|First edition||August 24, 1963|
|master||FC Bayern Munich|
FC Bayern Munich (30)
FC Bayern Munich (31)
|Record player||Karl-Heinz Koebel ( 602 )|
|Record scorer||Gerd Mueller ( 365 )|
Europa Conference League
↓ 2nd Bundesliga (II)
The Bundesliga ( sometimes also referred to as the 1st Bundesliga to distinguish it from the 2nd Bundesliga ) is the top division in German men's football . In the Bundesliga, the league system in which every club competes against every other club in back and forth matches is played against the German soccer champion, the participants in the European Cup competitions and the relegated teams: The team in first place in the table after the last match day is the German soccer champion ; the last two teams are relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga , which has been the second highest division below the Bundesliga since 1974. The third from last team plays relegation games against the second division third.
The Bundesliga was introduced on July 28, 1962 in Dortmund for the 1963/64 season following the decision of the German Football Association (DFB) ; previously, the German football champions were determined by the DFB in a final round with a final.
The season of the current 2020/21 season started on September 18, 2020 with the 8-0 opening win (highest opening win in the Bundesliga ever) of FC Bayern Munich over FC Schalke 04 in the Munich Allianz Arena . The season started late due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany .
Mode and Orientation
During a championship year, which is divided into a round-trip round, all 18 clubs in the Bundesliga meet twice on the basis of a game plan set before the season ; once in your own stadium and once in the opponent's stadium. A Bundesliga season with its (currently) 34 match days usually extends from August to May. In years in which a World or European Championship takes place, the season sometimes ends in April. In winter, the game was played through until the mid-1980s, with one short interruption. With the game of 1. FC Nürnberg against VfB Stuttgart (1: 1) on December 31, 1964, a game also took place on New Year's Eve . A winter break lasting from the beginning of December to the end of February was first introduced for the 1986/87 season , currently there is usually a break of three weeks in December and January. The individual game days are traditionally kicked off on Saturdays at 3:30 p.m., for a long time also on Fridays and in recent years also on Sundays. A top game has been taking place on Saturdays at 6:30 p.m. for several years. In the 2017/18 season there were also Monday games for the first time, which, however, were not accepted by the audience. In English weeks there are also Tuesday and Wednesday games.
The game schedule is determined with the help of a key number that changes every season and determines the systematic or order in which the clubs compete against each other within a season. The key number and thus the game plan is proposed with the aid of a computer program, taking into account relevant parameters such as other major events. The dates for the matches are set according to the FIFA and UEFA calendar. In addition, the Central Information Center for Security (ZIS) is included in the planning of the match day at an early stage in order to approve it and exclude so-called Doppler. For example, simultaneous home games by Borussia Dortmund and FC Schalke 04 should be avoided.
The team that takes first place after this double round of points receives the title of " German Football Champion " for one year . The two last-placed teams have to be relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga , while the two top-ranked teams are promoted directly to the Bundesliga. In addition, since the 2008/09 season there have been (again) relegation games between the third-bottom player in the Bundesliga and the third-placed player in the 2nd Bundesliga. In addition to the German champions and the relegated champions, the participants in the European club competitions are also determined via the Bundesliga. The UEFA five-year ranking determines which national association has how many clubs in the Champions League or earlier in the European Cup and in the UEFA Europa League or the UEFA Europa Conference League or earlier in the UEFA Cup , UEFA Intertoto Cup and European Cup the cup winner is represented and at what stage the clubs enter the competitions. The higher a league is in the UEFA five-year ranking, the more clubs from this division have the opportunity to take part in international competition. Due to Germany's current position in the five-year ranking, champions, runners-up and third and fourth place in the Bundesliga will take part in the Champions League. Since the 2016/17 season, fourth place, like third place, has also been a directly qualified place; there have been no qualifying games in the German Bundesliga since then. The fifth in the championship, like the DFB Cup winner, is qualified for the Europa League, while the sixth placed participates in the play-off games for the Europa Conference League. All teams participating in the Bundesliga are automatically qualified for the DFB Cup. If the DFB Cup winner is already qualified for the Champions League or the Europa League or the Europe Conference League via the Bundesliga, the table seventh also takes part in the Europa Conference League. In addition, up to the 2015/16 season, other teams were able to qualify using the fair play rating . This was achieved by 1. FSV Mainz 05 in 2005 and Hertha BSC in 2008 for the UEFA Cup.
After each game, the winning team receives three points and the defeated team receives no point; in the event of a tie, each team receives one point. The points achieved during a season are added up and thus result in a current ranking of the clubs for each game day. In the event of a tie, the better goal difference decides the order of placement; if the difference is the same, the number of goals scored. If two teams are still tied after that, the overall result of the games decides against each other, whereby the goals scored away count more. If the away goals scored are the same in all games, a play-off game will be played on a neutral seat. However, this has never been the case in the Bundesliga so far.
The mode of the Bundesliga has remained almost unchanged since the first edition. Only the number of participating clubs (16, 18, 20) and the number of relegation places (2 to 4) fluctuated. As is currently the case, relegation games were held at times to determine who was promoted and relegated, cf. relegation to the German Bundesliga . Until 1969, when there was a tie, the goal difference was not used, but the goal quotient . The three-point rule has been in place since the 1995/96 season . Before that, there were two points for a win and one point for a draw. In the table, the points won for each team were compared to the points not won or given in relation to each other. (a)
UEFA five-year ranking
Placement in the UEFA five-year ranking :
(in brackets, the previous year's ranking) . The abbreviations CL , EL and ECL after the country coefficients indicate the number of representatives in the 2021/22 season of the Champions League , the Europa League and the Europa Conference League .
- ( 1 ) Spain ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 102.283 - CL: 4, EL: 2, ECL: 1 1.
- ( 2 ) England ( league , cup , league cup ) - coefficient: 90,462 - CL: 4, EL: 2, ECL: 1 2.
- ( 4 ) Germany ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 74.784 - CL: 4, EL: 2, ECL: 1 3.
- ( 3 ) Italy ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 70,653 - CL: 4, EL: 2, ECL: 1 4.
- ( 5 ) France ( league , cup , league cup ) - coefficient: 59.248 - CL: 3, EL: 2, ECL: 1 5.
Status: End of the 2019/20 European Cup season
Organizer (DFB / DFL)
Until 2001, the Bundesliga was held under the umbrella of the German Football Association (DFB). Since then, the DFB and the German Football League (officially: DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga e.V. , until August 2016 Ligaverband / Die Liga - Fußballverband e.V. ), founded as an amalgamation of the 36 licensed clubs of the Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga, have been joint organizers. A basic contract regulates the relationship between the DFB and DFL eV The DFL club has delegated the operational tasks to its wholly-owned subsidiary, the DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga GmbH (DFL).
The aim of the German Football League is to maintain and strengthen professionally operated football in Germany . The DFL sees itself as a service provider for all members of the two leagues and represents the clubs in relation to the media and the public. In principle, the DFL's area of responsibility is divided into the three main branches of gaming operations, licensing and marketing. In addition to organizing professional football, in which the DFL is responsible for scheduling all 68 games in the Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga per season, it grants the broadcast rights to the games in the licensed leagues for television and radio broadcasts as well as on the Internet. The DFL also creates national and international brands and is responsible for licensing the 36 professional clubs in the 1st and 2nd Bundesliga.
To participate in the Bundesliga, each team needs a license from the DFL or, earlier, from the DFB. The license is awarded on the basis of sporting, legal, personnel-administrative, infrastructural and security-related, media-related and financial criteria. The above-mentioned prerequisites are equally important, but the granting of a license is usually based on the financial criteria that are intended to ensure the economic performance of the clubs.
After the economic performance of the clubs was only checked in spring until 2007, a so-called “licensing review” will be introduced from the 2007/08 season. Here, the financial situation of economically weaker clubs, which receive their license only with conditions, will be examined again in autumn. On the basis of the balance sheet as of June 30 of each year and updated budget calculations, the clubs concerned must provide evidence of liquidity by the end of the season. If this does not succeed, further requirements can be set. If they are not met, there is a risk of sanctions up to and including deduction of points during the current season.
The licensing process in German football is considered to be one of the strictest in the world. Since the Bundesliga was founded, a club has never had to file for bankruptcy or withdraw its team during the current season, due to the particular focus on checking liquidity , i.e. looking at whether the clubs are able to keep the game going for the coming season withdraw from gaming operations for financial reasons.
If a club does not receive a Bundesliga license, it is considered relegated to the 3rd division, subject to the admission requirements applicable there, and thus moves to the bottom of the table of the 2nd Bundesliga of the previous season. The number of teams relegated for sporting reasons is reduced accordingly. In the 1994/95 season, Dynamo Dresden was the only time a first division club was refused a license for the following season for economic reasons. However, several clubs were penalized with point deductions and fines for violating license conditions.
In the game year 1932/33 there were 55 regional leagues across Germany under different names - such as the district league and Gauliga - with first division status. As early as 1932, the then DFB President Felix Linnemann called for the introduction of a "Reichsliga" in which the best clubs should play the German champions. Appropriate plans were presented at the national DFB conference on October 16, 1932, but the regional associations rejected the project. After the National Socialists came to power, however, at the beginning of the game year 1933/34, a tightening of 16 Gauligen was enforced, which represented the highest level of performance in German football up to the end of the Second World War - with a few mainly war-related variations.
While football in other major European football nations was organized in national professional leagues before the Second World War, such as in England since 1888 and in Spain and Italy since the late 1920s , in Germany it was the top division in the nationwide leagues big differences in performance between some top teams and the rest of the league. This led to the fact that the players, who were often insufficiently challenged in league games, were no longer competitive internationally and Spanish or Italian clubs dominated the European Cup. By creating the Bundesliga as the nationwide highest division with a clearly evenly strong line-up, the general level of performance should be increased.
In West Germany there was renewed discussion after the Second World War about the introduction of a nationwide professional league. A strong supporter of this idea was Franz Kremer , the then president of 1. FC Cologne , who in 1949 became chairman of the interest group Bundesliga and professional football . As before the war, the regional associations were against the idea of a Bundesliga. The DFB also had major concerns as to whether sporting competition and the market economy could be reconciled. Many critics feared that the clubs would become insolvent. Thus, a first attempt to found the Bundesliga at the extraordinary DFB Bundestag in 1958 in Frankfurt failed. In the following years, however, Kremer found important supporters in the national coach Sepp Herberger and the later DFB President Hermann Neuberger . Neuberger suggested in 1962, a few weeks after the German national team was eliminated in the quarter-finals of the World Cup in Chile , again the creation of a uniform top division. On July 28, 1962, the delegates of the individual regional associations at the DFB Bundestag in the gold hall of Dortmund's Westfalenhalle finally decided with 103-26 votes to introduce the Bundesliga for the 1963/64 season .
Selection of the participating clubs (1962–1963)
In the newly created league, 16 teams were to play, five of which should come from the Oberliga Süd and Oberliga West , three from the Oberliga Nord , two from the Oberliga Südwest and one from the Berlin City League .
For the qualification of the teams, sporting and economic criteria should be decisive, with only one club per city being considered. The selection process that was ultimately used to find the 16 founding members of the Bundesliga was extremely complicated. The DFB decided on a key after the clubs' final positions in the major leagues from the seasons 1951/52 to 1954/55 were rated single, from 1955/56 to 1958/59 twice and from 1959/60 to 1962/63 triple. Additional points were awarded for reaching championship finals and cup finals. In addition, the infrastructural framework had to be in place. For example, a club had to have a stadium with at least 35,000 seats and a floodlight system. The details of the so-called twelve - year evaluation were set by the DFB advisory board on October 6, 1962.
