Handball is a sport in which two teams of seven players each (six field players and one goalkeeper ) play against each other. The object of the game is to throw the handball into the opponent's goal and thereby score a goal. The team that has scored the most goals at the end of the playing time (twice 30 minutes; shorter playing times for youth teams) wins.
In addition to indoor handball (usually abbreviated as handball ), there are two other variants: field handball , which used to be played much more frequently, and beach handball , which is enjoying growing popularity.
The playing area has the shape of a rectangle (40 m × 20 m) and is divided into two halves by the center line. In the middle of the narrow sides are the gates, in front of them the respective goal areas. The space inside the playing area but outside the goal areas is the playing field .
Basically, all lines belong to the space that they delimit. For the center line, this means that it belongs to both halves of the pitch.
The gates are three meters wide and two meters high. They must be firmly anchored to the floor or to the wall behind. The goal frame must be a rectangle.
The goal posts and the crossbar that connects them must be made of the same material (e.g. wood or light metal ) and have a square profile with an edge length of 8 cm. The goal posts and the crossbar must be painted in two clearly contrasting colors on the three sides that can be seen from the playing area, which also stand out clearly against the background. Both goals must be of the same color.
Every goal must have a net, the so-called goal net. This must be fixed in such a way that a ball thrown into the goal normally remains in the goal or cannot fly through the goal. If necessary, another net can be attached in the goal behind the goal line.
Outside the gates there is the goal area . It is formed from two quarter circles with a radius of six meters around the inner rear corner of the goal post and a line parallel to the goal line at a distance of 6 m. Field players are not allowed to enter the goal area. However, the ball may be played in the air space above the goal area, i.e. an attacker may jump off in front of the goal area line and throw it at the goal from a short distance, whereby the ball must have left the hand before this player touches the ground. Entering the goal area without the ball to gain an advantage (e.g. a better face-to-face position) results in loss of the ball for the player's team. The game continues with a release.
Entering the circle by a defender is usually only punished if he gains an advantage for the purpose of defense .
On one long side of the playing area, on both sides of the center line, outside the playing area, there is a substitution area for each team, in which the officials, the substitute players and any players who have been suspended are located. A change between the substitution area and the playing field is possible at any time, but may only take place via the substitution line, which is 4.50 m long from the center line.
The game ball consists of an air-filled leather or plastic cover. Four sizes are used:
|size||Teams||Circumference (in cm)||Weight (in g)|
|III||Men and male youth from 16 (mJA)||58-60||425-475|
|II||Women, male youth from 12 (mJC + mJB) and female youth from 14 (wJB + wJA)||54-56||325-375|
|I.||Youth from 8 years (mJE, mJD, wJE, wJD, wJC)
in the DHB area from 10 years
The size and weight of balls in "mini handball" (for children younger than 8 years) are not specified in the IHF rules. The unofficial circumference of the mini handball is 48 cm.
The ball is often resinated. The resin helps that the ball can be held only with one hand and even captured and that one such as the throwing arm also various deceptions and trick casts Dreher could run. In many halls, however, there is a ban on resins and adhesives, because many relevant products leave sticky marks.
The official playing time for all teams with players 16 years and older is 2 × 30 minutes with a break of 10 minutes. For youth teams the playing time is reduced as follows:
- 2 × 25 minutes for ages 13 to 16 (C-youth and B-youth)
- 2 × 20 minutes at an age of 8 to 12 years (E-youth and D-youth)
The DHB has implemented these requirements in age groups (A to E youth). Sometimes shorter playing times are set for tournaments .
In games where a decision has to be made (e.g. tournaments or DHB Cup), there is a maximum of two extensions of 2 × 5 minutes each with a one-minute break in the event of a tie. If no decision has yet been made, it will be brought about with a seven-meter throw.
