Football referee

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henning Jensen, Danish football referee

A soccer referee checks compliance with the soccer rules at a soccer game .

Tasks and functions

The most important piece of equipment for a referee: the whistle
Also part of the basic equipment - the yellow and the red card

The referee directs the football game and enforces the football rules. The referee can impose game and disciplinary penalties for this.

The disciplinary sanctions can be directed against players, substitutes, substituted players or officials of the teams participating in the game. The direct disciplinary power of the referee begins when he enters the field for a so-called field inspection and ends when he leaves the field at the end of the game. In addition, the referee has the obligation to report rule violations and other unsportsmanlike conduct in connection with the game that are committed outside this period. Disciplinary penalties (outdated: personal penalties) are the warning (indicated by the yellow card ), the expulsion from the field because of behavior worthy of a warning or an offense after a warning has already been given (the yellow-red card ) and the expulsion permanently (the red card ). Misconduct by officials (e.g. interfering with the game, inappropriately protesting against the referee's decisions, repeatedly leaving the coaching zone) has also been sanctioned by showing cards since the 2019/2020 season. Depending on the offense, there is a yellow or red card, and a yellow-red card is also possible in the event of repeated violations. Officials are all persons who are entered on the match report alongside the players. If it cannot be determined which official has committed an offense, the card due will be issued against the “highest ranking” official (usually the coach).

In the case of game penalties, a distinction is made between the direct and indirect free kick and the penalty kick (colloquially known as a penalty kick), which are to be imposed depending on the type and location of the offense and, if applicable, the target person of the rule violation (teammate, opponent, official, umpire).

In addition to the game management, the referee has a number of other tasks (e.g. checking the mandatory equipment of the players, the pitch structure), which are set out in the football rules and the respective game regulations of the football associations.

Many games, especially in the higher divisions, are directed by a referee team. The referee is supported by two assistant referees who help him to control the game by showing with the flag if there are fouls in the back of the referee or if the referee has committed an offense, e.g. B. could not recognize because of a less favorable position to the action, players are in offside positions , the ball has left the field (goal kick / corner kick, throw-in) or crossed the goal line (goal). Another important task of the assistants is to organize player substitutions unless there is a fourth official .

The respective association determines from which division assistant referees are used. In Germany, this is the respective district, district or state association, usually based on the number of qualified arbitrators. Sometimes even games in the regional league are occupied by teams, in other places only from the regional league. Young referees (under 18, in some associations also under 16 years of age) are often employed as assistant referees, especially in the lower divisions, so that they can gain experience for their own game management later on. In Switzerland, for men in the 3rd to 5th league , for women from NLB and for juniors, veterans and seniors, every club has to provide a line judge. Alternatively, the host club can provide two line judges. Under certain circumstances, the referee may, if he can, direct the game alone. In the leagues above, in U-19 and U-18 top-level football and from the first main cup round, the responsible officer appoints the assistant referees.

Since the assistant referees see above all the areas to the front right and back left, the typical path of the referee (if he does not have to intervene on site) is typically offset, namely in an arc from the center to the left front and then in Closer to the penalty area again closer to this, correspondingly mirror image in the other half.

The referees have traditionally reserved the color black in their clothing. However, other colors may also be worn if it is possible to distinguish it from the players' jerseys. This was first practiced in Germany on June 12, 1993 by Markus Merk at the DFB Cup final when he wore green instead of black. The DFB had relaxed the rule by order of FIFA .

Fourth official

In professional football, there is also the fourth official , who takes over the duties of the first assistant referee, controls substitutions, shows the stoppage time set by the referee or monitors the environment (behavior of the football coach , substitute players and officials and stewards). At special events such as the European Championship , a fifth official is also used, who regularly supports the fourth official. The reason for this expansion is that the fourth and fifth officials are also trained as referees and assistant referees, so that if the referee or an assistant fails, a replacement is available immediately.

Additional assistant referees

In the group stage of the Europa League , Additional Assistant Referees (also known as “goal judges”) were introduced in the 2009/10 season. They have also been used in the UEFA Champions League since the 2010/11 season and at European Championships since 2012. Goal referees stand behind the goal line on the side of the respective assistant referee, but are also allowed to enter the field of play. Your main job is to decide whether a ball has crossed the goal line. Gate judges may also assist the referee in the event of controversial fouls or assaults in the penalty area. The use of gate judges was discussed controversially as an alternative to the use of technical aids . With the introduction of video evidence , gate judges were abolished.