Of the 74 league clubs, 46 applied for the first Bundesliga season. However, 15 applicants were immediately rejected, including Borussia Mönchengladbach , Hessen Kassel and Bayer 04 Leverkusen . On January 11, 1963, 1. FC Köln , Borussia Dortmund , FC Schalke 04 , Werder Bremen , Eintracht Frankfurt , 1. FC Nürnberg , 1. FC Saarbrücken , Hamburger SV and Hertha BSC were determined to be the first nine participants . For the remaining seven places, 20 clubs remained, which meanwhile tried in vain to increase the league to 18 or 20 clubs. On May 6, 1963 in Hamburg Preußen Münster , Meidericher SV , Eintracht Braunschweig , 1. FC Kaiserslautern , TSV 1860 Munich , VfB Stuttgart and Karlsruher SC received approval. The remaining 13 clubs had to enter the regional league, which was founded as the second highest division under the Bundesliga .
The selection of the 16 clubs participating in the first Bundesliga season was sometimes highly controversial. 1. FC Saarbrücken was not accepted for sporting reasons, but because of its stadium and infrastructure. It was speculated that this decision was mainly made because Hermann Neuberger, who was represented on the DFB Presidium and who came from Saarland, wanted to bring "his" club into the Bundesliga. From a sporting point of view, in addition to 1. FC Kaiserslautern, either FK Pirmasens or Borussia Neunkirchen would have qualified as the second south-west club for the Bundesliga. There were also heavily debated decisions in the south, west and north. Alemannia Aachen felt ignored by the representatives of the Oberliga West , as Meidericher SV, a club of the Lower Rhine regional association, was preferred. In the Oberliga Nord, the selection of Eintracht Braunschweig as the third North representative was controversial, as Hannover 96 had more points in the twelve-year standings and performed better in terms of technical requirements. From the Oberliga Süd, FC Bayern Munich and the Kickers Offenbach , which were placed in front of the two Munich clubs in the twelve-year ranking, were not taken into account, as TSV 1860 Munich qualified directly as champions of the league.
The following 16 clubs formed the founding members of the Bundesliga:
- From the Oberliga Nord: Eintracht Braunschweig , Werder Bremen , Hamburger SV
- From the Oberliga West: Borussia Dortmund , 1. FC Cologne , Meidericher SV , Preußen Münster , FC Schalke 04
- From the Oberliga Südwest: 1. FC Kaiserslautern , 1. FC Saarbrücken
- From the Oberliga Süd: Eintracht Frankfurt , Karlsruher SC , 1. FC Nuremberg , TSV 1860 Munich , VfB Stuttgart
- From the Berlin City League: Hertha BSC
Of these 16 clubs, only Hamburger SV belonged to the top division for 55 seasons without interruption (first relegation in the 2017/18 season ). Previously, the three founding members with the next longest uninterrupted membership were relegated for the first time in the 1997/98 season with 1. FC Köln (35 seasons) and in the 1995/96 season with Eintracht Frankfurt and 1. FC Kaiserslautern (33 seasons each) . Currently (as of the 2020/21 season ) seven of the 16 founding members are represented in the Bundesliga again.
The first statute: no professional football yet (1963)
The Bundesliga was new territory not only insofar as the DFB now for the first time maintained a national division for its entire area. This was accompanied by the Bundesliga statute, decided by the DFB advisory board on October 6, 1962, which differentiated the licensed player from the contract player without allowing unlimited full professional football. Rather, a number of restrictions from the top division remained for the time being, including the cap on the permitted player payments (“as a rule” a maximum of DM 1200 per month, Section 18) and transfer fees (maximum DM 50,000, Section 21). Here only higher limits were set than before in the upper league.
The DFB took a qualitative step with the licensed player insofar as, unlike the contract player, he no longer had to prove a "bourgeois" (or proletarian) livelihood or similar, but as an employee of his club had certain employee rights and could sue them if necessary (§ 29). This resulted, among other things, in the fact that the releasing club could no longer refuse unjustified approval when the contract expired, even if the burden of proof was still on the player in the event of a dispute. A first precedent was Uwe Klimaschefski , whom the regional league team Bayer 04 Leverkusen had to give clearance for the Bundesliga team Hertha BSC after a decision by the Bundesliga committee.
On the other hand, the “three-man clause” was still in effect until 1967, according to which “no more than three players from foreign clubs” per club and season could be recruited and only during a four-week time window during the summer break. Furthermore, all player licenses expire “without prior notice if the club concerned is relegated or if the license granted to the club is lost”. In the interplay of the two provisions, Schalke 04 stood in 1965 after the (alleged) relegation with initially only twelve players (nine previous and three permitted newcomers), but could make use of a hardship clause. In addition, “club-owned” amateurs or A youth players were not included in the quota.
An extension of the transfer period, so that the squad could be readjusted in the current season, should only come about in 1972/73. There were no exceptions until then; so the 1. FC Köln 1968/69 could not compensate his permanently injured goalkeeper Milutin Šoškić with a new signing.
Founding years (1963–1968)
|season||German champion ( total / BL )|
|1963/64||1. FC Cologne (2/1)|
|1965/66||TSV 1860 Munich|
|1967/68||1. FC Nürnberg (9/1)|
|1968/69||FC Bayern Munich (2/1)|
|1970/71||Borussia Moenchengladbach (2)|
|1971/72||FC Bayern Munich (3/2)|
|1972/73||FC Bayern Munich (4/3)|
|1973/74||FC Bayern Munich (5/4)|
|1974/75||Borussia Moenchengladbach (3)|
|1975/76||Borussia Moenchengladbach (4)|
|1976/77||Borussia Moenchengladbach (5)|
|1977/78||1. FC Cologne (3/2)|
|1978/79||Hamburger SV (4/1)|
|1979/80||FC Bayern Munich (6/5)|
|1980/81||FC Bayern Munich (7/6)|
|1981/82||Hamburger SV (5/2)|
|1982/83||Hamburger SV (6/3)|
|1983/84||VfB Stuttgart (3/1)|
|1984/85||FC Bayern Munich (8/7)|
|1985/86||FC Bayern Munich (9/8)|
|1986/87||FC Bayern Munich (10/9)|
|1987/88||Werder Bremen (2)|
|1988/89||FC Bayern Munich (11/10)|
|1989/90||FC Bayern Munich (12/11)|
|1990/91||1. FC Kaiserslautern (3/1)|
|1991/92||VfB Stuttgart (4/2)|
|1992/93||Werder Bremen (3)|
|1993/94||FC Bayern Munich (13/12)|
|1994/95||Borussia Dortmund (4/1)|
|1995/96||Borussia Dortmund (5/2)|
|1996/97||FC Bayern Munich (14/13)|
|1997/98||1. FC Kaiserslautern (4/2)|
|1998/99||FC Bayern Munich (15/14)|
|1999/00||FC Bayern Munich (16/15)|
|2000/01||FC Bayern Munich (17/16)|
|2001/02||Borussia Dortmund (6/3)|
|2002/03||FC Bayern Munich (18/17)|
|2003/04||Werder Bremen (4)|
|2004/05||FC Bayern Munich (19/18)|
|2005/06||FC Bayern Munich (20/19)|
|2006/07||VfB Stuttgart (5/3)|
|2007/08||FC Bayern Munich (21/20)|
|2009/10||FC Bayern Munich (22/21)|
|2010/11||Borussia Dortmund (7/4)|
|2011/12||Borussia Dortmund (8/5)|
|2012/13||FC Bayern Munich (23/22)|
|2013/14||FC Bayern Munich (24/23)|
|2014/15||FC Bayern Munich (25/24)|
|2015/16||FC Bayern Munich (26/25)|
|2016/17||FC Bayern Munich (27/26)|
|2017/18||FC Bayern Munich (28/27)|
|2018/19||FC Bayern Munich (29/28)|
|2019/20||FC Bayern Munich (30/29)|
|2020/21||FC Bayern Munich (31/30)|
The first matchday of the first Bundesliga season was August 24, 1963. After just 58 seconds, Borussia Dortmund's Timo Konietzka scored the first Bundesliga goal in the game against Werder Bremen. 327,000 spectators saw the eight games on the first match day in the stadiums. The then already professionally run 1. FC Köln won the first Bundesliga championship with only two defeats and six points ahead of Meidericher SV.
In the following season, the league got into its first major crisis. Hertha BSC was revoked because of excessive payments to players, and the club had to relegate to the then second-rate regional league. Now the two relegated athletes Karlsruher SC and FC Schalke 04 claimed the space freed up by the forced relegation (unlike today there was no clear regulation for such cases) and objected to their own relegation. After some back and forth - for example a qualifying round with four teams was scheduled and canceled - the number of clubs was increased to 18, so that both of the "actual" relegated teams could remain in the league. The DFB decided to also include a Berlin club. Political overtones also played a role, since all federal governments had emphasized since 1949 that the three western sectors of Berlin were firmly connected with the Federal Republic. As a replacement for Hertha BSC, last year's champion and third place in the Regionalliga Berlin, Tasmania Berlin , was admitted to the Bundesliga without current sporting qualifications after the regional league champion Tennis Borussia failed in the promotion round to the Bundesliga and the second-placed Spandauer SV had renounced promotion . "Tas" justified its own claim by stating that it should have been nominated as the legal representative of Berlin as early as 1963.
Despite a win at the start of the season, Tasmania rose after only one season in 1966 as the worst team in Bundesliga history and set seven negative records that were still valid 54 years later: lowest number of goals scored (15) and highest number of goals conceded (108), fewest Plus points (8), fewest wins (2), most defeats (28), lowest number of spectators for a game (827) and the longest series without a win (31 games in a row). In the same year, two clubs, Borussia Mönchengladbach and FC Bayern Munich, were promoted, which after a few years dominated the Bundesliga for a long time. Until 1970 a different club became champions every year. With 1. FC Nürnberg, a reigning champion was relegated for the first and so far only time in 1969.
In the European Cup, the first Bundesliga champions were eliminated in the quarter-finals at the latest, although Eintracht Frankfurt (1960) had reached the final and Hamburger SV (1961) and Borussia Dortmund (1964) had reached the semi-finals, and the cup winners in the European Cup Winners' Cup were very successful. In the trade fair cup , the official predecessor of the UEFA Cup, only 1. FC Köln 1964 and Eintracht Frankfurt 1967 made it to the semi-finals.
Bayern Munich versus Borussia Mönchengladbach (1969–1978)
In the early 1970s, the league was shaken by the Bundesliga scandal uncovered on June 6, 1971 by Horst-Gregorio Canellas , President of Offenbacher Kickers . Due to manipulations in point games in the relegation battle, Rot-Weiß Oberhausen and Arminia Bielefeld had managed to stay in the Bundesliga. In the investigation led by DFB chief prosecutor Hans Kindermann it was found that 18 games of the last eight game days in the 1970/71 season were supposed to be sold or manipulated. A total of 52 players, two coaches and six club officials were fined. In addition, the Bundesliga license was withdrawn from the clubs Arminia Bielefeld and Kickers Offenbach.
In the period that followed, football lost its credibility. The spectators punished the clubs with their abstinence. The number of viewers had been steadily declining since 1965/66, but fell particularly drastically from 6.3 million in the 1970/71 season to 5.4 million in 1971/72 and to the all-time low in 1972/73 with just five million at one cut of 16,372 visitors per game. In addition to the scandal, other reasons for the decline in visitors were also intensively discussed at the time, including the lack of comfort in the stadiums and increasing television coverage. It was not until the 1974 World Cup , for which many stadiums were rebuilt, expanded or rebuilt, and above all because of the win, that the reputation and attendance rose again. The Bundesliga teams were also very successful internationally. As early as 1972, the last restrictions on salaries and transfer fees had been removed, so that professional football, which had existed in other countries for decades, could develop fully.
Borussia Mönchengladbach was the first club to successfully defend the German Bundesliga championship (1970/71). In the six following seasons, Bayern Munich (1972–1974) and then Mönchengladbach (1975–1977) scored the “title hat trick ”, which only Bayern Munich (1985–1987, 1999–2001 and 2013–2015) could repeat. A total of nine seasons in a row, one of the two clubs won the championship. Borussia Mönchengladbach had to sell high performers abroad again and again due to the smaller spectator capacity of their own stadium, in contrast to their Bavarian competitor, who had moved to the new Olympic Stadium after the 1972 Olympic Games . So you were no longer competitive towards the end of the 1970s. While the championship title in 1977 was the last so far for Mönchengladbach and the team was even relegated in 1999 and 2007, Bayern Munich was able to further expand its dominance in the following years.