Half-time and the end of the game are indicated by the timekeeper with an acoustic signal (horn, siren or whistle). Unlike z. In handball, for example, the referees do not determine the length of the game and there is no stoppage time. Free throws followed by the signal at halftime or at the end of the game must still be carried out. The referees can interrupt the playing time at their own discretion (interruption, timeout). The seven meter should only be in the event of a special delay, e.g. B. with a goalkeeper change, be decided on timeout.
Time out (TTO)
Each team has three times during the regular season, the right to a team time-out (TTO) ( dt. "Timeout") lasting one minute. She can only use this right if she is in possession of the ball. Since the 2012/13 season, each team has been allowed to use a team timeout (TTO) of one minute three times. However, a maximum of two time-outs per half are permitted and only one time-out per team may be taken in the last five minutes of a game. In many regional associations that are responsible for the middle and lower divisions, this rule has not been adopted. There it still applies that only one time-out can be taken per half and team. Unused time outs expire.
The TTO is requested by the team manager by placing a green card, usually with a black “T”, on the table of the timekeeper and secretary . The timekeeper immediately interrupts the game with an acoustic signal (horn, siren or whistle) - if the team requesting time-out is in possession of the ball - and stops the time.
Game tactics are usually discussed during time off. However, the TTO is often only used for purely tactical reasons, in order to interrupt the flow of play for the opposing team. There are also divisions in lower associations in which the TTO is prohibited.
In handball there are two referees who, among other things, monitor fairness and compliance with the rules. They act alternately as field and goal referees. This ensures that the actions in defense and attack can normally be assessed from both sides of the game situation.
Team and ball management
Number of players and substitutions
Each team consists of seven players - six field players and a goalkeeper . Up to seven other players can sit on the exchange bench as substitutes . Players can be changed any number of times during the game within the prescribed exchange area. There is no substitution with registration as in football . Within the DHB there is also the special regulation that in the youth area you can only change if you have possession of the ball or if there is an interruption in the game (timeout). This is to prevent early specialization in attack or defense in the youth sector.
Field players are not only allowed to touch the ball with their hands, but with all parts of the body above the knee (including the knee), whereby, as in other ball sports, a distinction is made between catching and dribbling . Without dribbling, the player may only take a maximum of three steps and only hold the ball for three seconds, then he must release the ball by passing it to a teammate or by throwing a goal. If he moves the ball across the field of play, a maximum of three steps may be taken immediately after receiving the ball and a maximum of three steps after dribbling. If a player walks more than these three steps unhindered (i.e. without holding or clamps by the opponent) or if he catches the ball, dribbles, picks up the ball again and starts dribbling again ( colloquially also referred to as “double”, “double catch” or “twice”), the opposing team gains possession of the ball (through a free throw). In addition, outfield players may not intentionally return the ball to their own goal area. In this case, the opposing team receives a free throw.
Field players' abbreviations and descriptions of their positions are as follows:
- LA - Left Winger - Left Wing - Left Wing
- RA - right wing - right wing - right wing
- RL - left back space - left back space
- RM - center back area - central back area, "playmaker"
- RR - right back space - right back space
- KM - center of circle - circle
- KL / KR - circle left / circle right (in the game system with two circles) - circle
- AL - far left - left wing - left wing, opponent of the RA
- AR - far right - right wing - right wing, opponent of LA
- HL - half left - left backcourt, opponent of the RR
- HR - half right - right back space, opponent of the RL
- HM - back center - central cover player on the circle
- VM - front center - preferred cover player, "Indian"
- IL / IR - inside left / inside right (middle block covers on a line) - two central cover players on the circle
The positions are always designated from the point of view of the goalkeeper.