For everyone involved in a football game , it is now a matter of course that the games are conducted by certified, neutral football referees. When you started playing soccer in the mid- 19th century , it wasn't like that. In the early years, the team captains of both teams involved in the game directed the game. This was done in such a way that the team captain of the team whose player broke the rule interrupted the game and released the ball for the opponent to kick. It was not until 1873 , after ten years of playing football and ten years after the first football rules, that the term referee was included in the rules. When doing the referee and two sub-referee (umpire) were introduced in the rules, the referee only the function of a court of appeal had. He sat on the sidelines as a functionary. If a player violated the rules, the umpires were called by the team captains. The referee only had to decide if they couldn't agree. From then on, the team captains could no longer decide; this power passed to the umpires. These in turn were not allowed to play in the teams. The teams were still free to agree on a referee who was, so to speak, an arbitrator in the face of controversial umpires' decisions. The referee was given the title Referee, which is still valid internationally. When the referee was added to the rules in 1880, this rule was numbered 15 and read: With the consent of the teams involved in the games, a referee can be appointed whose duty it should be to decide in all disputes between the umpires. He should keep a record of the course of the game and also take the time. If a player behaves improperly, he or she should warn the guilty player or players in the presence of the umpires or, in the case of grossly unsporting behavior, exclude them from the game. The name or names of the guilty players must be reported to the competent authority, which alone has the right to receive a decision. The referee was still not the sole leader of the game, but was the decisive point in the event of disagreements. The rule did not know the term “neutral”. Every referee that the teams agreed on was unassailable in his decisions.

In 1889 the rules governing the governance of games were rewritten and the rights of umpires and referees clearly outlined. The rules were: Two umpires are to be appointed, whose job it is to resolve any issues in dispute when called upon to do so. An arbitrator must be appointed to resolve all disputes between the umpires. It is the umpire's duty to rule in all cases where the umpires disagree or when an umpire fails to make a decision. Although they were not obliged to do so, they agreed on a neutral referee for decisive games. The obligation to appoint a referee to direct a game had existed since 1882 because the disagreements were increasing. The referee as the sole leader of a game has existed since 1890.

In 1891 the umpires were abolished and the linesmen took their place . The position of the referee was thereby upgraded. A separate rule was created for the line judges. The referee became the sole director of the game and the linesmen were subordinate to him. On the basis of the above, it can be seen that change the position of captain was subjected to a team, the linesman and the referee.

In 2006, according to a survey by FIFA , there were around 840,000 referees worldwide.

Requirements and training

In Germany, you can only become a referee if you are a member of a club affiliated with the DFB. Registration for an arbitration course takes place regularly via the club or via the DFBnet . The minimum age is 12 years, although some state associations also require a higher membership age. Depending on the association, the course takes place in 20–50 hours of lessons spread over three to 12 days within one to six weeks. It teaches the football rules, which must be proven by an examination at the end. In addition, a fitness test must be passed. Even if this is not one of the expressly declared prerequisites, a certain consolidation of the personality is also an indispensable prerequisite in order to be able to guarantee the necessary neutrality and not to be disturbed by hostility from viewers and players.

In Austria it is not necessary to belong to an association. The referees are sent by the association, whereby a referee can also be active as a club official or player at the same time. In order to avoid conflicts of interest, in this case there will be no casting in the league in which the club is currently playing. Otherwise, similar or the same criteria as for the DFB apply to the game line-ups and for minimum and maximum age or other qualification criteria as well as for checking knowledge of the rules and physical fitness.

Areas of application


In theory, a certified referee can be used to direct any football game. After the apprentice course, however, they will usually be used first in youth games. With corresponding performances, which are determined and evaluated by referee observers, a deployment in higher leagues and age groups can take place (so-called promotion). For ascents, further exams, both theoretical and athletic, are often required. In addition, advancement to higher classes is often preceded by a job as an assistant referee (formerly linesman).

Professional football and international level

Those who are among the best can move up in professional leagues. As a rule, this should take several years. Most professional football referees and FIFA referees still have a regular job. In contrast to football players, who can take part in national or international matches with virtually no age limit, there is a fixed age limit for referees, after which they are no longer allowed to conduct international games or games in professional football (different from national association to national association). After the maximum age for FIFA referees was previously 50, it has been gradually reduced to 48 and then 47 years. Since 1992 the maximum age has been 45 years. Due to the high expenditure of time, many referees in the higher leagues work in independent professions such as doctor, lawyer or businessman, which allow their own division of working hours.

Referee in Germany

There are around 57,420 referees in Germany (as of 2017/18 season). In the 2013/14 season there were 72,300 in 2009/10 78,500. With around 100,000 games per weekend in Germany, this number is not enough, which is why many referees conduct several games per week or B. the lowest classes of youth or senior teams not eligible for promotion can not be appointed with official referees.

