Cave painting

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Storage medium
Cave painting
Cave painting from Altamira, Old Magdalenian (replica)
successor Clay tablet

The cave painting is a genre of rock paintings , on walls of caves or rock shelters were applied. Such rock paintings in caves belong to parietal art (French art pariétalart belonging to the wall”, from Latin paries “wall”), as well as rock paintings outside of caves. The European cave paintings mostly come from the Upper Paleolithic , from anatomically modern humans ( Cro-Magnon humans ). The genre lived on, for example, in schematic Iberian art until the Bronze Age .

On a rock face in the cave of Leang Bulu 'Sipong, a cave in the Maros-Pangkep Karst , there are depictions of several animals and animal-human hybrid beings ( therianthropes ), made with dark red pigment. The age of the paintings is given as at least 43,900 years. This would represent the oldest figurative works of art in the world.

The oldest cave paintings in Europe can be found in the Spanish El Castillo cave (approx. 40,000 BP , early Aurignacia ) and in the collapsed Abri Castanet in France ( Dordogne department ). The paintings from the Chauvet cave ( Ardèche department ) are dated to around 32,000 BP, the petroglyphs from the Pair-non-Pair grotto ( Gironde department ) to around 30,000 BP.

Cave painting experienced the peak of the European distribution in the Upper Palaeolithic epochs Gravettien , Solutréen and Magdalenien in central and southern France as well as in northern Spain (see Franco-Cantabrian cave art ). In some parts of the world, for example in South Africa and Australia, the painting of caves is documented to the present day (see list of localities).

Age determination

Cave painting can be dated in a number of ways. With all dating methods, however, a certain uncertainty must be expected, so that a picture cave can never be dated exactly.

Absolute dating (direct dating): One tries to name an absolute date with the help of color pigments such as charcoal. The age of cave paintings can be determined with a variant of radiocarbon dating ( AMS dating ), for which only a few milligrams of charcoal or organic paint of the work are required.

Since 2012, uranium-thorium dating has also been used to determine the age of sinter deposits on the cave paintings. The minimum age of the cave painting or engraving can be determined very precisely.

Relative dating (indirect dating): One can, for example, relate the paintings to the archaeological horizons and the excavated finds. However, this method is unreliable because a wall painting may have been created earlier or later than a soil layer or objects found in it.

Other methods of relative dating are:

  • the style analysis (see art styles by André Leroi-Gourhan ),
  • the creation of a chronological order based on the overlapping of lines,
  • the analysis of the spatial arrangement of the paintings, from which a chronological sequence can be derived if necessary.


Various interpretive approaches have developed in research (only a selection presented here). The interpretations are purely speculative and can be combined with one another, so a final interpretation is not possible.


The rock art researcher Jean Clottes says: “ Back then, people painted and engraved in caves because of their beliefs. Most likely, they simply believed that the underground world was a supernatural world. In the caves they believed they met spirits, gods, their ancestors and the dead. The pictures should serve as mediators between the world here and the other world. ”According to Clottes, prehistoric art is part of a shamanistic religion . Possibly the caves were also a place for initiation rites , according to earlier opinion, which is now considered outdated, also for hunting magic .

Pointless painting

The cave art can be understood as a natural reaction to the environment. The Cro-Magnon people could have processed their experiences, their dreams and wishes in the pictures. Maybe they just wanted to depict what they saw.

Practical purposes

The paintings possibly served as a symbolic language to record experiences with game, hunting techniques or migration routes of animals. They could also have served as a demonstration that you were in this cave.

Artistic expression

Sometimes cave paintings are understood as art in a sense that is close to today's concept of art. This interpretation is controversial. Steven Mithen points out that some of today's primitive peoples practice rock painting without a word for “art” in their vocabulary.