The goalkeeper (abbreviated: TW) is allowed to fend off the ball thrown towards the goal with all parts of his body in the goal area. The goalkeeper must be different in clothing from the field players, but may also leave the goal area (but not with the ball that has been brought under control). The goalkeeper may continue to play a ball that is not under control outside the goal area. Any player on the team can be used as a goalkeeper. In game-changing situations, e.g. B. with a goal deficit or a tie shortly before the end of the game, the goalkeeper is often used as the seventh field player. He is often replaced by a field player who had to wear a camisole until the 2016/17 season . From the 2016/17 season, the seventh field player no longer needs to be specially marked. This means that every field player can stand on the field instead of the goalkeeper. The seventh field player is then usually used as the second circle runner to create an outnumbered situation. If the goalkeeper does not move with a seven-meter throw and the player who takes the penalty throws the ball at his head, the player who made the throw must be penalized with a disqualification.
There are four different throwing techniques:
- Impact throw / stalk throw / core throw : The player in possession of the ball throws from a standing position or brakes his forward movement to standing and uses this momentum to accelerate the ball.
- Jump shot : The player jumps up, usually with a running-up, and tries to throw over the opposing defense.
- Drop throw: The drop throw, which is preferably used near the goal area line, is strictly speaking a throw from the falling movement. There are two types of execution: frontal or rotating out of the body.
- Running throw: The running throw is carried out while moving like the impact throw, only over the leg on the same side. The atypical sequence of movements can surprise the goalkeeper.
There are also special variations of certain techniques:
- Schlenzer (hip throw)
- Kempa trick
- Lathe operator
- Kink throw
- Air turner
Fouls and penalties
It is allowed to play or block the ball and to block the opponent. Body contact is basically also allowed. It is not allowed to tear the ball away, to hold on to the opponent, to clamp, to push, to jump, to push away or the like. Handball is deliberately designed as a physical game.
Violations of the rules lead to loss of the ball and
- for a free throw at the point of the rule violation, but at least 9 meters from the goal
- to a 7-meter throw if the opponent was prevented from having a clear chance of scoring due to the irregularity of any kind. The seven-meter throw is considered a reparation or restoration of a clear goal opportunity.
In addition to this continuation of the game, a "progressive penalty system" is defined for particular violations of the rule:
- the warning in the form of a yellow card. Only three warnings should be issued per team, followed by 2-minute time penalties.
- the 2-minute time penalty. It can also be pronounced in the event of a particularly serious breach of the rules before the 3 warnings have been "used up".
- the 2 + 2 minute time penalty. You can z. B. be pronounced if a player protests loudly or with a lot of gestures about a time penalty imposed on him, but does not offend the referee.
- the 2-minute time penalty + disqualification. It is pronounced when a player lets himself be carried away to another unsportsmanlike conduct after being suspended, such as B. demonstrative throwing away or shooting the ball, insulting or assault.
- the disqualification in the form of a red card for particularly defined violations, especially in hazardous to health challenge. The same player's third 2-minute time penalty also leads to his disqualification. As with the 2-minute time penalty, the team is reduced by one player on the court, but may send another player onto the field after the two minutes have elapsed. If the disqualification is reported, the player concerned is threatened with a possible suspension. This disqualification with a report has been indicated since July 1st, 2016 by holding up the blue card .
In addition to assaults, a report is also issued in the case of certain offenses in the last minute of the second half or second half of extra time. These offenses include, on the one hand, preventing the execution of a throw, e.g. a free throw or throw-off, or an offense that would only be punished with a red card in the normal course of the game. Since the 2015/16 season, this regulation has been changed in the first and second Bundesliga so that a seven-meter penalty is now given to the injured team and no additional suspension is required.
Until June 30, 2010, exclusion was the most severe form of punishment in a handball game. It was used when a player engaged in assaults against other players, referees, timekeepers / secretaries, team officials, delegates, spectators, etc. The player was excluded from the game and the team was not allowed to replace the player, so had to play with one less player for the rest of the game. In addition, the exclusion brought more severe penalties than disqualification for the club or the player after the game, such as a fine, long suspension or the like. The exclusion was not to be assigned to the progressive penal system, but to be seen as a “penalty for particularly serious cases”. Spitting at someone is considered assault if someone is hit, kicking and hitting. The two last-mentioned offenses are punished as disqualification if they occur as an act of affect directly on a foul by the opponent. Otherwise there was also an exclusion here. However, as this penalty was rarely applied, the IHF abolished it with the rule change on July 1, 2010. A disqualification must now be pronounced for such offenses and a report must be made. After 2 minutes, the team is allowed to complete itself again.
