from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A football goalkeeper trying to fend off a ball

The goalkeeper or goalkeeper ( gatekeeper, goalkeeper, goalkeeper or goal player, also: goalkeeper, keeper or goalie ) is a teammate in ball sports . He is the most defensive player on his team and his main task is to prevent the playing device (e.g. a ball ) from getting into his team's goal .


Goalkeepers have special rights over other players in most sports. In football z. B. the goalkeeper may use his hand in the penalty area . In addition, the goalkeeper usually wears special clothing and equipment that visually distinguishes him from the other players, fulfills certain protective functions (such as the goalkeeper mask and the goalkeeper rails in ice hockey ) and supports him in his special task (e.g. increased catch security and Impact absorption through special goalkeeper gloves ).

Goalkeepers in football

The goalkeeper's clothing is different from that of all other field players.
Gianluigi Buffon became the first player to be four times World Goalkeeper of the Year (2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007).
Iker Casillas was the first to become world goalkeeper five times in a row (2008 to 2012).
Oliver Kahn was world goalkeeper three times (1999, 2001 and 2002).

Special rules

The goalkeeper is visually different in his playing attire from all other people on the field.

The goalkeeper may consciously play the ball in his own penalty area with his hand.

According to the back pass rule , the goalkeeper is not allowed to pick up a ball that has been deliberately kicked back to him by a teammate. The time after which the goalkeeper has to play a recorded ball again is a maximum of six seconds. Failure to do so will result in an indirect free kick to the opposing team at the point where the goalkeeper held the ball for more than six seconds.

For a penalty kick, the goalkeeper must keep one foot on the line until the kicker has touched the ball. He had to keep both feet on the line by summer 2019.

The rules for goalkeepers have been changed several times to speed up the game. This concerns the introduction of the back pass rule and the behavior with the penalty kick. In the past, the rule that he was not allowed to move on the penalty kick led to repeated discussions if the goalkeeper had subsequently held the ball and the referee (or his assistant) had not punished the premature movement.

The goalkeeper is the only player for whom play is always interrupted to deal with an injury until he can be used again or a substitute has been substituted on. If a goalkeeper is expelled from the field or injured so seriously that he can no longer play and the substitution quota is exhausted, a field player takes over his role. The goalkeeping rules apply to this from now on.

History and special features

Up until 1871 it was considered common for the most exhausted to go into the goal, so there were always changes. Today in recreational football this is the flying goalkeeper who also plays in other positions. In professional football, this is in accordance with the rules, but not common because of the goalkeeper's specialization in his position. In contrast to the other players, goalkeepers are rarely exchanged. As a rule, regular goalkeepers wear the number 1 on their back .

Some goalkeepers went beyond simply preventing goals in their style of play. So was Petar Radenkovic as well known for often leaving his own penalty area, José Luis Chilavert from Paraguay regularly led the free kicks of his teams and also shot penalty kicks, where he scored 60 goals. Rogério Ceni , who made 1256 appearances for São Paulo FC in his career , was also an excellent free-kick and penalty taker, scoring 131 goals. In the German Bundesliga , Hans Jörg Butt was a regular penalty taker. On May 30, 2006, Colombian goalkeeper Neco Martínez scored a hit from around 90 meters in the 63rd minute of the World Cup test match Poland against Colombia: His Polish counterpart Tomasz Kuszczak left the ball, which hit the edge of the penalty area and then in Bow flew over him, fly into the net. Rein van Duijnhoven scored a similar goal when he played for Maastricht. Also René Higuita , another goalkeeper of Colombia, was considered extravagant in the way of playing. The Mexican goalkeeper Jorge Campos occasionally exchanged his self-designed goalkeeper jerseys for those of field players and played in the attack of his club and the national team. In games with a close score shortly before the end of the game, the goalkeeper of the team behind will go into the opposing penalty area as an additional striker in the final minutes of the game in set pieces. In the Bundesliga, Jens Lehmann , Frank Rost , Marwin Hitz and - in the second Bundesliga - Philipp Tschauner and Martin Männel scored goals in the final minutes. In Serie A , Massimo Taibi's goal was scored in 1999 and it remains his only goal.