Paleolithic art styles according to Leroi-Gourhan

André Leroi-Gourhan (1911–1986) pursued an ethnological or art-historical approach with the subdivision into Paleolithic art styles I – IV (from Aurignacia to Magdalenian). Changes in painting style do not coincide with changes in archaeological cultures. Geographically, Leroi-Gourhan referred to the following regions, which also represent the main distribution area: Asturias , Cantabria , the French and Spanish Basque Country , the Pyrenees , the right bank of the Rhone and the basin landscapes of the Loire and Garonne . The Franco-Cantabrian region occupies a special position, with its picture caves which are still preserved today and which represents most of the prehistoric art. The art from Italy and Russia , there especially in the Urals , were viewed by him as isolated art forms, but represented around 20,000 BC. A unit with Central and Western Europe.

In addition to the cave painting, the style subdivision is also based on the preserved Upper Palaeolithic minor art .

Style I.

This phase is characterized by a few incised drawings from the Périgord . Animals such as horses and mammoths were depicted, but these are usually only indicated by lines on the back or by depictions of the head. These are usually framed by lines or dots. In some cases, vulva-like figures can also be seen. An exact date cannot be made, but the few specimens like the engraved vulva from La Ferrassie and the depictions of a "herbivore" from Belcayre (both sites in the Dordogne) belong to the cultural stage of Châtelperronien and Aurignacien .

Style II

The second style begins during the Gravettien or Périgordien and extends to the Solutréen, whereby the two phases II and III hardly differ from each other. Leroi-Gourhan assumes that the first sanctuaries with paintings and engravings were made during this period. Most of the time, the representations can still be found on stone slabs in the entrance zones or on the demolition walls . According to Leroi-Gourhan, at that time the paintings were seldom placed in the “dark areas” of the caves, such as in the cave of Gargas , but this became more and more common in the subsequent style phase. Depending on period I, a fixed representation scheme developed: the curved neck-back line. Most of the animals shown, such as horses, bison and mammoths, have an excessively curved front part. A well-known example is the Pair-non-Pair cave , which contains numerous engravings of horses and mammoths. Even with the female statuettes, a uniform design can be seen in an area stretching from Spain to Russia. The figures are all stylized: the face and arms are only suggested; the feet are partly missing completely. The hips, abdomen, breasts and torso are particularly rich in detail and are emphasized in all of the surviving figures - whether as plastic like the Venus of Dolní Věstonice or a relief like the Venus of Laussel . In addition, the first handprints are made, for example in Gargas and Labatut.

Style III

According to the scientist, this phase represents the pinnacle of technical “artistry”. The lines are finer and one tried to depict the movement of the animals. Particular emphasis was placed on the very short legs and the body, which appear too large in relation to the head. The distinctive back line, which was consistently adhered to in style II for every species, has now been weakened and implemented individually. Approx. 75% of the antlers and horns are shown in the "half-twisted" perspective. The most common images include bison and horse, which usually appear in combination. They are accompanied by other "sideline animals": in Lascaux by a stag and in Pech Merle by a mammoth. The characters that always appear with the animal groups are mostly tektiform, as in La Mouthe and Lascaux (the chessboard-shaped characters that were painted in different colors should also be mentioned here). In this phase, the images of people are always closely related to the depicted animals and other signs. The shaft scene in the Lascaux cave with the wounded bison and the human figure is an example of this tradition. The hand negatives and positives are also continued, as in Pech Merle, El Castillo and Rocamadour . The style phase is dated due to the two sites Roc-de Sers and Bourdeilles in the Solutréen and the early Magdalenian . Leroi-Gourhan divides this phase into four regional groups, which differ in some elements of the presentation methods : in the Périgord , in the Lot, in Cantabria and in the Ardèche Valley.