In 1976, when Roger Van Gool was signed by 1. FC Köln, a transfer fee of one million DM was paid for the first time. In the following years, both the transfer fees and the players' salaries rose sharply.
Internationally, the 1970s were the most successful decade for Bundesliga clubs. Every year at least one club has reached a semi-final, three times the European Cup (Bayern Munich 1974 , 1975 and 1976 ), once the European Cup Winners' Cup ( Hamburger SV 1977) and three times the UEFA Cup (Borussia Mönchengladbach 1975 and 1979 , Eintracht Frankfurt 1980 ). In addition, the final was reached again in each competition. In 1980 all teams in the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup came from the Bundesliga, which no association has achieved to this day.
North against South (1979–1990)
In the 1980s, the number of spectators in the Bundesliga stadiums fell again. One of the reasons for this was that several German stars switched to foreign clubs. The most spectacular transfer at that time was Karl-Heinz Rummenigge's move from Bayern Munich to Inter Milan , for which more than DM 10 million was paid for the first time. Due to the success of Boris Becker and Steffi Graf , the media audience interest shifted to tennis. Although the national team reached the World Cup final in 1982 and 1986, their appearances were less attractive. In 1986 the winter break was extended to eight weeks in order to counteract the absence of spectators due to the bad weather conditions and because the places were often unplayable in the winter months.
In terms of sport, Hamburger SV, with the players around Horst Hrubesch , Manfred Kaltz and Felix Magath , rose to become Bayern Munich's main opponent as early as the late 1970s. After HSV's first title in 1979, two more German championships followed under coach Ernst Happel in 1982 and 1983. The Hamburgers did not succeed in the title hat trick, as they were only runner-up behind VfB Stuttgart in the 1983/84 season .
But FC Bayern Munich had also coped well with the departure of the outstanding players in the 1970s and was able to build on their past successes in the new decade. From the mid-1980s, however, they had to fight back with Werder Bremen, a new opponent from the north. The Bremer coached by Otto Rehhagel , one of the league's “basement children” in the 1970s and even second-rate in the 1980/81 season, immediately settled in the top third of the table immediately after being promoted again. However, FC Bayern Munich expanded its dominance and, by winning the ninth and tenth German championships in 1986 and 1987, replaced the previous record holder 1. FC Nuremberg with nine championships (eight of which were before the Bundesliga was introduced). The duel with Bremen remained for a few years. After narrowly failing in 1985 and 1986, Werder Bremen won the championship for the second time in 1988 and remained strong in the years that followed.
In the 1980s, German clubs reached the final of the European Champion Clubs' Cup four times (one win, Hamburger SV 1983 ) and the final of the UEFA Cup (two wins, Eintracht Frankfurt in 1980 after the all-German semi-finals and Bayer 04 Leverkusen in 1988 ). Even if at least one Bundesliga club reached the semi-finals of a European competition until 1984, the successes of the 1970s could not be repeated.
Reunification and Commercialization (1991–1999)
The Bundesliga has been enjoying growing popularity again since the early 1990s. On the one hand, this is attributed to the sporting success of the national team (third World Cup title in 1990 and third European Championship title in 1996), and on the other hand, the Bundesliga was specifically marketed in the media. From 1991, Premiere reported live from the league games, a year later Sat.1 took over the television broadcasting rights for Saturday evening with ran - Sat.1 Bundesliga .
In 1991 the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) joined the DFB . With the alignment of the East German league system with the West German game operations, FC Hansa Rostock and Dynamo Dresden from the GDR Oberliga were included in the Bundesliga. The league therefore played temporarily with 20 clubs in 1991/92 , four of which had to be relegated. The first all-German champion after the end of the Second World War was VfB Stuttgart , who only managed to push themselves in front of Eintracht Frankfurt and Borussia Dortmund on the last match day .
The sporting competition in the league was much more even than in previous years. Five clubs won the championship this decade. Borussia Dortmund was able to use the income from the European Cup to bring players like Jürgen Kohler , Stefan Reuter or Andreas Möller back into the Bundesliga from abroad and thus rose to become one of the main competitors of Bayern Munich in the mid-1990s .
Even in the 1990s, Bundesliga clubs reached at least one European semi-final every year. Borussia Dortmund won the Champions League in 1997 , Bayern Munich ( 1996 ) and Schalke 04 ( 1997 ) won the UEFA Cup and Werder Bremen won the 1992 European Cup Winners' Cup. In addition, a Bundesliga team reached the final one more time in each competition.
With Karlsruher SC , SC Freiburg or VfL Wolfsburg , some teams were able to qualify for the UEFA Cup for the first time in their Bundesliga history, with KSC making it straight to the semi-finals in 1994. On the other hand, traditional clubs such as Eintracht Frankfurt, Borussia Mönchengladbach, 1. FC Kaiserslautern or 1. FC Cologne relegated to the 2. Bundesliga for the first time after having been in the league for many years. The 1. FC Kaiserslautern succeeded in 1998 to become the first team immediately after the rise of German masters.
"Vizekusen" and football boom (2000–2008)
Bayern Munich have won 13 championship titles since 2000. The other title holders were Borussia Dortmund in 2002 , 2011 and 2012 , Werder Bremen in 2004 , VfB Stuttgart in 2007 and VfL Wolfsburg for the first time in 2009 .
The championship was decided six times on the last day of the game. In 2000 , Bayer 04 Leverkusen would have been able to draw with SpVgg Unterhaching , who had already been rescued , but Bayern Munich overtook them with their 2-0 defeat. The championship decision a year later was even more dramatic when FC Schalke 04 believed they were German champions after the successful end of their game, but Bayern Munich scored the required goal to defend their title in stoppage time. For this Schalke received the title "Master of Hearts" from its fans.
On August 24, 2003, the Bundesliga celebrated its 40th birthday at the start of the 2003/04 season with a game between “Bundesliga dinosaur” Hamburger SV and Bundesliga record champions FC Bayern Munich. In 2004, the DFL introduced championship stars for championship titles that were achieved in the Bundesliga.
In January 2005, the football betting scandal triggered by the referee Robert Hoyzer shocked the league. However, this only affected games in the 2nd Bundesliga , the DFB Cup and the Regionalliga . As a result of the scandal, the DFB and DFL installed an early warning system that will indicate unusual bets in the future.
Nevertheless, the number of viewers rose to new records. The 306 games of the 2004/05 season attracted over 11.56 million viewers (an average of 37,781), which is well above the number of viewers in Spain , Italy or England . The highest average number of spectators in Europe was achieved by Borussia Dortmund with 77,235 spectators per game. The increasing number of spectators can be explained by the many stadiums built or modernized for the 2006 World Cup and a generally increasing interest in football. In addition, a different clientele is targeted by building business boxes in the stadiums. The proportion of female viewers also increased.
Immediately after the turn of the millennium, German clubs reached the Champions League final twice (Bayern Munich won 2001 and Bayer Leverkusen 2002 ) and the UEFA Cup final once (Borussia Dortmund 2002 ). Bayern Munich's 2001 Champions League victory was the last European Cup win for a German team for the next twelve years.
European top league (2009-2013)
With the gradual decline of the international class of the Bundesliga at the beginning of the 2000s, there was also a temporary slump in the UEFA five-year standings . The league lost several places, slipped out of the top 3 and thus lost a starting place in the Champions League. After she was only in fifth place for a short time, she was able to regain third place at the end of the 2010/11 season and has played four Champions League starting places again since the 2011/12 season. At times the Bundesliga is a top European league; this phase culminates in the 2013 Champions League final.
In 2008/09, Hamburger SV and SV Werder Bremen met in the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup. SV Werder prevailed and was the first German team since 2002 to reach the final of a European club competition. Here they were defeated by Shakhtar Donetsk 1: 2 nV. In 2010, Bayern Munich reached the semi-finals and the final of the Champions League for the first time since 2002. In the final, Munich lost 2-0 to Inter Milan . Two years later, Bayern were again in the Champions League final, which they lost to Chelsea in their own stadium . In the 2012/13 season, a total of seven German teams made it to the group stage in both competitions. All made it into the knockout round of the European Cup, which is a historic record. In addition, the 2013 Champions League final was a purely German duel between Borussia Dortmund and Bayern Munich, making it the second after the 1979/80 UEFA Cup final . Bayern Munich won the final 2-1 and became the first German European Cup winner since 2001.
Dominance of FC Bayern Munich (since 2013)
Since 2013, FC Bayern Munich has set itself apart from all other Bundesliga clubs with unprecedented dominance. From this year on, only FC Bayern Munich became German soccer champions. With three consecutive title wins in 2014, 2015 and 2016, Pep Guardiola rose to become the most successful foreign Bundesliga coach. At the same time, it was the first time in the history of the Bundesliga that a club had won four titles in a row. In 2020, FC Bayern Munich celebrated its eighth championship in a row. During these eight seasons, FC Bayern achieved a total of 115 points more than the second in the table (average: 14.4 points ahead per season). FC Bayern closed the 2019/20 season with the record for the best second half of the season. With 16 wins and one draw and the best goal difference of 54:10, the team did not suffer any defeat. Such a quota, although the goal difference was worse by one goal, had only happened once so far (at that time also FC Bayern, 2012/13). In the national press, the Bundesliga is therefore often described as monotonous or even boring.
In an international comparison, however, the Bundesliga is falling again. In particular, the top leagues in Spain and England lead the UEFA five-year standings by a long way ahead of the Bundesliga. German teams only play a subordinate role in the European cup competitions. In the 2016/17 season, for the first time since the 2004/05 season, no German club team reached the semi-finals of a European Cup.
Since the beginning of the 2015/16 season, goal-line technology has been used in the Bundesliga , which automatically signals to the referee when a regular goal has been scored. In December 2014 it was decided to use the Hawk-Eye camera technology . For the season 2017/18 was video assistant introduced and first used on 22 August 2017th
As a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic , various innovations and adjustments that apply to the two national leagues were decided at a DFL general meeting in early April 2020. For example, the application to open insolvency proceedings within the 2019/20 season would no longer have resulted in the deduction of nine points, but only three points. In addition, the review of the liquidity situation was temporarily suspended as part of the licensing process for the 2020/21 season; However, the economic performance of the clubs will be checked as early as September 2020, and any liquidity gaps will then be punished with restrictions on transfer activities. In addition, the previous minimum age for granting a license to play in both national leagues has been reduced from 17 to 16 for the 2020/21 season. Furthermore, concepts for the implementation of ghost games were developed in order to enable games to be run without spectators and with as little staffing as possible. In the course of the resumption of play on May 16, the substitution contingent was increased to up to five players who can be substituted on within three time windows. This regulation was extended to the season 2020/21.
Since the Bundesliga was founded in 1963, a total of 56 clubs have played in the top German division, with Union Berlin being the youngest newcomer in the 2019/20 season . Up to and including the 2017/18 season , Hamburger SV was the last club to have played in the Bundesliga for a total of 55 seasons. At the end of the season, however, Hamburg relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga for the first time . Werder Bremen currently played the most years in the Bundesliga with 56 seasons, interrupted by just one year in the 2nd Bundesliga in the 1980/81 season . This is followed by FC Bayern Munich with currently 55 completed seasons. Bayern Munich has been part of the Bundesliga for the longest uninterrupted period since its rise in 1965.