The clubs have to provide a minimum number of referees, depending on the number of their teams and partly also depending on their division. If they park too few, fines must be paid. In addition, there are other penalties that depend on the difference to the target and the duration of the shortfall, such as point deductions, forced relegation or the ban on hosting tournaments. Which penalties are used is regulated differently in the member associations of the DFB . Only those who lead a certain number of games per season and meet other requirements are recognized as referees, including in particular the annual performance test and a minimum number of mandatory meetings and training courses, although this also differs in the member associations of the DFB.

In Germany, the referee receives so-called expenses or allowances for his game management, which vary depending on the national association and league. The lowest rates are intended for youth games; adults in the lower amateur range pay around 25 euros. For top division games, referees receive around 50 euros and assistants around 25 euros per game (depending on the respective national association). In addition, an expense allowance - again determined by the respective regional association - is paid for the travel costs, which is partially flat-rate or based on the actual costs for public transport or the kilometers driven at a fixed rate of kilometers. The amounts are, if they exceed 720 euros per year , to be taxed according to § 3 No. 26a of the Income Tax Act, whereby a prior deduction of income-related expenses is permitted.

Since the 2012/13 season in the Bundesliga, a referee has received an annual basic allowance, which has been 59,000 euros since the 2017/18 season, and 69,000 euros for FIFA referees or Bundesliga referees with five years of experience. As a FIFA Elite Referee, you receive a fixed amount of 79,000 euros. In addition to the basic remuneration, all referees in the Bundesliga receive an expense allowance of 5,000 euros per game, in the 2nd Bundesliga 2,500 euros. The basic security of the assistants is 44,000 euros (FIFA), 39,000 euros (Bundesliga) and 4,000 euros (2nd Bundesliga) annually. In addition, the assistants each receive half of the match-related amount of a referee, the fourth official a quarter of the amount, but no basic security. In the 3rd league there is no basic security and 750 euros per game for the referee, in the regional league 300 euros. Assistants receive half, fourth officials are not provided here.

A Bundesliga referee has to invest a lot of time: He is given a daily training plan, which is also checked, and regular medical checks must also be completed. Furthermore, he must regularly take part in the training camps before the start of the season and at "half-time" (break in winter) as well as in other courses run by the DFB and its regional association. In addition, it is expected that he will also occasionally be present at the grassroots level, for example by giving a lecture in referee courses or training evenings. For the game management of a Saturday game, the arrival on Friday must be carried out, the return home takes place on the late Saturday evening or on Sunday, depending on the distance. The accommodation and food costs incurred for the external appointments will be reimbursed to him.

The physical fitness of football referees is usually checked regularly. In the upper performance classes, depending on the regulations of the respective regional associations from the district league, this is usually done with the Helsen test , also known as the FIFA fitness test. The Helsen test, named after the UEFA fitness expert Werner Helsen, has been prescribed by FIFA for national associations since 2007 and has replaced the earlier Cooper test in classes down to the district league . The age limit for Bundesliga referees is 47 years. In the performance classes below the district league, there are different requirements for the fitness of the referees depending on the association, but the requirements are lower than those of the Helsen or Cooper tests.

From the 3rd league and the second main round of the DFB Cup, a referee is observed and graded in every game. Due to the referee scandal in 2005, this will also be the case in the first cup main round in the future. For quality assurance and further development, all referees who are granted promotion opportunities are regularly observed several times per season, while observations for the other referees are exceptional cases. In addition, referees in the respective performance classes of the associations are observed.

The DFB badge may only be worn by referees who are on the DFB referee list. If a referee leaves the DFB list, he is no longer allowed to wear this badge.

Referee scandal 2005

In January 2005, the German soccer referee Robert Hoyzer was accused of match- fixing . Hoyzer is accused of influencing the results of games he directs in connection with sports betting and possibly manipulating them in this way. The suspicion that Hoyzer had an influence on game results initially concerns the DFB Cup game in the first round on August 21, 2004 between SC Paderborn 07 and Hamburger SV, which surprisingly ended 4-2 after two dubious penalty kicks and had given a controversial expulsion against HSV. But five games from the second Bundesliga are also examined. The game between LR Ahlen and Wacker Burghausen was rescheduled after a protest by Burghausen and a corresponding judgment by the DFB sports court. The Hamburger SV had also protest against the validity of the 2: 4 defeat in the DFB Cup first round tie against SC Paderborn 07 and in this game of Hoyzer red card against imposed Emile Mpenza inserted. The DFB sports committee decided that there could be no repetition, instead the Hamburger SV was financially compensated and the red card was canceled.

