to serve and therefore swapped positions every time. You can also see here how you can deduce the service field from your own score.
In mixed doubles or mixed (English: mixed ), a female and a male player together form a double pair. The rules are identical to those of the women's and men's doubles.
Line-up and tactical behavior in mixed doubles usually differ from those of the other two double disciplines, as one tries to integrate gender-specific skills into one's own game. As a rule, the man moves mainly in the back of the field, from where he can use his range and strength advantages for a powerful attack game. The woman, on the other hand, takes over the precise game in the front half of the field, especially on the net.
In order to get to this list at the beginning of the rally, the man is usually already behind the woman at the service.
A team game in the senior classes usually comprises the following eight individual games:
|1. Men's doubles||2. Men's doubles|
|1. Men's singles||2. Men's singles||3. Men's singles|
|Mixed (mixed doubles)|
Before the start of the season, the club submits a team report with ranking lists for men and women to the association. The list of pairings for men's singles and doubles is based on this ranking list. In the case of double pairing, the sum of the ranking positions of the players involved is decisive (actually four valid badminton pairings are reported that are subject to this rule. These must be approved by the regional badminton association. In individual cases, exceptions to the total rule are possible). All other games do not have to be based on the ranking list, as they are only played once per match.
A complete team consists of at least four men and two women. Each player can play a maximum of two games per encounter. After the match report sheet has been filled out before the match, the list cannot be changed. Intended substitutes must be entered on the sheet and cannot be re-registered during the match. Must a game z. B. canceled due to injury, it is considered lost. However, a team with up to eight men and four women can compete, so that all players only play one game. For tactical reasons it is common practice to use more players than necessary in order to be able to use stronger players in a more targeted manner. Depending on the rules of the individual regional associations, it is also possible to play team games with fewer players in the lower divisions (usually a maximum of five men and three women).
During the season, all teams in a league / class compete against each other in a home and return match, thus eliminating promoted and relegated players. The championship is played in the highest league, the 1st Bundesliga (Germany, Austria) or NLA (Switzerland).
Regardless of the season, ranked tournaments are held in all five disciplines. You qualify for the national rankings of different skill levels by participating in a league with a higher skill level or by acquiring a corresponding number of ranking list points by successfully participating in the ranked tournaments of lower skill levels.
The badminton world rankings list all badminton players who have participated in at least two of the international tournaments recognized by the Badminton World Federation in the past 12 months . The number of points that is decisive for the ranking results from the placement in these tournaments.
The designation and number of the divisions in which badminton team competitions are held depends on the countries or national associations. In Germany and Austria the highest divisions are called the 1. Bundesliga, in Switzerland NLA, in the Netherlands Eredivisie, in Indonesia Indonesian League.
Within the badminton scene, numerous terms have been developed to designate badminton-specific issues in order to facilitate communication between players and coaches:
- Frying pan handle
- Beginner's racket posture, where backhand strokes are almost impossible because the racket head is at a 90-degree angle to the arm instead of the usual 0-degree angle. Used in exceptional cases when killing or wiping .
- China Leap
- Lash in the side jump and landing not in the jump, but leg on the side of the list catches the jump.
- To lift
- Play on the net: lift the ball slightly so that it flies as close as possible over the edge of the net without spinning.
- I solos g espannte e rregte A ktionsbereitschaft: attitude of a player, in which it is to expect the opponent's ball.
- Tweezer handle
- Bat is held with fingertips. Preferred stick position when playing on the net, especially when piercing .
- When playing on the net, the ball is brought into a spin with a jerky forward movement and is transported as close as possible over the net. The spin makes it difficult for the opponent to control.
- T (T point)
- Symbol for the front service line in connection with the center line. The T-point is the intersection of the two lines. Approx. one step behind is the basic position (ideal starting position for expecting the opposing ball).
- End the rally with a quick, whip-like movement of the racket at the front of the net, the ball is hit straight down.
- A variant of killing in which you hit the ball with a quick wiper-like movement in order not to touch the net.
Badminton can be seen as one of the sports that makes the highest demands on the player. In order to be victorious at a high level, not only physical abilities of the most varied of character are required, but also special mental and character requirements. The quote from Martin Knupp , an author of many badminton textbooks, which is often quoted in the badminton scene, is often simplified or incompletely reproduced , is intended to make this clear:
“A badminton player should have the stamina of a marathon runner, the speed of a sprinter, the jumping ability of a high jumper, the arm strength of a javelin thrower, the power of a blacksmith, the dexterity of an artist, the responsiveness of a fencer, the concentration of a chess player, the knowledge of human nature of a vacuum cleaner salesman , the psychological hardness of an Arctic explorer, the nerve strength of a demolition master, the ruthlessness of a colonial ruler, the obsession of a mountaineer and the intuition and imagination of an artist.
Because these qualities are so rarely found in one person, there are so few good badminton players. "
These metaphorically formulated claims are underpinned, at least as far as physical fitness is concerned, by a scientifically unconfirmed comparison of Danish sports journalists. The 1985 Badminton World Cup final in Calgary between Han Jian ( People's Republic of China ) and Morten Frost ( Denmark ) was compared with the tennis final at Wimbledon in the same year between Boris Becker and Kevin Curren . The analysis of both games provides interesting information about the stress in both sports:
|Tennis: Becker - Curren||Badminton: Han - Frost|
|Result||6: 3, 6: 7, 7: 6, 6: 4||14:18, 15:10, 15: 8|
|Total duration||3 hours 18 min||1 hour 16 min|
|Pure playtime||18 min (= 9%)||37 min (= 48%)|
|Ball touches (hits)||1004||1972|
|Ball touches per rally||3.4||13.5|
|Distance covered||approx. 3.2 km||approx 6.4 km|
What is remarkable here is the fact that the badminton players ran around twice as much and had around twice as many touches of the ball in less than half the playing time. However, this must be seen against the background of the fact that lawn tennis games such as the Wimbledon final used here for comparison are in this respect rather untypical for the sport of tennis. Especially with serve-and-volley players like Becker and Curren, the rallies and thus the walking distances are extremely short on this surface, and the physical strain is correspondingly low.