Most of the Bundesliga clubs have come from big cities so far. Only 1. FC Kaiserslautern (only a few years in a big city), Borussia Neunkirchen , FC Homburg , SpVgg Unterhaching and TSG Hoffenheim came from places with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants. With around 20,000 inhabitants , Unterhaching had the lowest number of inhabitants - although it must be taken into account that the community belongs to the district of Munich and borders directly on Munich. The largest German city that has not yet been represented by a club in the elite league is the former federal capital of Bonn . From Munich , Hamburg , Stuttgart , Bochum , Cologne and Leipzig there were two Bundesliga teams each (SpVgg Unterhaching is occasionally referred to as the third Munich team), in all of these cities except Leipzig there were direct duels between the two clubs in the Bundesliga. Berlin was with Hertha BSC , Tasmania Berlin , Tennis Borussia Berlin , Blau-Weiß 90 Berlin and Union Berlin represented by five different teams in the Bundesliga. After two West Berlin clubs met in the Bundesliga with Hertha and TeBe in 1974/75 and 1976/77 , on November 4, 2019, there was a Bundesliga match for the first time in a united Berlin with the game Union against Hertha.
The geographical distribution of Bundesliga clubs across the country is uneven. In the 2020/21 season , a total of six clubs from WDFV ( North Rhine-Westphalia ), six clubs from SFV (two from Bavaria , three from Baden-Württemberg and one from Hesse ), three from NOFV (two from Berlin and one from Saxony ) , two from the NFV (from Bremen and Lower Saxony ) and one representative of the Südwest Verband (from Rhineland-Palatinate ). The seven states of Brandenburg , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , Hamburg , Saarland , Saxony-Anhalt , Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia currently do not have a football team in the highest German league. A Bundesliga club has never come from Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
With the rise of Union Berlin in 2019, for the first time since the 2007/08 season there are two clubs from the area of the former GDR , of which only Union Berlin can show a DFV past. This makes Union Berlin, after Hansa Rostock , Dynamo Dresden , VfB Leipzig and Energie Cottbus , the fifth Bundesliga team with DFV history and the first since Energie Cottbus was relegated in 2009 (see the list of NOFV football teams in German professional football ) . The other club, RB Leipzig , was only founded in 2009.
Clubs of the Bundesliga season 2020/21
|society||Playing times (total)||Last climb||Number of climbs||Remarks|
|Hertha BSC||37||2013||6 1|
|1. FC Union Berlin||1||2019||1|
|Werder Bremen||56||1981||1 1|
|Borussia Dortmund||53||1976||1 1||Runner-up|
|Eintracht Frankfurt||51||2012||4 1|
|TSG 1899 Hoffenheim||12th||2008||1|
|1. FC Cologne||48||2019||6 1|
|Bayer 04 Leverkusen||41||1979||1|
|1. FSV Mainz 05||14th||2009||2|
|FC Bayern Munich||55||1965||1||master|
|FC Schalke 04||52||1991||3 1|
|VfB Stuttgart||53||2020||3 1||Climbers|
The geographical positions of all clubs in the history of the Bundesliga are displayed on these maps.
All previous Bundesliga clubs
Clubs from North Rhine-Westphalia
Clubs from Berlin
The Bundesliga champions
The first place in the Bundesliga at the end of the season is the German soccer champion and receives the championship trophy. In addition, he can receive the Victoria , the former championship trophy that was lost after the Second World War . In addition, if a club has won three Bundesliga championships or more, they can wear one, from five a second, from ten a third, from 20 a fourth and from 30 a fifth championship star over the club crest. The reigning champions can also wear a gold version of the Bundesliga logo on their sleeve during the current season.
In the 57 Bundesliga seasons to date, a total of twelve different clubs have won the championship title. The most successful club, with 30 Bundesliga championships won, is FC Bayern Munich, which also leads the all-time league table of the Bundesliga . This is followed by Borussia Mönchengladbach and Borussia Dortmund with 5 titles each and Werder Bremen with 4 titles.
See also: List of German football champions
So far, FC Bayern Munich has finished second in the table ten times. No other team won the unofficial title of "runner-up" more often. Werder Bremen, Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund were each runner-up seven times. FC Schalke 04 is also the best-placed team in the all-time table that never won the championship.
The promoted and relegated
The composition of the Bundesliga changes every game year due to the relegation of the last-placed clubs, which in turn are replaced by the best teams in the class below.
In the first two years the league played with 16 teams, of which two teams were relegated in the first season. In addition to 1. FC Saarbrücken , Preußen Münster was hit and never returned to the Bundesliga. The Münsteraner are thus the club that played the fewest Bundesliga games, as there were only 16 Bundesliga clubs and therefore only 30 games in the 1963/64 season . All other clubs that have only played in the Bundesliga for one season since then have played 34 games.
For the 1965/66 season , the league was increased to 18 clubs, so that apart from Hertha BSC , which had to enter the Berlin City League due to the license withdrawal, no team was relegated. In addition, Tasmania Berlin was moved to the first division for political reasons. Even after the Bundesliga was increased to 18 teams, there were initially two relegated teams. Until the introduction of the 2nd Bundesliga, the top-ranked teams in the regional leagues played the two promoted teams to the Bundesliga in a promotion round.
After the establishment of the 2nd Bundesliga in the 1974/75 season, three clubs were relegated each year. The two champions of the 2nd Bundesliga, which was initially divided into a north and south season, rose straight away. The third promotion place was determined by promotion games of the two runner-ups. After the introduction of the single-track 2. Bundesliga for the 1981/82 season, champions and runner-up champions rose straight away. Between the third placed in the 2nd Bundesliga and the 16th in the Bundesliga, relegation games were played for the last free place in the Bundesliga until the 1990/91 season , so that the number of relegated players varied.
After the inclusion of Hansa Rostock and Dynamo Dresden from the GDR Oberliga in the course of German reunification , the Bundesliga played its only season with 20 teams in 1991/92 . In order to get back to the usual number of 18, four teams had to be relegated at the end of this season. From the following season to the 2007/08 season, there were three direct relegated members and three direct promoters from the 2nd Bundesliga.
From the 2008/2009 season , the relegation games were reintroduced. As in the 1980s, the third from bottom of the table in the Bundesliga plays against the third in the 2nd Bundesliga in two-legged matches to stay in class or to be promoted. Unlike in the past, the higher number of away goals decides in the event of a tie overall result, after which there is, if necessary, overtime and penalty shoot-outs.
Eight clubs managed to move up from the third level of the league (upper, regional and third division) to the second division and one year later immediately to the division. These were TSV 1860 München (1992- 1994 ), Fortuna Dusseldorf (1993- 1995 ), Arminia Bielefeld (1994- 1996 ), the 1. FC Nuremberg (1996- 1998 ), the SSV Ulm 1846 (1997- 1999 ), the TSG 1899 Hoffenheim (2006- 2008 ), the SV Darmstadt 98 (2013- 2015 ) and the SC Paderborn 07 (2017- 2019 ). While SSV Ulm relegated to the amateur camp just as quickly after their first Bundesliga guest appearance, SC Paderborn managed to march through after actually having to accept three sporting relegations in a row and only because of the license withdrawal for another club in 2017 in the 3rd division was allowed to remain.
In the 2006/07 season, Alemannia Aachen returned to the Bundesliga. This makes Alemannia the team with the longest Bundesliga abstinence. After relegation in 1970, it took 36 years before Aachen was first class again. However, this first class only lasted one season. Both record promoted to the Bundesliga and record relegated from the Bundesliga is the 1. FC Nuremberg, which in the season 2018/19 was relegated for the ninth time after he arrived in the preseason had managed the eighth ascent.
Six Bundesliga teams that have been in the league for more than a year have never been relegated from the top class: After the relegation of the founding member Hamburger SV (2017/18 after 55 seasons in a row), FC Bayern Munich (55), Bayer 04 Leverkusen remain (41), VfL Wolfsburg (23), TSG 1899 Hoffenheim (12) as well as FC Augsburg (9) and RB Leipzig (4).
The only club that managed to win the championship as a newcomer was 1. FC Kaiserslautern in the 1997/98 season . The only team that was relegated as reigning champions was 1. FC Nürnberg in the 1968/69 season .
|rank||society||Ascents||in the years|
|1||1. FC Nuremberg||8th||1978, 1980, 1985, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009, 2018|
|Arminia Bielefeld||8th||1970, 1978, 1980, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2020|
|3||Hannover 96||6th||1964, 1975, 1985, 1987, 2002, 2017|
|VfL Bochum||6th||1971, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2006|
|Hertha BSC||6th||1968, 1982, 1990, 1997, 2011, 2013|
|Fortuna Dusseldorf||6th||1966, 1971, 1989, 1995, 2012, 2018|
|1. FC Cologne||6th||2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2014, 2019|
|8th||MSV Duisburg||5||1991, 1993, 1996, 2005, 2007|
|Karlsruher SC||5||1975, 1980, 1984, 1987, 2007|
|FC St. Pauli||5||1977, 1988, 1995, 2001, 2010|
|KFC Uerdingen 05||5||1975, 1979, 1983, 1992, 1994|
|Sc freiburg||5||1993, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2016|
|rank||society||Descents||in the years|
|1||1. FC Nuremberg||9||1969, 1979, 1984, 1994, 1999, 2003, 2008, 2014, 2019|
|2||Arminia Bielefeld||7th||1972, 1979, 1985, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2009|
|3||MSV Duisburg||6th||1982, 1992, 1995, 2000, 2006, 2008|
|Hertha BSC||6th||1965, 1980, 1983, 1991, 2010, 2012|
|VfL Bochum||6th||1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2005, 2010|
|Karlsruher SC||6th||1968, 1977, 1983, 1985, 1998, 2009|
|1. FC Cologne||6th||1998, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2018|
|Hannover 96||6th||1974, 1976, 1986, 1989, 2016, 2019|
|Fortuna Dusseldorf||6th||1967, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2013, 2020|
|10||KFC Uerdingen 05||5||1976, 1981, 1991, 1993, 1996|
|FC St. Pauli||5||1978, 1991, 1997, 2002, 2011|
See also: Promotion to the Bundesliga
The Bundesliga environment
(in € thousand)
|Proportion 19/20||Amount 18/19
(in € thousand)
|Share 18/19||Amount 17/18
(in € thousand)
The income was offset by expenses totaling € 3.958 billion, which were distributed across the following areas:
(in € thousand)
|Proportion 19/20||Amount 18/19
(in € thousand)
|Share 18/19||Amount 17/18
(in € thousand)
|Personnel game operations||1,446,791||36.56%||1,431,633||36.79%||1,317,801||35.50%|
|Personnel trade / administration||257,892||6.52%||269.147||6.92%||260.278||7.01%|
|Youth / Amat. / Achievement number||154.030||3.89%||144.147||3.70%||140.838||3.79%|
Of the 18 Bundesliga clubs in the 2019/20 season, eight were able to generate an annual surplus, six less than in the previous year.
Stadiums and audience numbers
Current audience capacity
The Bundesliga stadiums are among the largest and most modern in the world. Most stadiums were extensively modernized and expanded or rebuilt from 2000 onwards, some of them as part of the 2006 World Cup , but the building boom continued after the tournament. In order to remain competitive, clubs from smaller cities such as Augsburg built the WWK Arena , Mainz the Coface Arena , Bielefeld the SchücoArena or Aachen the Tivoli . In order to finance part of the construction costs, it is now common practice to sell the stadium name to a sponsor. As a result, many stadiums have lost their traditional names, some of which have existed for decades, in recent years, which has been criticized primarily by fans.
The largest venue for top division games is the Signal Iduna Park in Dortmund with 81,365 seats. This is followed by the Allianz Arena in Munich with 75,000 seats, the Olympiastadion Berlin with 74,475 seats and the Gelsenkirchen Veltins-Arena with 62,271 seats.
Although there is no compulsory seating in Germany, the proportion of standing room has declined compared to previous decades, when games were mainly played in large multi-purpose stadiums with a running track. However, there are still separate, inexpensive standing room areas in each stadium, but these are mostly occupied by annual tickets. At the same time, VIP boxes were built into the Bundesliga stadiums for economic reasons . The entry prices in Germany are usually lower than in the other major European leagues, especially compared to the English Premier League , but in Germany they are also rising faster than the average price level .
The larger modern stadiums are partly responsible for the audience boom in recent years. After the average attendance fell to below 20,000 per game in the 1980s, a steady increase has been observed since then. The 2003/04 season saw more than ten million viewers for the first time. The league average was 37,395 spectators. With an average of 45,116 spectators in the 2011/12 season , the tenth attendance record in a row was set at around ninety-four percent capacity utilization of the stadiums; Borussia Dortmund also achieved the highest average number of spectators in a football season in the world, with 80,521 spectators per game. This makes the Bundesliga by far the most popular soccer league and, after the NFL, it has the second highest average of all sports leagues worldwide. Although other top leagues, in contrast to the DFL, also include free and honor tickets in their calculations, these are consistently significantly lower.
The currently valid attendance record for a game was set up on September 26, 1969 in the Olympiastadion Berlin , when 88,075 paying spectators saw the 1-0 game between Hertha BSC and 1. FC Köln . The record minus backdrop (apart from the games that were affected by measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic ) comes from the 1965/66 season and was also set up in the Berlin Olympic Stadium; the home game of Tasmania Berlin against Borussia Mönchengladbach on January 15, 1966 was attended by only 827 spectators.
The following table provides an overview of the development of audience numbers since the first season in 1963/64.
|1963/64||27,568||240||6,616,371||VfB Stuttgart (40,133)|
|1964/65||26,934||240||6,464,213||Hanover 96 (40.985)|
|1965/66||24,604||306||7,528,927||Hanover 96 (32,088)|
|1966/67||24,547||306||7,511,500||VfB Stuttgart (29,176)|
|1967/68||21,042||306||6,438,800||1. FC Nuremberg (39,765)|
|1968/69||21,917||306||6,706,700||Hertha BSC (44,176)|
|1969/70||20,659||306||6,321,575||Hertha BSC (42,416)|
|1970/71||21,405||306||6,550,000||Hertha BSC (45,529)|
|1971/72||18,727||306||5,730,440||FC Schalke 04 (28,529)|
|1972/73||17,407||306||5,326,500||FC Bayern Munich (33,353)|
|1973/74||22,203||306||6,794,100||FC Schalke 04 (42,441)|
|1974/75||22,730||306||6,955,321||FC Schalke 04 (39,988)|
|1975/76||23,180||306||7.093.100||FC Schalke 04 (34.212)|
|1976/77||25,580||306||7,827,564||Borussia Dortmund (43,282)|
|1977/78||27,597||306||8,444,530||VfB Stuttgart (55,559)|
|1978/79||26,000||306||7,955,959||Hamburger SV (42,441)|
|1979/80||24,294||306||7,433,878||FC Bayern Munich (39,579)|
|1980/81||24,066||306||7,364,087||FC Bayern Munich (36,412)|
|1981/82||21,875||306||6,693,852||Hamburger SV (34,700)|
|1982/83||21,183||306||6,481,847||FC Bayern Munich (31,324)|
|1983/84||20,723||306||6,341,307||VfB Stuttgart (31,876)|
|1984/85||19,827||306||6,066,979||FC Bayern Munich (32,765)|
|1985/86||18,399||306||5,630,218||1. FC Nuremberg (28,765)|
|1986/87||20,571||306||6,294,772||FC Bayern Munich (37,471)|
|1987/88||19,671||306||6,019,437||Borussia Dortmund (29,424)|
|1988/89||18.808||306||5,755,248||Borussia Dortmund (30,572)|
|1989/90||21,235||306||6,497,884||Borussia Dortmund (37,173)|
|1990/91||21,700||306||6,640,061||Borussia Dortmund (35,923)|
|1991/92||24,391||380||9,268,395||FC Schalke 04 (44,355)|
|1992/93||26,212||306||8,020,735||FC Bayern Munich (46,059)|
|1993/94||27,183||306||8,317,953||FC Bayern Munich (48,294)|
|1994/95||30.053||306||9,196,246||FC Bayern Munich (54,176)|
|1995/96||30,799||306||9,424,485||FC Bayern Munich (59,471)|
|1996/97||30,882||306||9,449,798||FC Bayern Munich (58,059)|
|1997/98||32,965||306||10,087,247||FC Bayern Munich (54,529)|
|1998/99||32,765||306||10,026,166||Borussia Dortmund (65,494)|
|1999/00||31.206||306||9,549,181||Borussia Dortmund (64,641)|
|2000/01||30,922||306||9,462,110||Borussia Dortmund (63,729)|
|2001/02||33,049||306||10.113.007||Borussia Dortmund (66,171)|
|2002/03||34,144||306||10,447,982||Borussia Dortmund (67,800)|
|2003/04||37,395||306||11,442,726||Borussia Dortmund (79,618)|
|2004/05||37,813||306||11,570,634||Borussia Dortmund (77,235)|
|2005/06||40,779||306||12,478,319||Borussia Dortmund (72,808)|
|2006/07||39,957||306||12,226,795||Borussia Dortmund (72,652)|
|2007/08||39,444||306||12,069,813||Borussia Dortmund (72,510)|
|2008/09||42,521||306||13,011,578||Borussia Dortmund (74,851)|
|2009/10||42,490||306||13,001,871||Borussia Dortmund (77,246)|
|2010/11||42,663||306||13,054,960||Borussia Dortmund (79,151)|
|2011/12||45.116||306||13,805,496||Borussia Dortmund (80,521)|
|2012/13||42,623||306||13,042,590||Borussia Dortmund (80,520)|
|2013/14||43,498||306||13.310.270||Borussia Dortmund (80,463)|
|2014/15||43,534||306||13,321,486||Borussia Dortmund (80,463)|
|2015/16||43,300||306||13,249,778||Borussia Dortmund (81,178)|
|2016/17||41,516||306||12,703,927||Borussia Dortmund (79,653)|
|2017/18||44,646||306||13,661,796||Borussia Dortmund (79,496)|
|2018/19||43,449||306||13.295.405||Borussia Dortmund (80,820)|
|2019/20 1||29,781 1||306||9,112,950 1||FC Bayern Munich (57,353) 1|
Traditionally, the Bundesliga games took place every Saturday at 3:30 p.m. In the course of time, the game days were split up more and more, in later years mainly to be able to broadcast more live games on television.
As early as the 1970s, games were played on Friday evenings and individual top games were played at attractive times outside of the regular times on Saturday afternoons. In the 1980s and early 1990s, there were mostly three Friday games at 7:30 p.m. or mostly 8:00 p.m. After individual games had already taken place on Sunday evening in the previous seasons, a regular Sunday game was introduced for the 1993/94 season. This replaced one of the three Friday games and took place at 6:00 p.m., the remaining six games continued to be played on Saturdays at 3:30 p.m. In the 1999/00 season, a second Sunday game was introduced at the expense of the Saturday games and both games were played at 5:30 p.m. In some cases, individual top encounters in the 1990s were also shown at more attractive broadcast times on Saturday and Sunday evenings around 8:00 p.m. From the 2000/01 season onwards there was a fixed game on Saturday evening at 8:15 p.m., but on Fridays there was only one game, also at 8:15 p.m. For the 2001/02 season, this division of the game day into four different dates was initially reversed, so that in addition to the two games on Sundays at 5:30 p.m., there were again seven games on Saturday afternoon at 3:30 p.m. This was also maintained for the following four seasons. Changes were not made until the 2006/07 season: the two Sunday games already took place at 5:00 p.m., and another game was played on Fridays at 8:30 p.m. For the 2009/10 season, the so-called “top game” was permanently reintroduced on Saturday evening and has since taken place at 6:30 pm. In addition, the two Sunday games no longer take place at the same time, but instead kicked off at 3:30 p.m. and 5:30 p.m. in this and the following seasons. The last time something changed in this schedule was in the 2017/18 season: the second regular Sunday game was postponed by half an hour and since then kicked off at 6:00 p.m., and five Sunday games per season take place at 1:30 p.m. and for the first time five Monday games at 8:30 p.m. This rule applies until the end of the 2020/21 season.
In some cases there were and are minor deviations from this regular regulation. In the 2008/09 season, the number of Sunday games fluctuated, sometimes only one, sometimes three matches were played at 5:00 p.m. In other seasons, too, there were more or less Sunday games in individual cases. This was mainly due to the international games of the participating teams in order to guarantee them sufficient regeneration. Since there is no play on Good Friday, the game that is actually scheduled for 8:30 p.m. will then be played on Saturday evening at 8:30 p.m.
In addition, there are also some so-called "English weeks" per season, during which around half of the games take place on Tuesday and half of the games on Wednesday evening. The exact distribution of the games and the kick-off times varied over and over again. The current regulation provides for a single game on Tuesday and Wednesday at 6:30 p.m. and three (Tuesday) or four (Wednesday) parallel games at 8:30 p.m.
The Bundesliga dominates the sports coverage of most German daily newspapers. There is also extensive coverage in sports magazines such as Kicker , which appears twice a week, and the weekly Sport Bild . At the start of the respective Bundesliga season, both publish a special issue which, in addition to lists of teams and players, contains further reports on the upcoming season. Since 2000, the monthly football magazine 11 Friends has also established itself. Bravo Sport , which is published every fortnight, is aimed at a younger target group .
Before the start of live broadcasts of Bundesliga games on television, since the Bundesliga began in 1963, radio was the only way to watch the games at the same time without being in the stadium. On Saturday afternoons on the Bundesliga match days, the ARD radio program reports live from the Bundesliga matches. First of all, from time to time, individual reports about the venues are included. At 4:55 p.m., about 20 minutes before the final whistle, the final Bundesliga conference begins , which is followed by up to 12 million listeners every week. In the interconnection, all microphones remain open and every time a goal, penalty or dismissal is scored, the respective stadium is switched immediately. In addition, from August 2008 to 2013 there was Germany's first football radio 90elf , which belonged to the Regiocast group and broadcast all Bundesliga games via live stream on the Internet. From 2013 to 2017 this was taken over by Sport1.FM . Since the 2017/18 season, Amazon has been broadcasting the games for Prime subscribers, meaning that there is no longer a free radio broadcast of a continuous conference and the individual games.
As early as 1961, the ARD reported in the sports show about the football games of the weekend. The current sport studio of the ZDF was added in 1963 with the start of the Bundesliga. The sports show only showed the pictures of the Saturday games on Sunday evenings in the first few years. A Saturday sports show was only introduced in April 1965 .
The first live broadcast took place on June 28, 1972, of the game on the 34th match day between Bayern and Schalke, which was a de-facto final at the time. The game was shown in the third program of Bayerischer Rundfunk and several other third programs. It was also the only last day of the match that did not take place on a Saturday, but on a Wednesday. As an exception, the games did not take place at the same time, as was prescribed on the last matchday. The match in Munich kicked off at 8 p.m., while the others took place at 3:30 p.m. probably the only Wednesday games that were ever held in the afternoon.
The game Borussia Mönchengladbach against FC Bayern on December 11, 1984 was the first game that was live on television nationwide. While the sport show only showed reports of three games per broadcast shortly after the end of the game until 1988, all games were only shown in the current sport studio on Saturday evening at around 10:00 p.m. and guests were also interviewed. From 1988 to 1992 RTL held the first exploitation rights and showed the games in the program Anpfiff - the football show . From 1992 to 2001, in the Sat.1 telecast Ran shown the first reports. Sat.1 stood for high technical effort and information. For the first time, there were up to 18 cameras in live games. Another trademark was the Bundesliga database .
In 2003, the Sportschau took over the first exploitation of the Bundesliga on free TV . ARD currently shares reporting with ZDF. The sports show shows the Saturday afternoon games first, the ZDF the Saturday evening game in the sports studio . The Sunday games are summarized in the third programs of the ARD. The entire game day is also summarized again on Sport1 in Bundesliga Pur - The game day . In addition, the broadcaster reports on the Bundesliga in daily broadcasts ( Bundesliga aktuell ) and lets former coaches and players discuss current events on talk shows (one- two , right in the middle - the football talk ).
On March 2, 1991, when the match between Eintracht Frankfurt and 1. FC Kaiserslautern was broadcast, a new era in the reporting of the Bundesliga began. For the first time, the top Bundesliga match was broadcast live on the pay-TV channel Premiere every week . After just one top game has now turned into the three top matches of each match day, Premiere has broadcast all 306 Bundesliga games live since the 2000/01 season. At the beginning of the 2006/07 season, the broadcasting rights for the Bundesliga games on pay TV were transferred to the broadcaster Arena , but Premiere took over the reporting again in the following season, as Arena sublicensed the rights due to financial losses. Premiere changed its name to Sky Germany on July 9, 2009 .
The television has become the main media in reporting to the Bundesliga and one of the main sources of income of the Bundesliga clubs. While ARD and ZDF still paid the DFB an amount of 647,000 DM per season from 1965 to the beginning of the 1980s, there was a sharp rise in the price of broadcasting rights in the period that followed due to competition from private television. After the public television companies paid 18 million DM for the transmission of the Bundesliga in the season 1987/88 , the first transmission of the games in the following season by the private television broadcaster RTL already cost 40 million DM. In 1992 the television broadcaster Sat.1 received the rights only for 140 million DM. For the 1996/97 season , the Kirch Group paid around 330 million DM for exploitation by the television stations Sat.1, DSF and Premiere.
The broadcast of the games on pay TV and the summaries on free TV made it possible to collect 300 million euros per season up to the 2005/06 season. This amount then increased again significantly, since the 2005/06 season the broadcasters for ARD, Sport1 and Arena have transferred 420 million euros per season to the DFL. In addition, the Austrian free TV broadcaster ATV had acquired the rights for all live games. The contract expired in October 2009 and was not renewed.
The money raised will be distributed to the clubs of the first two national leagues based on success. From 2006 to 2013, the DFL's “four-year evaluation” served as the basis for the distribution. From 2006 to 2013, a club in the first Bundesliga was able to generate between 11.7 to 23.3 million euros per season from domestic revenue from championship games. In addition, the Bundesliga clubs benefit from the income from foreign marketing. From this, the German champions of the first division received another 4 million euros, the bottom of the table an average of 518,000 euros. Since the 2013/2014 season, five seasons have been included in the calculation for the distribution of television money (“five-year evaluation”). In addition, since 2013/2014, the seasonal final ranking of the respective club and not the previously applicable average ranking of the current season has been included in the distribution. Thanks to a new television contract with Sky, the Bundesliga clubs were entitled to an average of 628 million euros per season from 2013 to 2017. During this period, a top division club was able to generate between 19.6 and 39.2 million euros per season from domestic revenue from championship games.
In an international comparison, the Bundesliga lagged significantly behind other European leagues such as Spain, Italy and, above all, the English Premier League in terms of marketing abroad . The sale of television rights to the English elite class in a total of 81 packages for 208 countries and territories from 2007 to 2010 brought the equivalent of 952 million euros per season. Even the bottom of the table received around 45 million euros from this pot alone. Nevertheless, the Bundesliga tries to make up at least some of the deficit in foreign marketing in the following years. From the championship started in 2004, international media rights were sold separately from national rights for the first time. As of the 2006/07 season, the top German league has already been televised in 130 countries. For example, the Friday game and the Saturday and Sunday conferences of the Bundesliga ran live in the USA . In Asia in the 2007/08 season in Japan , Hong Kong and Malaysia at least two Bundesliga matches were shown live on TV , and in China even four.
In August 2015, the DFL had signed contracts with over 60 broadcasters worldwide. These enabled the Bundesliga to be broadcast live in 208 * countries.
For the 2015/16 season, the American Fox Group secured the transmission rights for many countries in Asia and the American continent. In the USA, the channels “Fox Sports 1” and “Fox Sports 2” could potentially reach 90 and 47 million viewers, respectively. The DFL received an amount of between 100 and 150 million euros per season for the broadcast rights.
In addition to television money, audience income and the sale of merchandising items, the clubs finance themselves primarily through sponsorship. The entrepreneur Günter Mast had the idea of using Bundesliga football and the associated reporting for advertising purposes . For the second half of the 1972/73 season , he offered the then Bundesliga club Eintracht Braunschweig 500,000 DM for the players to wear the Jägermeister stag on their jerseys for five years . Since the DFB rejected the plan with reference to the statutes, the association's statutes were changed by Eintracht Braunschweig. Instead of the previous lion, the stag was declared the new club crest and the DFB was forced to give up its stance. (a) On March 24, 1973 the jersey advertising premiered in the game between Eintracht Braunschweig and Schalke 04 in the Bundesliga. At the end of 1973, the DFB finally approved jersey advertising . From now on, Eintracht Braunschweig wore the Jägermeister logo on its chest. Shortly afterwards, the followed Hamburger SV with Campari , Eintracht Frankfurt with Remington , the MSV Duisburg with Brian Scott and Fortuna Dusseldorf with Allkauf .
Today, jersey advertising is a matter of course and one of the main sources of income for the Bundesliga clubs. For example, FC Schalke 04 will receive up to 125 million euros for a five and a half year contract with the Russian energy supplier Gazprom . The income from sponsorship, which varies depending on attractiveness and success, creates an ever-increasing financial and thus ultimately also sporting gap between the individual clubs. For the 2017/18 season , the teams were also able to conclude independent contracts with sleeve sponsors for the first time. The DFL had previously marketed sleeve advertising centrally. All clubs wore the Hermes Europe logo on their sleeves. Hermes paid 8 million euros for this. The 36 professional clubs received between 50,000 and 400,000 euros.
The following table shows the main sponsors of the Bundesliga clubs in the 2020/21 season:
|rank||society||Company (branch)||Sum (M € / a)||running time|
|1||VfL Wolfsburg||Volkswagen (automobiles)||70.0||unlimited|
|2||FC Bayern Munich||Deutsche Telekom (telecommunications)||45.0||2023|
1 & 1 (telecommunications)
Evonik Industries (chemicals)
|RB Leipzig||Red Bull (drinks)||35.0||2023|
|5||FC Schalke 04||Gazprom (energy)||20.0||2022|
|6th||VfB Stuttgart||Mercedes-Benz-Bank (banking)||10.0||2023|
|7th||Borussia Monchengladbach||Flatex (financial technology)||9.0||2023|
|8th||Werder Bremen||Wiesenhof (groceries / poultry)||8.0||2022|
|9||1. FC Cologne||Rewe (retail)||7.5||2022|
|10||Eintracht Frankfurt||Indeed (online job search)||7.0||2023|
|11||Bayer 04 Leverkusen||Barmenia (insurance)||6.0||2024|
|12th||TSG 1899 Hoffenheim||SAP (software)||5.5||2025|
|13th||FC Augsburg||WWK (insurance)||4.2||2030|
|14th||1. FSV Mainz 05||Kömmerling (window systems)||4.0||2023|
|15th||Sc freiburg||Black Forest Milk (dairy)||3.0||2021|
|16||1. FC Union Berlin||Aroundtown (real estate)||2.5||2021|
|Arminia Bielefeld||Schüco (construction supplies)||2.5||2021|
|18th||Hertha BSC||currently without shirt sponsor|
Budgets and transfer fees
In the Bundesliga - as in other European professional leagues - the transfer fees increased after the Bosman judgment of December 15, 1995. Due to the massive increases in the income of the clubs - especially with the sale of television rights in the 1990s - are Over time, the transfer fees for players and coaches as well as the salaries of those involved have skyrocketed to tens of millions per year. Javi Martínez moved from Athletic Bilbao to FC Bayern Munich in the 2012/13 season with a transfer fee of 40 million euros, replacing the previous record transfer from Mario Gómez , who also moved from VfB Stuttgart to FC Bayern in 2009 for 30 million euros was. This record was surpassed in 2015 by Julian Draxler's move from FC Schalke 04 to VfL Wolfsburg with a total of 43 million euros. The current record is held by the acquisition of Lucas Hernández , who moved to FC Bayern in 2019 for 80 million euros.
Transfer expenses regularly exceeded the proceeds from outgoing transfers. As a result, the clubs' indebtedness grew sharply. While the liabilities of the clubs playing in the Bundesliga amounted to the equivalent of 27 million euros in 1984, ten years later it was already 240 million. In 2003, the total debts of the Bundesliga clubs were estimated at more than half a billion euros. The debt level of the first listed club Borussia Dortmund was at times more than 118 million euros.
After the budgets of the Bundesliga clubs had grown steadily over many years, the intermittent decline in television money as a result of the Kirch bankruptcy in the spring of 2002 led to a turning point. Obeying the need, those responsible began to rethink, so that a consolidation took place with an associated reduction in the available budgets. There was no insolvency of a Bundesliga club despite the collapse in sales in the television business. The clubs took in from a wide range of sources: while in previous decades almost 100 percent of the proceeds came from entrance fees, in 2003, for example, the clubs generated 37% of their income from television fees, 24% from advertising and 16% each Entrance fees and merchandising as well as 7% from the transfer business.
The total budget of the 18 Bundesliga clubs in the 2008/09 season provided for expenditures totaling more than 600 million euros, of which Bayern Munich alone was 80 million euros. The tables with the ranking of the budgets, which appeared in some press organs, were denied in individual cases, as partly the total budget and partly the licensed player budget was mentioned. On August 12, 2008, 1. FC Köln declared the information to be incorrect. You are not in third place in the budget, but "in the lower midfield" of the league. According to information from SID , the total of the licensed player budgets of all clubs in the 2013/14 season is estimated to be 747.6 million euros, 5.5% more than in the previous season.
In an international comparison, only Bayern Munich and Schalke 04 were among the top 20 European teams in terms of turnover in 2004/05. In the period that followed, the Bundesliga clubs moved up in an international comparison of sales figures, made possible by higher income from television contracts, steadily growing audience numbers and better marketing thanks to the modern stadiums. Borussia Dortmund and Hamburger SV also made it into the European top 20 . When comparing the total sales of the leagues, the Bundesliga was in second place in Europe in the 2006/07 season with 1.4 billion euros, behind England (2.3 billion euros) and ahead of Spain (1.33 billion euros), Italy (1 , 16 billion euros) and France (0.97 billion euros). The ranking remained unchanged in the following years, but the growth of the leagues far outpaced that of the national economies.
Employment situation in the Bundesliga
Professional football does not only offer football players, coaches and managers paid full-time jobs. A total of 27,968 people worked directly or indirectly for the Bundesliga clubs in the 2011/12 season. 3,765 temporary workers were employed directly by the licensees, and a further 2,317 in their subsidiaries. Another 18,147 people were ultimately employed indirectly through football. This included above all the employees of security services, catering companies and medical services who were deployed during the Bundesliga games.
This staff includes classic professions such as commercial clerks, fan shop employees or gardeners for the care of the grass pitches. The modernization of training methods leads to the employment of nutritionists and fitness trainers. The growing range of services will create additional jobs, for example in the club's own travel agencies, in childcare during Bundesliga games, museum managers or in the management of the club's mascots. The largest direct employer in German professional football in 2007 was FC Bayern Munich with 250 employees in the office, while clubs such as MSV Duisburg and FC Energie Cottbus managed with just 16 employees.
|Employment type||Number of employees|
|Security and guard service||6,799|
|Total (only 1st Bundesliga)||27,968|
Foreigners in the Bundesliga
The first four foreign players in the Bundesliga were the Dutch Heinz Versteeg at Meidericher SV and Jacobus Prins at 1. FC Kaiserslautern , the Yugoslav Petar Radenković at TSV 1860 Munich and the Austrian Wilhelm Huberts at Eintracht Frankfurt . They were all in action on the first Bundesliga matchday. The quota of foreigners on this match day was 2.27%, today it is often over 50%. On April 6, 2001 Energie Cottbus was the first Bundesliga club to have only foreign players on its starting line-up.
This development is due on the one hand to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in the early 1990s and on the other hand to the economic convergence of Europe, which led to the fact that as a result of the Bosman ruling, the national associations were forced to apply their restrictions on the engagement and formation of players from EU countries. Repeal Member States . After only a maximum of two and later three foreigners were allowed in the Bundesliga, since December 1995 any number of players from the UEFA area and since 2001 up to five non-European foreigners have been allowed to play. Players who were trained in Germany did not fall under this rule as "football Germans". For the 2006/07 season, the previously applicable foreigner rule was abolished in favor of a so-called “local player rule”. Since then, players from outside Europe can also be used without restriction. In return, each Bundesliga club must have at least twelve German players under contract, four of whom must have been trained at a German club initially, six in 2007/08 and then eight.