Referee scandal 2010

In February 2010, allegations of the Bundesliga referee Michael Kempter against the spokesman for the referee at the DFB Manfred Amerell for sexual harassment became known. These were already communicated to the chairman of the referee committee, Volker Roth, on December 17, 2009, but he did not forward them until around 4 weeks later. On February 9, Amerell resigned from his position for health reasons, according to a press release, although it became public the following day that other reasons existed. As a result, the Vice President of the DFB, Rainer Koch , gave up his responsibility for refereeing in the DFB because he was only informed of the allegations at a meeting of the Executive Committee on February 3rd. This was followed by a "mud battle", in which it was only made clear that both Amerell and Kemper's statements were not clearly inconsistent. Several legal proceedings followed, but with Amerell's death there will no longer be a final decision, although it became apparent in any case that it would not be possible to bring about a complete investigation.

Referee in Switzerland

In Switzerland, training and supervision are handled similarly or in the same way as in Germany. As a rule, one referee must be reported to the association for every two active teams. A referee has fulfilled his “target” with 15 official games. Each referee is observed and assessed by stage managers several times a year. Based on these evaluations (and in the higher leagues rule and stamina tests) a decision is made about the league qualification. There are differences in the money, junior referees (mostly the newbies) receive the equivalent of around 60 euros per game. In return, the top referees earn less - in the trio around 1150 euros as expenses. Depending on the league qualification, referees have to attend training courses two to three times a year.

Since the resignation of Urs Meier , the Swiss Football Association (SFV) has been relying mainly on younger referees, who are to be gradually brought up to the international level. In addition, women are specifically encouraged to pursue a career as a referee. Examples are Nicole Petignat (resigned on December 1, 2008), Esther Staubli and Simona Ghisletta , both of whom are among the top FIFA women. Switzerland provided a referee at the 2006 World Cup in Germany as well as at the 2008 European Championship with Massimo Busacca from Ticino .

Due to a cooperation between the DFB and the Swiss Football Association, a total of 33 games in the German Bundesliga were directed by Swiss referees from 1981 to 1990. Switzerland also operates an exchange of referees with the Austrian Football Association.

International assignments

Chest emblem that FIFA referees also wear at national matches

The age limit for a FIFA referee is 45 years. FIFA referee and assistant badges may only be worn by those eligible on the FIFA list in the year of validity for all matches.

Technical aids

The Austrian referee Stefan Meßner with radio system

The most widely used tool is the radio system. The assistant referee has installed a transmitter in his flag handle, which he activates by pressing a button. Usually this switch is pressed when the flag is raised. The transmitter triggers a vibration or a signal tone via a receiver attached to the arm of the lead referee. Since the acquisition costs of the radio system are considerable, it is only required from certain higher game classes, but may also be used in the lower classes. It gives the referee the opportunity to concentrate more on what is happening directly in the game without having to constantly keep an eye on the assistant referee, as there is now no longer just a visual option for the team to communicate with, but also via vibrations or beeps.

In addition, after tests in the UEFA Champions League and some national leagues at the 2006 World Cup, the referees were in contact with their assistants for the first time in all games via headset .

Goal-line techniques to verify that the ball has completely crossed the goal line were first tried in FIFA tournaments in 2012 and 2013. Four systems have been approved, with the Hawk-Eye prevailing. It has been used in the German Bundesliga since the 2015/16 season.

In the past, prior to the introduction of video evidence, subsequent disciplinary measures were taken on the basis of television recordings. The basic prerequisite for a subsequent ban was, however, that the referee had not already punished the rule violation during the game or expressly did not want to punish it (determination of advantages), since " factual decisions " were incontestable.

The so-called free kick spray has been officially approved by FIFA since March 2012 . Previously, its use was already common in South and North America. The referee marks the place of the free kick and a distance line for the wall with a white spray foam. This aid was also used at the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. It was then used in various European leagues, for example from the eighth matchday of the 2014/15 season also in the German Bundesliga.

VAR (Video Assistant Referee)

The VAR has been used in the Bundesliga since the 2017/18 season . This is intended to help the referee to make the right decision in disputed scenes and can also intervene in the event of clear wrong decisions and give the referee a hint on the pitch. The video assistants sit in the so-called “ Cologne basement ”, where they can access up to 21 camera positions. The VAR may intervene in the following situations: penalty kicks, goal scoring , expulsion from the field and mistaken players.

Aborting a game

The referee must abandon a game if a team has fewer than seven players on the field. A referee should also abandon a game if his authority is no longer given, for example by assaulting him or one of his assistants, or if he no longer feels able to properly conduct the game.

A game must be abandoned if the weather, the pitch, light or weather conditions or spectator rioting pose a risk to the players or no longer permit proper play. However, the abort should be preceded by an interruption if it is to be expected that the game can still be continued. The duration of the interruption should not exceed 30 minutes, but a slight excess is to be accepted if it is foreseeable that the game can be continued shortly.

Well-known referees

  • Luigi Agnolin (1943-2018), Italy - WC-SR 1986 and 1990
  • Wolf-Dieter Ahlenfelder (1944–2014), