Categories of sports
Sports can be divided into different categories according to certain criteria. But there are no official classifications. Some organization options:
- by subscribers according to the profession : Arbeitersport , operating sports , disabled sports , fire brigade sports , high school sports , military sport , police sports , youth sports and senior sport , women sports (eg. Rollerderby ) and men Sport (eg. Skifliegen ) amateur sport and professional sport
- according to the organizational form : team sport , individual sport
- after the sports equipment : ball sports , hockey , cycling , roller sports , skiing
- according to the venue : (place of exercise) indoor sports , field sports (e.g. field handball ), water sports , mountain sports , air sports , beach sports (e.g. beach soccer ), lawn sports
- according to the seasons : winter sports , summer sports
- by type of implementation : sports games , weight training , aerobic exercise , Precision Sports , Sprint
- according to the type of conflict : martial arts , racing
- by region : indigenous sports, US sports
- after the main stress : (type) mental sports , physical sports, motor sports , animal sports (e.g. equestrian sports and dog sports )
- according to purpose and intensity: popular sport and competitive sport
No classification option can rule out the possibility of a sport appearing in several categories: cycling polo, for example, is both a ball sport and a cycling sport.
Systematisation of the sports
Based on the psychomotor significance of sport, Pierre Parlebas has set up a system of the praxeology of sport in which every sport (discipline) can be represented on a maximum of three coordinates. Parlebas is part of a long tradition of French sports educators who pursue a sociological and psychomotor approach:
- Individual ( assigned to psychomotor skills ) or team ( assigned to socio-motor skills );
- Presence of partner (s) (= P) or opponent (s) (= A);
- Uncertainty due to surroundings / playing field (= I).
Football is now a PA sport (without I, since the football pitches are standardized).
In general, there is a tendency to standardize sports more and more, which means that more and more new trend sports are emerging in the opposite direction , which counteract the standardization by dealing with nature . In the 19th century, cross-country running and track athletics were almost on an equal footing. The cinder tracks got better and better until due to the plastic sheeting, seasonal climatic differences are hardly noticeable.
The popularity of sports is partly very nationally shaped. Few sports can boast global importance. Basically, a distinction must be made between practicing and watching a sport, and there is undoubtedly a connection between one's own practice of a sport and its supporters.
The world's most popular spectator sport is clearly soccer . Like few other disciplines, football is one of the most popular sports in almost all parts of the world. Only in North America , Australia and South Asia is football reduced to a subordinate role. Other roughly distributed worldwide sports are more Olympic sports , including in addition to the core disciplines of athletics and swimming , the boxing and tennis , as well as team sports basketball and volleyball .
In the last few decades, Europe's sports market has been increasingly dominated by football, which is now at least the second most popular sport in all European countries. This is also reflected in the reporting and public funding. Ice hockey follows at a large distance , closely followed by handball and basketball . There are regional differences within Europe, some of which run through nation states. Ice hockey is popular in large parts of Europe, but hardly in the south. Handball in Northern Europe and Northern Germany, basketball and water polo throughout Southern Europe and basketball in particular also in Lithuania , cycling in Western and southwestern Europe, baseball almost only in the Netherlands and Italy, rugby union in Western Europe, rugby league only in Great Britain and Ireland France , skiing in the Alpine region and Northern Europe, floorball in Switzerland, the Czech Republic and the Scandinavian countries.
North America has developed its own system of sports. The focus here is on four team sports , which can be summarized under US sports . Baseball is the oldest American national sport, but in the 1970s it lost the title of the most popular sport to American football , with basketball and ice hockey behind them, with basketball being the more popular of the two. Behind these, other team sports such as lacrosse , football and rugby enjoy great popularity.
With rugby and cricket are two other sports in addition to football with the have Commonwealth spreads that are quite popular worldwide. Rugby Union for example in the whole of Oceania, Argentina, Japan, South Africa but also outside the Commonwealth like in France and Italy. For example, cricket in India, Pakistan, Australia and the South African region. Despite this popularity, the national Olympic associations have not been able to enforce that these sports become Olympic. In rugby, however, this has now happened. Rugby League has only made it into a major sport outside of the motherland through the Commonwealth in Australia and New Zealand. The spread of sport is associated with Anglo-American cultural imperialism.
Badminton and table tennis are among the most popular sports in Asian countries . Both sports are dominated by Asians at the top of the world rankings. Both badminton and table tennis are, however, only marginal sports in Germany and in most European countries. Only Denmark is a European exception in the sport of badminton. For many years the Danes have been among the only Europeans who have been able to establish themselves permanently among the world's best.
- Réflexion sur la place du sport dans l'éducation: l'exemple de l'Agence Pour l'Education par Le Sport (APELS)
- Arnd Krüger , Roland Naul : Geturniert wart den Sumer vil ... "- Theory and practice of traditional forms from athletics and movement games. In: Ulrich Becker (Hrsg.): Leichtathletik im Lebenslauf. Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 1994, ISBN 3 -89124-200-X , pp. 3395-3400.
- Brian Stoddart: Sport, Cultural Imperialism, and Colonial Response in the British Empire. Comparative Studies in Society and History 30 (1988), 4,649-673.