For the three officials and the responsible team leader on the bench, special rules apply to punishment. These four people may receive a warning and a suspension, after which any offense will be punished with disqualification.
On July 1, 2016, the Blue Card came into the IHF rules book. The referees show them in addition to the red card to clearly signal that the disqualification will also be followed by a report on the incident, which will result in an automatic ban.
Since it is difficult to separate the opponent from the ball in accordance with the rules, free throws and progressive punishment are normal components of a handball game.
In handball, all field players move into half of the defending team during normal attacks. When switching quickly after winning the ball from cover, the first wave (in the case of a counter-attack ) is becoming more and more important these days. In this attack, an attempt is usually made via the two outer positions or via upstream, offensive defenders to create a brief outnumbered situation with a few players and thus to achieve simple goals. If the first wave is unsuccessful or the counter- players cannot be played, the second wave takes effect : the remaining players organize the ball presentation, again with the aim of creating an outnumbered situation compared to the defending team, which is usually still moving backwards. Further variants of the fast attacking game are the quick throw-off after a goal by the opposing team - called " fast middle " - and the third wave - usually a standardized attack concept after the ball is presented against the cover that has just formed.
The position of the defense is used to distinguish the waves :
- In the first wave, all defenders are still on their way to their defensive positions, they are still moving towards their goal.
- In the second wave, some defenders turned with their front side in the direction of the attackers and are ready to react to the attackers' actions from this position.
- In the third wave, all defenders are ready to defend, but not yet in the position intended by the tactics.
Defense and attack
The defenders ( defenders ) usually form a zone cover in front of the throwing circle due to the topography of the field of play . There are a large number of variants of this zone coverage according to the different attack strategies of the attackers. The zone coverage also leads to a strong specialization of the players. As a rule, a distinction is made between the outside players ( left winger [LA] and right winger [RA]), back area players ( back area left [RL], back area center [RM], back area right [RR]) and circle ( circle center [KM]). To better distinguish between speeches, training sketches etc., the corresponding defensive players are divided into the outside players ( outside left [AL] and outside right [AR]), half players ( half left [HL] and half right [HR]) and middle block ( inside left [IL] and inside right [IR]). Deviations from this result from the structure of the chosen defense.
In addition, the ability to switch quickly (without registration, as often as you like) gives you the chance to use specialized attacking and defending players.
The attackers try to get a player into a favorable throwing position and to score a goal either by individual actions or by tactical group or team attack concepts.
The two most common cover variants are 6–0 (the basic position of all players is directly on the throwing circle) and 5–1 (the middle defender is preferred). 3–2–1 coverage is still a widely used coverage variant. There is also 4–2 coverage, in which two defenders usually act against the right and left backcourt players (RR and RL) in front of the cover. Rarely are the 3–3 coverage (with three defensive players drawn forward), the 1–5 coverage, in which all players except the opponent of the circuit are drawn forward, and the open man marking, which occasionally occurs with very close scores in the last minutes a game is applied. Often a single man marking against outstanding attacking players of a team is also practiced, but this means that the remaining 5 defensive players each have more space to defend. This type of cover is often used in excess when an opposing player is serving a 2-minute penalty. What all cover variants have in common is that they often try to achieve an interaction between the goalkeeper and the cover block when throws by the backcourt player. It is the task of the cover block to prevent the throw on one side of the goal and the goalkeeper then "takes over" the other side.
So even though it is mostly a zone defense, the crucial point is the assignment of each attacker to the defenders. Attack concepts try to disrupt the assignment, to force agreement problems when passing / taking over attacking players in cover and thus to create an outnumbered situation in which an attacker can throw the goal as unhindered as possible. Backcourt players who are strong at throwing always have a very good chance of scoring if they can throw at goal undisturbed. In contrast to the usually throw huge backcourt players Foreign and county players are more varied in general, for that matter throw repertoire and trained also pointed out a lot and thus unfavorable angles accommodate the ball in the goal when a jump shot in the goal area come .
In youth handball up to and including C-youth an offensive cover (1–5, 2–4 or similar) must be practiced. In many regional associations there are regulations that the youth players are only allowed to dribble two or three times and then have to play. These measures should contribute to a better development of the individual strengths of all players and improve the motor skills .
This way of playing - often also referred to as "time game" - is prohibited in handball according to the IHF rules. This means that a team that does not develop a recognizable urge to score or does not make any effort to score a goal is warned by the referee (s) with a show of hands (hand is raised, "passive forewarning signal"). If there is no improvement, the referees have the opportunity to break off the attack of the passively playing team so that the defending team can initiate an attack.
This rule makes the sport faster and more attractive for the spectators , as there are hardly any phases without a goal finish. However, the interpretation of this rule always gives rise to discussions, because it remains at the discretion of the referee, from when the pressure on the goal is too low and can be punished as "passive". An attack time of around 30 to 45 seconds until the referee displays the warning signal is considered empirical. Immediately after the passive forewarning signal is displayed, the attacking team has a maximum of 6 passes until the final whistle by the referee (s). The time game is canceled again by a progressive penalty of a player of the defending team (yellow card, 2-minute penalty or red card) or a shot on goal by the team in possession of the ball which comes back to the team from the goal or the goalkeeper.
Already in ancient times there were handball-like games like Urania or Harpaston in Greece and - in the Latinized form of the name harpastum - with the Romans. Various fishing games were also played in the Middle Ages .
The actual handball game did not develop until the turn of the 19th to the 20th century from various ball games, such as net, basketball , raffle or tower ball . This then resulted in games for the first time in which goals were thrown. The first set of rules was drafted in 1906 by the Danish teacher and Lieutenant Colonel Holger Nielsen from Ordrup near Copenhagen . The ball could only be held for three seconds and not run with it.
The birthday of handball is October 29, 1917, when the Berlin gymnastics supervisor Max Heiser (1879–1921) decided that the game “Torball” he designed for women in 1915 should be called “handball” in the future and that he also laid down fixed rules. With the game, he wanted to create an opportunity for girls to let off steam, since boys' games, such as soccer , seemed too physical to him. Accordingly, any kind of fight was forbidden at the time and playing without physical contact.
Two years later, the Berlin gymnastics teacher Carl Schelenz (1890-1956) developed Heiser's game further and made it attractive to boys and men by allowing duels and reducing the size of the ball, which he used to focus on throwing. He also introduced bouncing. The rest of the basics such as playing field, team size and referee practically took over Schelenz from football. As a result, handball became increasingly popular and the first teams were quickly formed. The sports association Fichte hosted a German championship of workers' sports clubs in 1919 . In 1921 the first German championship was finally held, which TSV 1860 Spandau won. According to the rules of Schelenz, handball was already played in Uruguay in 1919 , where it quickly developed into a national sport .
The first official international handball match took place on September 13, 1925 in Halle an der Saale between the men's teams from Germany and Austria . The Austrian selection defeated Germany 6: 3. Before that, there were internationals for the workers 'teams in July 1925 at the Workers' Olympiad . In 1928 the first international handball federation IAHF was founded by the eleven countries USA , Canada , Denmark , Finland , France , Greece , Ireland , Austria, Sweden , Czechoslovakia and Germany during the Olympic Games in Amsterdam . During this time, the set of rules was officially established and standardized for the first time. In the period from 1922 to 1933, the German handball championships were held in parallel by two different associations ( German Sports Authority and German Gymnastics Association ), so that there were two German champions for each year.