After the penalty shoot-out replaced the drawing of lots in the 1970s , goalkeepers played an important role in many important games. Some teams even built their strategy on the skills of their goalkeeper; B. Argentina at the 1990 World Cup . At World Cups, most of the penalty kicks were saved by Toni Schumacher (Germany, 1982/1986) and Sergio Goycochea (Argentina, 1990). Both were able to fend off four penalties each. In the quarter-finals of the 2006 World Cup , Portugal versus England, Ricardo was the first goalkeeper to save three penalties in a penalty shoot-out.

Insecure goalkeepers who have problems catching balls are referred to in sports jargon as "fly catchers ".

Outstanding goalkeepers

Many goalkeepers are among the record players in their country. Among others in Australia ( Mark Schwarzer ), Denmark ( Peter Schmeichel ), England ( Peter Shilton ), Italy ( Gianluigi Buffon ), Cuba ( Odelin Molina Hernández ), Liechtenstein ( Peter Jehle ), Northern Ireland ( Pat Jennings ), Sweden ( Thomas Ravelli ), Spain ( Iker Casillas ), Czech Republic ( Petr Čech ), Turkey ( Rüştü Reçber ) and Hungary ( Gábor Király ) are the current record holders (as of July 2019). World record goalkeeper for men is Mohammad ad-Daʿayyaʿ , goalkeeper of Saudi Arabia with 178 officially recognized internationals. For women, the Scot Gemma Fay is the record holder with 203 internationals, closely followed by the American Hope Solo , who was not considered after 202 internationals.

The most successful goalkeeper in terms of world titles is Gilmar , he was world champion with Brazil in 1958 and 1962. Fabien Barthez / France (1998 and 2006, one win), Cláudio Taffarel / Brazil (1994 and 1998, one win), Harald "Toni" Schumacher / Germany (1982 and 1986, no win) and Jan twice competed in the World Cup final Jongbloed / Netherlands (1974 and 1978, no win). At the age of 23, Bodo Illgner / Germany is the youngest world champion goalkeeper (1990) of all time.

The first goalkeeper who did not concede a goal in ten games at the World Cup was Peter Shilton / England (between 1982 and 1990), but he never won an EM or World Cup. Fabien Barthez set this record at the 2006 World Cup. At the 2006 World Cup, the Swiss Pascal Zuberbühler was the only World Cup goalkeeper to have been on the pitch for the entire tournament season, with the exception of a penalty shoot-out. Nadine Angerer , goalkeeper of the German women's national team, survived the 2007 Women's World Cup in China without conceding a goal. Among other things, she held a penalty in the final.

Eight goalkeepers were both world and European champions: Dino Zoff / Italy (EC 1968, WM 1982), Sepp Maier (EC 1972, WM 1974), Andreas Köpke (WM 1990 (without action), EC 1996), Fabien Barthez (WC 1998, EM 2000) and Iker Casillas (WC 2010 / EM 2008 and 2012) as well as Silke Rottenberg (WC 2003 / EM 1997, 2001 and 2005), Nadine Angerer (WC 2003 and 2007 / EM 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013) and Bente Nordby (EM 1993 and WM 1995) for women. The latter also became an Olympic champion in 2000. Briana Scurry (USA) could also become world champion (1999) and Olympic champion (1996 and 2004). Four goalkeepers became world champions as well as South American champions: Enrique Ballestrero became world champion in 1930 and won the Campeonato Sudamericano in 1935 , Cláudio Taffarel became world champion in 1994 and South American champion in 1997 , Dida was South American champion in 1999 and was in the Brazilian squad in 2002 , but was not used. Aníbal Paz was South American champion in 1942 and was in the Uruguay squad in 1950 , but was only used in the game against Sweden, in the final Roque Máspoli was in goal.

The only goalkeeper who has so far been Europe's Footballer of the Year is Lev Yashin / USSR; Mark Bosnich / Australia was named Oceania's Footballer of the Year in 1997 , José Luis Chilavert / Paraguay was named South America's Footballer of the Year in 1996 and Thomas N'Kono / Cameroon was named Africa's Footballer of the Year in 1979 and 1982 . In Germany and other countries, goalkeepers have been voted Footballer of the Year several times , most often the Estonian Mart Poom (6 ×). Oliver Kahn is the only goalkeeper who was named the best player at a World Cup. In 2002, after the tournament, he received awards for both best player and best goalkeeper. Goalkeeper Nadine Angerer was voted best player in Europe by UEFA for the first time in 2013 and was also the first female goalkeeper to be named World Player of the Year .