In the first few years foreign players were rarely among the most successful goal scorers, the best result achieved by Austrian Wilhelm Huberts in 1963/64 in fourth. This changed after the Norwegian Jørn Andersen became the first foreign player to win the top scorer's crown in 1989/90 . In 2001/02 there were four Brazilians with Márcio Amoroso (1st place), Giovane Élber (3rd place), Aílton (5th place) and Marcelinho (8th place), but only four Germans in the top 10. 2003/04 made it with Martin Max there was even only one German in the top 10, and from 2000/01 to 2004/05 foreign players took first place. In the all-time list of the best, Robert Lewandowski took first place with 236 goals (as of June 27, 2020) as the best foreigner, ahead of Claudio Pizarro , Giovane Élber, Vedad Ibišević , Aílton and Stéphane Chapuisat . With 34 goals within one season, Lewandowski is also the most successful foreign goal scorer within one season (2019/20).
Claudio Pizarro is also the foreigner with the most Bundesliga appearances: With his 337th Bundesliga game, which he played for Bayern Munich , he replaced Zé Roberto and Lewan Kobiaschwili on September 25, 2012 , who each played 336 games for three clubs . Pizarro has played 490 games (as of the end of the 2019/20 season) for three clubs.
In 2004, Aílton became the first foreigner to be voted Germany's Footballer of the Year . The Dane Allan Simonsen from Borussia Mönchengladbach was the first foreign Bundesliga player to be voted Europe's Footballer of the Year in 1977 . Also in 1978 and 1979, Kevin Keegan from the Hamburger SV from England, a foreign Bundesliga player, was able to win this award.
In addition to foreign players, foreign coaches were also active in the Bundesliga from the start. The Austrian Max Merkel won his first championship title in 1966 with Munich in 1860, and in 1968 he was able to repeat this success with 1. FC Nürnberg. He was followed in 1969 by the Yugoslav Branko Zebec with the first title for Bayern Munich. In 1979 he won the title again with Hamburger SV. The Hungarian Pál Csernai (1979/80 and 1980/81) and the Austrian Ernst Happel (1981/82 and 1982/83) also won two titles.
With the championship titles in 2014, 2015 and 2016, Pep Guardiola managed the title hat trick, which made him the most successful foreign Bundesliga coach. The internationally most successful club coach Giovanni Trapattoni was only able to win the championship with Bayern Munich in 1997. Louis van Gaal , one of his successors, was the first Dutch coach to win the German championship title and became Germany's coach of the year in 2010 as the first foreign coach . For the 2010/11 season, VfL Wolfsburg signed the former English national coach Steve McClaren as coach. This makes VfL the first club in the history of the Bundesliga to fill this position with an Englishman. However, McClaren was already on leave in early February 2011 due to unsuccessfulness. From the 2013/2014 season, Pep Guardiola was coach of FC Bayern for three seasons. He won all three possible championship titles with Bayern and then moved to the English Premier League.
Due to a cooperation between the DFB and the Swiss Football Association , a total of 33 Bundesliga games were directed by Swiss referees from 1981 to 1990. In addition, no foreign referees have been active in the Bundesliga so far.
Players with names in bold are currently active in the Bundesliga.
|1||Karl-Heinz Körbel||1972-1991||Eintracht Frankfurt||602|
|2||Manfred Kaltz||1971-1991||Hamburger SV||581|
|3||Oliver Kahn||1987-2008||FC Bayern Munich||557|
|4th||Klaus Fichtel||1965-1988||FC Schalke 04||552|
|5||Miroslav Votava||1976-1996||Werder Bremen||546|
|6th||Klaus Fischer||1968-1988||FC Schalke 04||535|
|7th||Eike Immel||1978-1995||VfB Stuttgart||534|
|8th||Willi Neuberger||1966-1983||Eintracht Frankfurt||520|
|9||Michael Lameck||1972-1988||VfL Bochum||518|
|10||Uli Stein||1978-1997||Hamburger SV||512|
|Status: first round 2020/21|
|1||Gerd Müller||1965-1979||FC Bayern Munich||365 (Ø 0.85)|
|2||Robert Lewandowski||since 2010||FC Bayern Munich||277 (Ø 0.79)|
|3||Klaus Fischer||1968-1988||FC Schalke 04||268 (Ø 0.50)|
|4th||Jupp Heynckes||1965-1978||Borussia Monchengladbach||220 (Ø 0.60)|
|5||Manfred Burgsmüller||1969-1990||Borussia Dortmund||213 (Ø 0.48)|
|6th||Claudio Pizarro||1999-2020||Werder Bremen||197 (Ø 0.40)|
|7th||Ulf Kirsten||1990-2003||Bayer 04 Leverkusen||181 (Ø 0.52)|
|8th||Stefan Kuntz||1983-1999||1. FC Kaiserslautern||179 (Ø 0.40)|
|9||Dieter Müller||1973-1986||1. FC Cologne||177 (Ø 0.58)|
|10||Klaus Allofs||1975-1993||1. FC Cologne||177 (Ø 0.42)|
|Status: first round 2020/21|
- Player with the most championship titles
- 1. David Alaba and Thomas Müller (10 each)
- 3. Jérôme Boateng , Robert Lewandowski , Javi Martínez , Manuel Neuer and Franck Ribéry (9)
- 8. Oliver Kahn , Philipp Lahm , Arjen Robben , Mehmet Scholl and Bastian Schweinsteiger (8)
- 13. Klaus Augenthaler , Lothar Matthäus , Rafinha , Thiago and Alexander Zickler (7)
- Most often top scorer
- 1. Gerd Müller (7)
- 2. Robert Lewandowski (6)
- 3. Ulf Kirsten and Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (3)
- Most goals in a season
- 1. Robert Lewandowski (41; 2020/21)
- 2. Gerd Müller (40; 1971/72)
- 3. Gerd Müller (38; 1969/70)
- 4. Gerd Müller (36; 1972/73)
- 5. Dieter Müller (34; 1976/77), Robert Lewandowski (2019/20)
- 6. Lothar Emmerich (31; 1965/66), Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang ( 2016/17 )
- 7. Uwe Seeler (30; 1963/64), Gerd Müller (1968/69), Jupp Heynckes and Gerd Müller (both 1973/74), Robert Lewandowski (2015/16, 2016/17)
- Most goals in a game
- 1. Dieter Müller (6 goals for 1. FC Köln on August 17, 1977 in a 7-2 win against Werder Bremen)
- 2. Karl-Heinz Thielen , Franz Brungs , Rudolf Brunnenmeier , Klaus Scheer , Gerd Müller (4 ×), Manfred Burgsmüller , Atli Eðvaldsson , Frank Hartmann , Jupp Heynckes, Dieter Hoeneß , Luka Jović , Jürgen Klinsmann , Robert Lewandowski (as the only substitute , within 8:59 minutes), Michael Tönnies (all 5 goals)
- 3. Timo Konietzka, Willi Huberts, Christian Müller, Franz Brungs , Rudolf Brunnenmeier , Manfred Pohlschmidt, Rüdiger Mielke, Arnold Schütz, Alfred Heiß, Hugo Dausmann, Herbert L Bäumen, Peter Meyer, Wolfgang Gayer, Hans Schumacher, Karlheinz Vogt, Lorenz Horr, Klaus Fischer (3 ×), Erich Beer (2 ×), Benny Wendt, Rüdiger Wenzel, Bernd Stegmayer, Wolfgang Frank, Bernard Dietz, Tony Woodcock, Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (2 ×), Horst Hrubesch , Günter Pröpper , Jupp Heynckes , Dieter Müller (3 ×) Gerd Müller (10 ×), Fritz Walter (2 ×), Klaus Allofs , Rudi Völler , Siegfried Reich , Frank Neubarth , Uwe Rahn , Michael Zorc , Roland Wohlfarth , Falko Götz , Anthony Yeboah , Bart Goor , Giovane Élber , Martin Petrov , Kevin Kurányi , Mario Gómez (2 ×), Cacau , Christian Eigler , Claudio Pizarro , Bas Dost , Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang , Max Kruse , Andrej Kramarić , Robert Lewandowski , Erling Haaland (all 4 goals)
- Best foreign goal scorers
- 1. Robert Lewandowski (275 goals; as of May 8, 2021)
- 2. Claudio Pizarro (197 goals)
- 3. Giovane Élber (133 goals)
- 4. Vedad Ibišević (127 goals)
- Goalkeeper with the most goals
- Hans Jörg Butt (26; all by penalty)
- Goalkeeper with goals out of play
- Jens Lehmann (for FC Schalke 04 at Borussia Dortmund on December 19, 1997), Frank Rost (for Werder Bremen against FC Hansa Rostock on March 31, 2002) and Marwin Hitz (for FC Augsburg against Bayer 04 Leverkusen on March 21 , 2002) . February 2015)
- Player with the most penalty goals
- Manfred Kaltz (53)
- Most games in a row
- Sepp Maier (442; from the beginning of the 1966/67 season to the end of the 1978/79 season for FC Bayern Munich)
- Goalkeeper with the most consecutive minutes of play without conceding a goal
- Timo Hildebrand (884; from May 25 to October 4, 2003 for VfB Stuttgart )
- Goalkeeper with the most clean sheets
- Manuel Neuer (197, as of January 24, 2021)
- Goalkeeper with the most clean sheets in a season
- Manuel Neuer (21/34; for FC Bayern Munich in the 2015/16 season)
- Goal from the greatest distance
- Moritz Stoppelkamp (for SC Paderborn 07 against Hannover 96 on September 20, 2014) from a distance of 83 m
- Fastest goal in a game
- Karim Bellarabi (for Bayer 04 Leverkusen on August 23, 2014 in the away game against Borussia Dortmund ), Kevin Volland (for TSG 1899 Hoffenheim on August 22, 2015 against FC Bayern Munich ) (9.0 seconds)
- Most assists in the Bundesliga
- Thomas Müller (156; for FC Bayern Munich , as of January 17, 2021)
- Most assists in one season
- Thomas Müller (21; for FC Bayern Munich in the 2019/20 season)
- Youngest player
- Youssoufa Moukoko (16 years and one day on November 21, 2020 for Borussia Dortmund)
- Oldest player
- Klaus Fichtel (43 years and 183 days on May 21, 1988 for FC Schalke 04)
- Youngest goalscorer
- Youssoufa Moukoko (16 years and 28 days on December 18, 2020 for Borussia Dortmund)
- Oldest goalscorer
- Claudio Pizarro (40 years and 227 days on May 18, 2019 for Werder Bremen)
- Player with the most own goals
- Manfred Kaltz and Nikolče Noveski (6 own goals)
- Player with the fastest own goal
- Leon Goretzka (for FC Augsburg with FC Bayern Munich on February 15, 2019), 13 seconds after kick-off
- Field player without a goal
- Dennis Diekmeier scored no goals in his 203 Bundesliga appearances for 1. FC Nürnberg (30) and Hamburger SV (173) over nine seasons ( 2009/10 to 2017/18 ).
- Player with the most penalties awarded
- Gerd Mueller (12)
- Fastest expulsion (time spent on the court)
- Marcel Titsch-Rivero (for Eintracht Frankfurt at Borussia Dortmund on May 14, 2011) 43 seconds after being substituted on
- Fastest dismissal with yellow-red
- Mame Diouf (for Hannover 96 against Hoffenheim on October 26, 2013) received a yellow card in the 11th minute, received the second yellow card in the 12th minute and had to leave the field with a yellow and red card.