When the German gymnastics association, which was more oriented towards the German nationality, decided at its Reich meeting on September 1, 1923, the " clean separation of gymnasts and athletes" because the other sports associations, and here especially the ball sports associations, did not see themselves as political, but merely as sport-specific associations, Many handball players founded their own clubs.
Field handball was Olympic for the first and only time at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin , but only at the endeavor of Adolf Hitler , since Germany clearly dominated field handball at that time. The German selection then also won the final against Austria in front of 100,000 spectators, which is still the world record for handball games (field and hall). The first men's world championships in both field and indoor handball were held in Berlin in 1938. Here, too, the German team prevailed in both tournaments.
After the Second World War , the organization and structure of handball had to be rebuilt, so in 1946 the International Handball Federation IHF was founded. Sweden won the first World Cup after World War II in 1948 . As a result of the war, no German team was allowed to participate.
In 1949, the German Handball Federation DHB was founded. The first German post-war championships were held in 1948. The field handball developed rapidly, ensuring even with the supremacy of the German national team in Europe was related. 6 out of 7 world championships were won by German teams. One of the best and most famous players of the time was Bernhard Kempa , inventor of the Kempa trick . German record national players are Erwin Porzner (DHB) with 33 international matches for the DHB and Rudi Hirsch (DHV) with 49 appearances for the DHV and the German team. In 1959, the GDR selection won a domestic German comparison against the national team of the Federal Republic and was then elected GDR team of the year .
In 1949 the first world championships in women's handball were held. In the field handball World Cup, which were played in 1949, 1956 and 1960, Hungary and Romania won twice. Indoor handball for women experienced an upswing in 1957 with the introduction of the world championships (initially with 9 teams) and the award of the title of "German Master".
In parallel to field handball, indoor handball also continued to develop. The driving force behind the visit to the halls was primarily the Scandinavian countries, which, due to the climatic conditions, were looking for ways to advance tactics and speed without having to take the wind, weather and seasons into account. The men's national teams from Denmark and Sweden also played their first international match in the hall on March 8, 1935 in Copenhagen . After the rules were adapted to the new environment, the game became safer, faster and therefore more attractive. Despite the initially identical treatment of indoor and field handball, indoor handball became more and more popular. Indoor handball for men became an Olympic discipline in Munich in 1972 , which ultimately meant that field handball would no longer play a role in the future. The last field handball championships took place in 1975, since then handball has practically been equated with indoor handball. Handball for women was in 1976 in Montreal also olympic.
The most successful men's handball clubs in Europe are FC Barcelona with twelve titles in European competitions and VfL Gummersbach with nine titles. Frisch Auf Göppingen won the first German European Cup victory for the national champions in 1960. Most of the German indoor handball championships were won by THW Kiel (20 titles), followed by VfL Gummersbach (12) and Frisch Auf Göppingen (9).
On September 6, 2014, a new world record for indoor handball spectators was set in the Commerzbank-Arena as part of the day of handball at the Bundesliga match between the Rhein-Neckar Löwen and HSV Hamburg . 44,189 spectators saw the game, which the Rhein-Neckar-Löwen won by 2 goals.
Handball is particularly popular in Europe, but handball is less popular outside of Europe. Handball is more popular in non-European countries, for example in North Africa (above all Tunisia and Egypt) and in Asia (above all South Korea and Japan). The game has recently become more widespread in Arab countries (Qatar) and parts of South America (Argentina, Brazil).
In Europe, too, handball is not the same everywhere. For example, it is almost unknown in the British Isles, and it does not play a major role in the Benelux countries either. In addition to the professional leagues in Germany, Austria, Hungary and Switzerland, handball is mainly used in Spain, France, Central and Eastern European countries, Southeastern Europe (Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Macedonia) and in Northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Norway) played.