Badminton is the fastest ball sport in terms of the speed the ball can reach after it is hit. In August 2013, Tan Boon Heong from Malaysia set a new world record with 493 km / h. This record is certified by Guinness World Records . In no other sport do balls reach such high speeds.
In recent years, partly out of commercial interest, some varieties of badminton have emerged:
- Beachminton ( English "beach": beach) was invented in 1997 and is played in the sand. So that the game can also be played outside, primarily on the beach, the match ball is significantly less susceptible to wind than badminton balls.
- Speed badminton
- Speed Badminton was invented in 2001 by Bill Brandes from Berlin. The aim was to develop a sport with badminton elements that can be played outdoors. The game is played with a racket similar to a squash racket, a ball that is less susceptible to wind (the so-called speeder) and without a net. Since January 1st, 2016 the sport is officially called Crossminton to avoid confusion with Speedminton GmbH .
- The two halves of the field are 12.8 meters apart; Due to different flight characteristics and different equipment, Speed Badminton mixes not only elements of badminton but also aspects of squash and tennis. The speed badminton balls are smaller, but more massive than normal badminton balls. Competition balls (so-called match speeders ) can reach speeds of up to 290 km / h. Speed badminton at night or in a dark environment is called blackminton . There is a Blackminton variant in which the players wear light bands. A more elaborate variant of Blackminton works with UV light lamps, in which the playground equipment, field and players are identified by using fluorescent materials and colors. In both Blackminton variants, the special balls ( night speeders ) used for this purpose are made to glow with so-called speed lights, similar to glow sticks when fishing, which are pressed into the ball cap.
- Parabadminton is a variant of badminton for people with physical disabilities . Depending on the type of disability, there is a division into competition classes, for example for people with wheelchairs or with prostheses . The basis of the game is the usual badminton set of rules, depending on the league, changes such as lowering the height of the net or reducing the field are made. Parabadminton has been integrated into the Badminton World Federation since 2011 and will be part of the Paralympic Games for the first time in 2020 .
- New rules in the Bundesliga: More excitement in the coming season? August 1, 2016, accessed on January 10, 2019 (German).
- Explanation of the rally point counting method at badminton.de ( Memento of the original from May 28, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Load comparison at worldbadminton.com
- 493 km / h: Heong crashes world record focus.de
- European Para-Badminton Championships 2014 - Swiss Star Strikes Triple Gold. Badminton World Federation website , September 16, 2014, accessed November 30, 2014.
- Wheelchair badminton. Website of the Association for Disabled and Wheelchair Sports in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, accessed on November 30, 2014.
- Wheelchair Badminton: It's About More Than Gold on mandatorylektüre.com , accessed on November 30, 2014.
- Badminton World Federation : "One Sport One Team." Integration PBWF - BWF. ( Memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF, English) Website of the German Badminton Association , May 27, 2011, accessed on November 30, 2014.
- IPC Governing Board approves first 16 sports to be included in the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. International Paralympic Committee website, October 7, 2014, accessed November 30, 2014.
- Paralympics 2020: Badminton there for the first time. ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Handelsblatt website , October 7, 2014, accessed November 30, 2014.
- Wend Uwe Boeckh-Behrens: Badminton today. intermedia, Krefeld 1983, ISBN 3-9800795-0-3 .
- Bernd-Volker Brahms: Badminton Handbook. Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 2009, ISBN 978-3-89899-428-6 .
- Marcus Busch: Badminton impact technique exercises. SMASH, Velbert 2003, ISBN 3-9808183-1-4 .
- Michael Dickhäuser: Badminton Tips & Tricks. Aktiv, Stans 1998, ISBN 3-909191-10-X .
- Barbara Engel: Badminton manual - basic training with children . Nürtingen 1992, ISBN 3-928308-01-7 .
- Klaus Fuchs, Lars Sologub: Badminton. Technology. Tactics. Training. Falken, Niedernhausen 1996, ISBN 3-8068-0699-3 .
- Martin Knupp: Badminton Practice. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1989, ISBN 3-499-18629-2 .
- Martin Knupp: Badminton made understandable. Copress, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7679-0392-X .
- Martin Knupp: 1011 forms of games and exercises in badminton. Hofmann, Schorndorf 1996 (6th edition), ISBN 3-7780-6316-2 .
- Hans Werner Niesner, Jürgen H. Ranzmayer: Badminton - Training, Technique, Tactics. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, ISBN 3-499-17042-6 .
- Detlef Poste, Holger Hasse: Badminton stroke technique. SMASH, Velbert 2002, ISBN 3-9808183-0-6 .
- Kroton.de - Badminton results service (DBV national leagues, DBV groups and 8 regional associations)
- Badminton World Federation - Website of the World Badminton Federation
- Badminton Europe - website of the European umbrella organization
- badminton.de - Website of the German Badminton Association
- badminton.at - Website of the Austrian Badminton Association
- swiss-badminton.ch - Website of the Swiss Badminton Association
Rules and training tips
- New rules, valid from August 1, 2006 ( PDF ) - Updated badminton rules (211 kB)
- Brief overview of the rallypoint counting method (PDF; 200 kB)
- badminton.de - Unofficial explanations of the new rally point counting method in badminton
- Badminton exercises - exercises for badminton training
- Badminton tricks - training, technique and rules
- Badminton online magazine - news, training, interviews