- Master trainer
- 1. 8 titles: Udo Lattek (6 × FC Bayern Munich , 2 × Borussia Mönchengladbach )
- 2. 7 titles: Ottmar Hitzfeld (2 × Borussia Dortmund , 5 × FC Bayern Munich)
- 3. 4 titles: Hennes Weisweiler (3 × Borussia Mönchengladbach, 1 × 1. FC Köln ), Jupp Heynckes ** (all FC Bayern Munich)
- 5. 3 titles: Otto Rehhagel (2 × Werder Bremen , 1 × 1. FC Kaiserslautern ), Felix Magath (2 × FC Bayern Munich, 1 × VfL Wolfsburg ), Pep Guardiola (all FC Bayern Munich)
- 8. 2 titles: Max Merkel (1860 Munich / 1st FC Nuremberg), Branko Zebec (FC Bayern Munich / Hamburger SV ), Pál Csernai (FC Bayern Munich), Ernst Happel (Hamburger SV), Jürgen Klopp (Borussia Dortmund), Hansi Flick *** (FC Bayern Munich)
- 14. 1 Title: Georg Knöpfle (1. FC Cologne), Willi Multhaup (Werder Bremen), Helmuth Johannsen (Eintracht Braunschweig), Helmut Benthaus (VfB Stuttgart), Karlheinz Feldkamp (1. FC Kaiserslautern), Christoph Daum (VfB Stuttgart) , Franz Beckenbauer * (FC Bayern Munich), Giovanni Trapattoni (FC Bayern Munich), Matthias Sammer (Borussia Dortmund), Thomas Schaaf (Werder Bremen), Armin Veh (VfB Stuttgart), Louis van Gaal (FC Bayern Munich), Carlo Ancelotti (FC Bayern Munich), Niko Kovač (FC Bayern Munich)
- * In the 1993/94 season, Beckenbauer took over after the winter break and stayed until the end of the season
- ** In the 2017/18 season Heynckes took over after the 7th matchday and stayed until the end of the season
- *** In the 2019/20 season, Flick took over after the 10th matchday.
- Winning the championship as a player and as a coach
- Helmut Benthaus (1964 / 1st FC Köln - 1984 / VfB Stuttgart), Jupp Heynckes (1971, 1975, 1976, 1977 / Borussia Mönchengladbach - 1989, 1990, 2013, 2018 / FC Bayern Munich), Franz Beckenbauer (1969, 1972, 1973, 1974 / FC Bayern Munich, 1982 Hamburger SV - 1994 / FC Bayern Munich), Matthias Sammer (1992 / VfB Stuttgart, 1995, 1996 / Borussia Dortmund - 2002 / Borussia Dortmund); Thomas Schaaf (1988, 1993 / Werder Bremen - 2004 / Werder Bremen), Felix Magath (1979, 1982, 1983 / Hamburger SV - 2005, 2006 / FC Bayern Munich, 2009 / VfL Wolfsburg), Niko Kovač (2003 / FC Bayern Munich - 2019 / FC Bayern Munich), Hansi Flick (1986, 1987, 1989, 1990 / FC Bayern Munich - 2020, 2021 / FC Bayern Munich)
- Coach with most Bundesliga games
- Otto Rehhagel , 832 games
- Jupp Heynckes , 669 games
- Erich Ribbeck , 569 games
- Thomas Schaaf , 524 games
- Udo Lattek , 522 games
- Friedhelm Funkel , 512 games
- Felix Magath , 495 games
- Hennes Weisweiler , 470 games
- Ottmar Hitzfeld , 461 games
- Christoph Daum , 426 games
As of January 29, 2020
Clubs and games
|1||FC Bayern Munich||805|
|6th||1. FC Kaiserslautern||91|
|7th||1. FC Cologne||82|
|12th||1. FC Nuremberg||36|
|15th||TSV 1860 Munich||17th|
|TSG 1899 Hoffenheim|
|Another 15 clubs||51|
Status: December 20, 2020 in
italics = currently not represented in the Bundesliga
- Highest number of Bundesliga seasons
- Werder Bremen (including the 2020/21 season there are 57, namely all except the 1980/81 season )
- Highest number of title wins
- FC Bayern Munich (30)
- Highest number of points in a season (with 3-point rule)
- FC Bayern Munich (91, 2012/13 )
- Highest number of wins in a season
- FC Bayern Munich (29, 2012/13 and 2013/14 )
- Smallest number of defeats in a season
- FC Bayern Munich (1, 1986/87 and 2012/13 )
- Best goal difference in a season
- FC Bayern Munich (+80 goals, 2012/13 )
- Worst goal difference in a season
- Tasmania Berlin (−93 goals, 1965/66 )
- Highest number of goals in one season
- FC Bayern Munich (101 goals, 1971/72 )
- Lowest number of goals conceded in one season
- FC Bayern Munich (17 goals conceded, 2015/16 )
- Highest number of referrals in a season
- TSV 1860 Munich (12 evictions, 1994/95 )
- Championship with the longest duration as championship leader
- FC Bayern Munich (seasons 1968/69 , 1972/73 , 1984/85 , 2007/08 and 2012/13 ; each from 1st to 34th matchday)
- Championship with the shortest duration as championship leader
- FC Bayern Munich ( 1985/86 season ; on the 34th and final matchday)
- Championship decided after the fewest number of game days
- FC Bayern Munich ( 2013/14 season ; on matchday 27)
- Largest distance between 1st and 2nd place
- 25 points; FC Bayern Munich (91) before Borussia Dortmund (66): Season 2012/13
- Smallest distance between place 1 and place 2
- 3 goals; 1. FC Köln (+45) ahead of Borussia Mönchengladbach (+42) with 48:20 points each: 1977/78 season
- Longest winning streak
- at the beginning of a season: FC Bayern Munich (10 games, 14 August to 24 October 2015)
- in one season: FC Bayern Munich (19 games, October 19, 2013 to March 25, 2014)
- Home games in one season: FC Bayern Munich (16 games, September 20, 1972 to May 26, 1973)
- Home games for all seasons: FC Bayern Munich (26 games, November 27, 1971 to May 26, 1973)
- Away games in one season: FC Bayern Munich (10 games, November 2, 2013 to March 25, 2014 and December 18, 2019 to June 27, 2020)
- The longest unbeaten
- At the beginning of a season: FC Bayern Munich (28 games, August 9, 2013 to March 29, 2014)
- in one season: Borussia Dortmund (28 games, September 24, 2011 to May 5, 2012); FC Bayern Munich (28 games, August 9, 2013 to March 29, 2014)
- Cross-season: FC Bayern Munich (53 games, October 28, 2012 to March 29, 2014)
- Home games for all seasons: FC Bayern Munich (73 games, April 11, 1970 to September 14, 1974)
(including catch-up game 1969/70 on match day 19 on April 15, 1970 FC Bayern Munich - Borussia M'gladbach 1-0)
- Away games in one season: FC Bayern Munich (all 17 games, August 9, 1986 to June 17, 1987 and August 25, 2012 to May 18, 2013)
- Away games across all seasons: FC Bayern Munich (33 games, April 21, 2012 to March 25, 2014)
- Longest series of victories
Tasmania Berlin (31 games, August 14, 1965 to May 21, 1966)
- Highest number of spectators in a game
- Hertha BSC - 1. FC Cologne (88,075 spectators, September 26, 1969)
- Highest home win
- Borussia Mönchengladbach versus Borussia Dortmund (12: 0) on April 29, 1978)
- Biggest away win
- Meidericher SV (9-0 at Tasmania 1900 Berlin on March 26, 1966)
- Most goalscoring tied games
- FC Schalke 04 - FC Bayern Munich (5: 5) on September 8, 1973, Eintracht Frankfurt - VfB Stuttgart (5: 5) on November 16, 1974
- Most goal-scoring games won by one goal difference
- Werder Bremen - Borussia Mönchengladbach (6: 5) on June 7, 1969, Fortuna Düsseldorf - FC Bayern Munich (6: 5) on June 7, 1975, VfL Bochum - FC Bayern Munich (5: 6) on September 18, 1976 ( at the same time the biggest catch-up, as Bochum had already led 4-0)
- Most double digit wins
- Borussia Mönchengladbach (4 wins, 12: 0 against Borussia Dortmund on April 29, 1978, 11: 0 against FC Schalke 04 on January 7, 1967, 10: 0 against Borussia Neunkirchen on November 4, 1967 and 10: 0 against Eintracht Braunschweig on October 11, 1984)
- Longest series of goals
- Most games in a row scored at least one goal: FC Bayern Munich (65 games, April 21, 2012 to March 29, 2014)
- Most games in a row no goal scored: 1. FC Köln (10 games, December 1, 2001 to February 23, 2002)
- Most goals in a season
- 1,097 in 306 games ( 1983/84 , average 3.58 goals per game)
- The fewest goals in a season
- 790 in 306 games ( 1989/90 , average 2.58 goals per game)
- Most goals on a matchday
- 53 on matchday 32, 1983/84
- The fewest goals on a matchday
- 11 on the 26th matchday 1989/90 and on the 20th matchday 1998/99
- Most of the referrals in a season
- 98 in 306 games ( 1994/95 , an average of 0.32 dismissals per game)
- Most dismissals on a matchday
- 8 (3rd matchday of the 2013/14 season )
- Most away wins on a game day
- 8 (6th matchday of the 2019/20 season )
- Most of the relegations from the Bundesliga
- 1. FC Nuremberg (9)
- Never descended
- FC Bayern Munich, Bayer Leverkusen, VfL Wolfsburg, 1899 Hoffenheim, FC Augsburg, RB Leipzig, 1. FC Union Berlin
World footballer and European footballer of the year, world goalkeeper
world Footballer of the Year
The FIFA World Player of the Year is since 1991 by the FIFA with the FIFA World Player of the Year and in 2007 by the French trade magazine France Football with the Ballon d'Or awarded, considered more prestigious award (valid between 2010 and 2015 took FIFA and France Football, the Election together with the FIFA Ballon d'Or ). While the Ballon d'Or was not awarded in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic , the Poland's Robert Lewandowski (FC Bayern Munich) was the first and only time a Bundesliga player was voted FIFA World Player of the Year .
Europe's footballer of the year
A total of seven different Bundesliga players have been named European Footballer of the Year ten times , from 1978 to 1981 even four times in a row. This award was presented from 1956 to 2006 by the French specialist magazine France Football with the Ballon d'Or and has been awarded again by UEFA with the UEFA Player of the Year since 2011 :
- Gerd Müller (FC Bayern Munich; Ballon d'Or 1970)
- Franz Beckenbauer (FC Bayern Munich; Ballon d'Or 1972 and 1976)
- Kevin Keegan (Hamburger SV; Ballon d'Or 1978 and 1979)
- Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (FC Bayern Munich; Ballon d'Or 1980 and 1981)
- Matthias Sammer (Borussia Dortmund; Ballon d'Or 1996)
- Franck Ribéry (FC Bayern Munich; UEFA Player of the Year 2013)
- Robert Lewandowski (FC Bayern Munich; UEFA Player of the Year 2020)
So far, four different Bundesliga goalkeepers have been recognized 10 times as world goalkeepers . For this election exist with the World Goalkeeper of the IFFHS (since 1987), the FIFA World Goalkeeper of the FIFA (since 2017) and the Yashin trophy from France Football (since 2019) three relevant prices:
- Jean-Marie Pfaff (FC Bayern Munich; IFFHS world goalkeeper 1987)
- Andreas Köpke (Eintracht Frankfurt & Olympique Marseille ; IFFHS World Goalkeeper 1996)
- Oliver Kahn (FC Bayern Munich; IFFHS world goalkeeper 1999, 2001 and 2002)
- Manuel Neuer (FC Bayern Munich; IFFHS World Goalkeeper 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2020; FIFA World Goalkeeper 2020)
- Eternal table of the Bundesliga
- Soccer in Germany
- List of German football champions
- List of soccer players with the most Bundesliga appearances
- List of the most successful goal scorers in the Bundesliga
- List of top scorer in the Bundesliga
- List of coaches in the German Bundesliga
- List of clubs in the Bundesliga
- List of Bundesliga soccer venues
- List of the highest national soccer divisions
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