There are various reasons for this spread. On the one hand, handball is a relatively young sport, especially the indoor variant that is practiced almost exclusively today. As a result, other sports were already very popular in many countries when handball was just emerging. On the other hand, indoor handball requires the existence of sports halls. Third point is that the rules in handball - compared to football, for example - are more complicated for both the players and the spectators, especially since the game happens much faster. In addition, handball was unable to establish itself in the Anglo-Saxon region (for example in North America and Australia).
But even from countries where handball is less popular, players repeatedly find their way into top European leagues. For example, the Dutch and Brazilians play in the German Bundesliga. Some (ex-) Cubans play in the Spanish league, but most of them have now acquired Spanish citizenship and play for the Spanish national team. In handball, this is possible - unlike in football. While FIFA bans players who have played a competitive game for an senior national team from all other national teams, there is no such rule at the IHF. Therefore, there are numerous players who have completed international matches for two nations, for example Bogdan Wenta for Poland and Germany, Andrej Klimovets for Belarus and Germany or Talant Dujshebaev for Russia and Spain.
Handball in Europe is organized in the European Handball Federation (EHF), which in turn is a continental federation of the International Handball Federation (IHF). In most cases, rules and international agreements are decided by the highest authority and have an effect right down to the grass roots. Exceptions by the DHB , ÖHB or SHV or in the regional associations are still possible in certain areas.
Current title holders
- The German champions in the 2018/19 season were SG Flensburg-Handewitt , the current DHB Cup winners are THW Kiel .
- In Austria the UHK Krems won the championship and the cup in the 2018/19 season .
- Kadetten Schaffhausen became Swiss champions in 2018/19 , Wacker Thun won the cup competition .
In the 2019 World Men's Handball Championship in Denmark and Germany won Denmark by winning with 31:22 over Norway the title. Third came France , who defeated Germany 26:25 in the game for third place .
- The German championship won in the season 2018/19 the SG BBM Bietigheim , Cup Winners' Cup was the Thüringer HC .
- In Austria, WAT Atzgersdorf won the championship for the first time in 2018/19 . The cup winner of the 2018/2019 season was Hypo Niederösterreich .
- The Swiss champions of the 2018/19 season were LC Brühl handball and the cup winners were the Spono Eagles .
In the final of the 2017 World Cup in Germany, France won 23:21 (against Norway), with the Netherlands taking third place.
First division clubs in German-speaking countries
South Tyrol, Italy
Second division in German-speaking countries
- Handball world championship
- European handball championship
- Handball in Germany
- Handball Bundesliga (Germany)
- German handball association with a list of regional associations
- German handball champions
- List of Olympic champions in handball
- Swiss handball association
- Swiss Handball League
- Handball in Austria
- Handball coach
- DSV Deutscher Sportverlag GmbH (Ed.): Handball week . Europe's largest handball newspaper, appears weekly.
- Philippka-Sportverlag (Ed.): Handball training . monthly magazine.
- Erhard Wunderlich (Ed.): Handball. The world of a fascinating sport. Copress Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-7679-0955-7 .
- Link catalog on handball at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- handballecke.de - Comprehensive news site on handball
- International Handball Federation
- European Handball Federation
- German Handball Federation
- Austrian Handball Federation
- Swiss handball association
- dhb.de: Rule 3.2 (PDF) accessed on April 24, 2018
- mak: HBL: Disciplinary Commission and 3rd time-out, but still with 14 players . handball-world.com, July 8, 2012.
- Explanations of the team time-out . handballregel.de; Retrieved December 29, 2007
- Adriana suburu: Historia del balón: deporte nacional uruguayo. Autora, Montevideo 2007, ISBN 978-9974-96-201-9
- Dansk håndbolds historie . ( Memento of July 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) dhf.dk; Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- HSV overslept the day of handball. In: Hamburger Morgenpost from November 6, 2014.