Style IV

The fourth style represents the majority of the surviving works of art (approx. 78%), whereby the mobile objects particularly characterize this phase and allow a subdivision into an early and a late phase. Leroi-Gourhan dates the early style to the middle Magdalenian III and IV, the later phase to the Magdalenian V and VI, but he mentions in his monograph that there are also deviations from this subdivision, as in the Three Brothers Cave and in Les Combarelles . The outlines show the depicted animal in a very realistic way, so that the posture and movement of the animal are clearly emphasized. Horns and antlers are reproduced in their natural appearance. Representations of horses have a very curved stomach and two lines on the shoulders. Bison, usually with a hairy head, have a "triangle" on the loin. These details can be found in an area from Arcy-sur-Cure to Cantabria . These animals are accompanied by various signs that Leroi-Gourhan assigns to the two sub-phases, but also emphasizes that there are regional differences. First of all, the rectangular characters (mostly with female symbols) develop into "real" tectiform characters. The wound marks appear at the same time as in Niaux, but oval symbols develop from these, for example in the Three Brothers Cave.

Painting techniques

Since people at the end of the Paleolithic “were already able to draw in perspective, were familiar with various painting techniques and were able to reproduce the behavior of animals faithfully” , the term painting is used explicitly . In addition to the cave painting, which focused on the application of paint, petroglyphs were also made during the same period . By simplifying the motifs to a few lines, cave paintings are mostly drawings .

As paints were iron oxide pigments for red and manganese oxides or charcoal used for black colors. The color palette could be enlarged by means of differently heated ocher , but it is generally assumed that various rocks, ores and feldspar as well as blood, limestone , plant resin, milk and plant juices were used for color production. The material obtained from these raw materials, presumably in powder form, was mixed with water, saliva or fats and then applied to the wall surfaces using various techniques. In addition to brushes made from chewed twigs, stamps and one's own fingers, the paint was sprayed onto the surface with the help of the mouth or a tube. In this process, stencils or hands were sometimes used in such a way that “clean edges” were created during application. The smudging technique was used in the Chauvet cave . Bas-reliefs were created by chiseling off the surrounding area. The cave painters partially incorporated the three-dimensional effect of cracks and protrusions in the rock bedrock into the picture (for example in Font-de-Gaume and in the Altamira cave ). It is striking that there are overlaps that are interpreted differently in research. Other aids include stone lamps, which, among other things, brought light into the dark cave with animal fat and a juniper branch wick, and flint tools such as scratches, burins or blades with which the engravings were carried out. Traces of scaffolding and ropes have been preserved in Lascaux, but other people could also have helped the painter to paint the higher areas.

Electron scanning microscopy and microsonde technology are used to analyze the chemical components of paint applications.

Hand negatives


Usually the hand is placed on the wall as a stencil , and paint from charcoal , red chalk or ocher is mixed with water and sprayed onto the wall using the spraying technique described above . Hand negatives that appear to be missing finger joints can be explained with a modification of the “template hand ” by bending the finger joints concerned , for example in the sense of a sign language , or by a condition after ritual or medically indicated finger (partial) amputation - as in the French cave of Gargas ( South Pyrenees region ) and in the Spanish Maltravieso cave ( autonomous community of Extremadura ). The discovery of several isolated finger joints in Gravettian layers of the Polish Obłazowa Cave ( Western Carpathians ) is discussed as an indication of ritual mutilation at this location.


For a long time, science assumed that men had artistically implemented their hunting experiences in the paintings, but there was no evidence for this. Pennsylvania State University archaeologist Dean Snow analyzed handprints from eight French and Spanish Stone Age caves, including the El Castillo Cave, and found that around three quarters of all colored hands are from women, and there are also numerous handprints from children and adolescents .


All hand negatives dated using the radiocarbon method come from the Gravettian . A different dating of the hand negatives from the Chauvet Cave to the previous Aurignacian epoch was revised by a follow-up examination. The most famous sites are the Chauvet Cave, the Pech Merle Cave , the Henry Cosquer Cave and the Gargas Cave .

The hand negatives of the Cueva de las Manos in Argentina are much younger than their European counterparts (7,000 to 1,000 BC).

List of localities with cave paintings

Locations in Europe

Of the numerous picture caves in France (approx. 150) and northern Spain (approx. 125), only the most important are mentioned below. For a detailed description, see Franco-Cantabrian cave art .


style cave Department Coordinates description Epoch / age accessibility
Style I. Abri Cellier and Le Ruth Dordogne 44 ° 59 '38 "  N , 1 ° 3' 36"  E engraved plates in the lowest Aurigancien horizon
Style I. Abri Castanet Dordogne 44 ° 59 ′ 57.2 "  N , 1 ° 6 ′ 5.1"  E engraved plates Aurignacien I and II, 35,000-37,000 BC Chr.
Style I. Abri de Belcayre Dordogne an engraved plate
Style I. La Ferrassie Dordogne 44 ° 57 ′ 6.5 ″  N , 0 ° 56 ′ 17 ″  E engraved plates from the Aurignacien IV
Style II Laussel Dordogne 44 ° 56 ′ 50 ″  N , 1 ° 6 ′ 25 ″  E four reliefs of female figures and a male figure, a stone phallus and the sculpture of an ithyphallic person Venus von Laussel (Venus à la corne) is around 25,000 years old
Style II Pair-non-pair Gironde 45 ° 2 '20.3 ​​"  N , 0 ° 30' 6.4"  W. several rock engravings 33,000 to 26,000 years ago
Style II La Grèze Dordogne 44 ° 57 ′  N , 1 ° 8 ′  E (Marquay) Engravings and a younger bison depiction
Style II La Mouthe Dordogne four cattle and a horse (engravings)
Style II Gorge d'Enfer Dordogne Engravings poorly preserved, fish in high relief (1.05 m)
Style II Gargas Cave Hautes-Pyrénées 43 ° 3 ′ 19 ″  N , 0 ° 32 ′ 10 ″  E Hand negative, engraved stone slabs, design of the zones "meander" and part of the "diverticulum", engraved characters and the "shell"; (Discovery of cave paintings 1902) Dating about 25,000 BP
Style II Cussac Dordogne (Discovery 2000) about 28,000 years old
Style III Roc-de-Sers Charente 45 ° 34 ′ 30 ″  N , 0 ° 19 ′ 46 ″  E Tools, parietal art Aurignacien , Solutréen
Style III Bourdeilles or Fourneau du Diable Dordogne 45 ° 20 ′ 4.5 "  N , 0 ° 35 ′ 39"  E
Style III Lascaux cave Dordogne 45 ° 3 ′ 13.7 "  N , 1 ° 10 ′ 15"  E Age between 17,000 and 10,000 years, discovered in 1940 not open to the public, replica Lascaux II
Style III Le Gabillou Dordogne
Style III Villars cave Dordogne 45 ° 26 '32.1 "  N , 0 ° 47' 6.6"  E
Style III La Mouthe Dordogne
Style III Saint-Cirq Dordogne 44 ° 55 ′ 34 "  N , 0 ° 58 ′ 3"  E
Style III Bad luck Merle Lot 44 ° 30 ′ 29 "  N , 1 ° 38 ′ 40"  E (Discovered in 1922) about 20,000 years old
Style III Cougnac Lot
Style III Le Portel Ariège
Style III Isturitz Cave Basses-Pyrénées 43 ° 21 '10 "  N , 1 ° 12' 22"  W.
Style IV Bernifal Dordogne 44 ° 55 ′ 52 "  N , 1 ° 4 ′ 3"  E
Style IV Limeuil (site) Dordogne 44 ° 53 ′ 0 ″  N , 0 ° 53 ′ 18 ″  E
Style IV Teyjat cave Dordogne 45 ° 35 ′ 10 "  N , 0 ° 34 ′ 17"  E
Style IV You see the platform Loire
Style IV La Colombière Ain
Style IV Angles-sur-l'Anglin Vienne
Style IV La Chaire à Calvin Charente
Style IV Saint-Germain-la-Rivière Gironde
Style IV Le Cap Blanc (Abri) Dordogne 44 ° 56 '44 "  N , 1 ° 5' 49"  E public
Style IV Commarque Dordogne
Style IV Abri Reverdit Dordogne 44 ° 59 ′ 53 ″  N , 1 ° 6 ′ 4 ″  E
Style IV La Magdelaine Camouflage
Style IV Les Combarelles Dordogne 44 ° 56 ′ 37 "  N , 1 ° 2 ′ 32"  E
Style IV Font-de-Gaume Dordogne 44 ° 56 '5 "  N , 1 ° 1' 44"  E
Style IV La Mouthe Dordogne
Style IV Rouffignac cave Dordogne 45 ° 0 ′ 31 ″  N , 0 ° 59 ′ 16 ″  E
Style IV Arcy-sur-Cure Yonne Animal representations (discovery of the paintings 1990)
Style IV Pergouset Lot
Style IV Labastide Hautes-Pyrénées
Style IV Le Portel Ariège
Style IV Niaux cave Ariège 42 ° 49 ′ 15 "  N , 1 ° 35 ′ 37"  E Exploration since 1906 Dating around 14,000-13,000 BP ,
Style IV Les Trois-Frères grotto Ariège 43 ° 1 ′ 56 "  N , 1 ° 12 ′ 42"  E
Style IV Tuc d'Audoubert cave Ariège 43 ° 1 ′ 56 ″  N , 1 ° 12 ′ 8 ″  E
Style IV Mas d'Azil cave Ariège 43 ° 4 ′ 10 "  N , 1 ° 21 ′ 17"  E
Style IV Montespan Haute-Garonne
La Marche
Chauvet cave Ardèche 44 ° 21 ′ 0 ″  N , 4 ° 29 ′ 24 ″  E over 400 single images, (discovery 1994 by Jean-Marie Chauvet ) Dating of the older group between 33,000–30,000 BP , the younger group 27,000–22,000 BP
Henry Cosquer Cave Bouches-du-Rhône 43 ° 12 ′ 10 "  N , 5 ° 26 ′ 57"  E the entrance is 37 meters below sea level; Drawings of seals, fish and large sea birds (discovered in 1985 by Henry Cosquer ) Dating approx. 27,000 BP ;
Grotto d'Aurignac Haute-Garonne 43 ° 13 ′ 21 ″  N , 0 ° 51 ′ 55 ″  E
La Madeleine Dordogne 44 ° 58 ′ 1 ″  N , 1 ° 2 ′ 11 ″  E Steppe wisent on ivory Magdalenian
Grotto de Gouy Seine-Maritime 49 ° 21 '40 "  N , 1 ° 7' 49"  E Chalk carvings (12,050 ± 130 years BC)
Bayol cave Gard 43 ° 57 '  N , 4 ° 29'  E Paintings almost 20,000 years old
Enlène cave Ariège 43 ° 1 ′ 51 ″  N , 1 ° 13 ′ 2 ″  E very rich in small art objects "art mobilier" / everyday art and engraved sandstone plaques (floor tiles?, cutting boards?). Magdalenian, Gravettian
( Volp caves ) Ariège 43 ° 1 ′ 56 ″  N , 1 ° 12 ′ 8 ″  E
Font-Bargeix cave , Puyrignac , La Grange aux Putes ( Champeaux-et-la-Chapelle-Pommier ) Dordogne 45 ° 28 '  N , 0 ° 35'  E
Jovelle's cave Dordogne 45 ° 21 '37 "  N , 0 ° 25' 48"  E Incised drawings of a mammoth, an ibex and a horse
Rochereil Dordogne 45 ° 18 '8.3 "  N , 0 ° 32' 6.5"  E 4000 stone artefacts and bone finds, burial place of an adult male Magdalenian VI, Azilia
Laugerie-Basse Dordogne 44 ° 57 ′ 3.5 "  N , 0 ° 59 ′ 57"  E several works of art Magdalenian public
Puymartin Cave (near Marquay ) Dordogne 44 ° 57 ′  N , 1 ° 8 ′  E (Marquay)
Gisement préhistorique moustérien de la Gane near Groléjac Dordogne 44 ° 49 ′  N , 1 ° 18 ′  E (Groléjac) Prehistoric Abri - Monument historique Moustérien

Northern Spain

Style II

Style III

  • Las Chimeneas (Cantabria)
  • Altamira Cave (Cantabria) - over 150 murals that are between 14,000 and 16,000 years old; (Discovered in 1868)
  • La Pasiega (Cantabria)
  • El Castillo Covalanas (Cantabria)
  • Covolanas (Cantabria)
  • La Haza (Cantabria)

Style IV



Sites in Africa

The rock art of the Sahara is no longer part of the Ice Age art , as it was created exclusively in the Holocene . However, it shows some formal parallels, especially to the Mesolithic and late Neolithic art of Eastern Spain and Italy, and is Neolithic in its later phase . Rock art in the rest of Africa, which, like that of the Sahara, is almost never cave art, arose after the Last Cold Age and is only palaeolithic in terms of culture.



Cave painting in Laas Geel



  • D'Ifri N'Ammar cave, 12-14th centuries Millennium BC Chr.



South Africa

Locations in America




Locations in Asia, Australia and Oceania

Ile Kére Kére , East Timor



  • André Leroi-Gourhan : Prehistoric Art. Breisgau 1971.
  • Ansel Adams: The Camera. Little, Brown and Company, Boston 1980.
  • Norbert Aujoulat: Lascaux: Movement, Space, and Time [Trans. Martin Street]. Abrams, New York 2005.
  • Emmanuel Anati: Art of Beginnings. In: Diogenes. No. 185, Vol. 47/1, 1999.
  • Emmanuel Anati: cave painting. Albatross, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96060-6 .
  • Paul G. Bahn: Prehistoric Art. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998.
  • Paul G. Bahn and Jean Vertut: Journey Through the Ice Age. University of California Press, Berkeley 1997.
  • Paul G. Bahn: Pyrenean Prehistory: A Palaeoeconomic Survey of the French Sites. Aris & Phillips, Warminster 1985.
  • Ditte Bandini-König: The rock art station Hodar . (= Materials on the archeology of the northern regions of Pakistan . Volume 3). Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2560-6 .
  • Geoffrey Batchen: Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography. MIT Press, Cambridge 1997.
  • Count Henri Bégouën: The Magic Origin of Prehistoric Art. In: Antiquity. 1929.
  • John Berger: Secrets of the Stone. In: Guardian. November 16, 1996.
  • Gerhard Bosinski : The engravings of the Magdalenian discovery site Andernach-Martinsberg. In: Yearbook of the Roman-Germanic Central Museum. 41, 1994, pp. 19-58.
  • Gerhard Bosinski: The excavations in Gönnersdorf 1968-1976 and the settlement findings from the excavation in 1968. (= The Magdalenian discovery site Gönnersdorf. Volume 3). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1978.
  • Gerhard Bosinski, Gisela Fischer: Mammoth and horse representations from Gönnersdorf. (= The Magdalenian site Gönnersdorf. Volume 5). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1980, ISBN 3-515-02823-4 .
  • Harald Braem , Thomas Schulte im Walde: Bibliography of German-language literature on international rock art research (Imago mundi Volume 7). Lollschied 1994, ISBN 3-929068-07-9 .
  • Jean Clottes: Art in the morning light of humanity. In: Reinhard Breuer ao: Modern Archeology. (= Spectrum of Science Special. Vol. 12, No. 2). Spectrum of Science VG, Heidelberg 2003, pp. 6-9.
  • Michel Lorblanchet, Gerhard Bosinski: cave painting. A manual . Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-7995-9025-0 .
  • Martin Meister: cave art. In: GEO . 22nd year, June 1997.
  • Wolfgang Schürle, Nicholas J. Conard (Ed.): Two world ages. Ice Age Art and Willi Baumeister's Imagery . Ostfildern-Ruit 2005.
  • Rolf Schulte: Color and painting technique. In: Gerhard Rietschel and others: Lascaux. Ice Age Cave. Zabern, Mainz 1982, ISBN 3-8053-0593-1 , pp. 60-63. (Exhibition catalog of the Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum )
  • Toni Hildebrandt: image, gesture and hand. Leroi-Gourhan's paleontological image theory. IMAGE 14 (September 2011). "Image, gesture and hand. Leroi-Gourhan's paleontological image theory

Web links

Wiktionary: cave painting  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Cave Painting  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Maxime Aubert, Rustan Lebe, Adhi Agus Oktaviana, Muhammad Tang, Basran Burhan, Hamrullah, Andi Jusdi, Abdullah, Budianto Hakim, Jian-xin Zhao, I. Made Geria, Priyatno Hadi Sulistyarto, Ratno Sardi & Adam Brumm: Earliest hunting scene in prehistoric art, in: Nature, Vol. 576, pp. 442-445, 2019.
  2. World's oldest cave painting discovered, May 14, 2012.
  3. Code of the Gods: Messages from the Ice Age ( Memento from December 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Terra X, August 31, 2008.
  4. Shamans in the Cave World: Picture Stories and Objects with Spiritual Symbolic Power ( Memento from December 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Terra X, August 31, 2008.
  5. ^ The prehistory of the mind: A search for the origins of art, religion, and science. London 1996, ISBN 0-500-05081-3 .
  6. ^ André Leroi-Gourhan: Treasures of Prehistoric Art. Abrams, New York 1967.
  7. ^ André Leroi-Gourhan: Le Symbolisme des Grandes Signes dans l'art Parietal Paléolithiques. In: Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française. 55 (3), 1958, pp. 307-321.
  8. Leroi-Gourhan 1971, pp. 245ff.
  9. Leroi-Gourhan 1971, p. 248.
  10. Leroi-Gourhan 1971, pp. 248-250.
  11. Leroi-Gourhan 1971, pp. 250-253.
  12. Leroi-Gourhan 1971, p. 382.
  13. Jean Clottes: Art in the morning light of mankind. In: Reinhard Breuer ao: Modern Archeology. (= Spectrum of Science Special, Vol. 12. H. 2). Spectrum of Science VG, Heidelberg 2003, pp. 6-9.
  14. ^ Paweł Valde-Nowak : Obłazowa Cave: New light on Gargas-Hands? Hugo Obermaier Society for Research into the Ice Age and the Stone Age e. V .: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Congress, Santander 2003.
  15. ^ Hubert Filser: Gender Research: Strong Women. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. No. 28, 3rd / 4th February 2018, p. 34.
  16. ^ Paul Pettitt et al .: New views on old hands: the context of stencils in El Castillo and La Garma caves (Cantabria, Spain). In: Antiquity. Volume 88, No. 339, 2014, pp. 47-63, doi: 10.1017 / S0003598X00050213
    High quota of women. Paleolithic people covered cave walls with signs and images. On: from August 19, 2014
  17. ^ J. Combier, G. Jouve: Chauvet cave's art is not Aurignacian: a new examination of the archaeological evidence and dating procedures. In: Quaternary. Volume 59, 2012, pp. 131-152. doi: 10.7485 / QU59_05
  18. Émile Cartailhac , Henri Breuil : Gargas, Cne D'Aventignan (Hautes-Pyrénées). In: L'Anthropologie. XXI, 1910, pp. 129-150.