The unique role of goalkeepers means that there are a large number of players in this position who can look back on particularly long careers in both the club and the national team. Only a few other goalies from different eras are mentioned here as representative of these :

See also: World goalkeeper , list of German national football goalkeepers

Goalkeepers in ice hockey

Goalkeepers in handball

Other sports that have goalkeepers

  • Bandy
    In this predecessor sport of modern ice hockey, the goalkeeper does not have a stick but tries to fend off or catch the ball with his hands or body.
  • Beach handball
    Here the attacking team can replace the goalkeeper with a fourth field player or the goalkeeper himself can play in the attack.
  • Unicycle hockey
    Here the goalkeeper has no special rights.
  • Gaelic football
  • hockey
Hockey parade at penalty corner
Similar to ice hockey, the goalkeeper wears special protective clothing. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to touch the ball within his own shooting circle with his body as well as with the flat side of the club. However, he may not cover the ball with his body or even try to catch the ball. Therefore, the glove is flat on the non-racquet side. Furthermore, he is only allowed to deflect shots on goal out into goal. Like other players, he is not allowed to actively play the ball out of the goal. In the case of a penalty corner, the goalkeeper must also stand behind the line.
Known goalkeepers:
  • Canoe polo
    Here is played with a flying goalkeeper. The goalkeeper may not be attacked if he is with the stern of his boat under the gate and can be clearly identified as the goalkeeper.
  • Netball
    In netball, a basket keeper is allowed to intercept the ball immediately before it enters the basket.
    The basket keeper is the only player who is allowed to enter the basket circle of her own team - a partial circle drawn within a radius of 3 m around the basket stand. Since, unlike in basketball , for example , there is no goaltending rule, the goalkeeper is permitted to catch or hit the ball immediately before it enters the basket. The height of basket keepers is subject to strict regulations and must not exceed 180 cm. Basket keepers are usually also involved in attacking play. In contrast to the netball played in Germany, the Swiss variant has no goalkeepers.
  • lacrosse
    In this ball sport, the goalkeeper is protected by a circle into which no opposing player is allowed to step. The goalkeeper carries a stick between 1.00 m and 1.80 m. Compared to the usual lacrosse rackets, however, this one has a significantly wider racket head in order to be able to repel the ball better, which can reach up to 160 km / h.
  • Motoball
    The goalkeeper does not sit on a motorcycle like the field players, but also wears a helmet. The goal corresponds to that in football. The goalkeeper is protected by a goal area, a semicircle with a 5.75 m radius. He is not allowed to leave it and the field players are not allowed to drive on it.
  • Bike ball
    While the goalkeeper changes on the fly with the 2-way ball and only the player in the goal is allowed to hold the shots on goal with his hands, the 5-way ball has a fixed goalkeeper who is specially marked and who is the only player in his own penalty area with the ball the hand is allowed to play.
  • Floorball
    In this sport, the goalkeeper sits kneeling in front of a goal the size of an ice hockey and, unlike field players, has no stick. He may accept the ball inside and outside (provided a part of the body is still touching the goal area) of the goal area in any way.
  • Water polo
    The goalkeeper must always remain in his own half of the field. He is the only one who is allowed to play the ball with both hands in the 5 meter area and who is allowed to be in the 2 meter area without the ball. He wears a red cap to distinguish himself from his fellow players .
Known goalkeepers:
  • Erich Rademacher (silver medal at the 1932 Olympic Games)
  • Jesús Miguel Rollán (1998 and 2001 world champion, 1996 Olympic champion with Spain, considered one of the best goalkeepers of all time)
  • Denis Šefik (World Champion 2005 with Serbia-Montenegro)

Sports with goals but without a goalkeeper

American football , basketball , netball played in Switzerland , polo , bike ball (2-a-side) and rugby are among the sports in which there are goals but no special goalkeepers.


Web links

Commons : goalkeepers  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Goalkeeper  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. RSSSF.com .
  2. spiegel.de .
  3. duden.de .
  4. statistics on scottishfa.co.uk
  5. fifa.com: "Goalkeeper in a lonely position" .
  6. Motoball - the rules of a fast-paced team game Welt online, May 20, 2007.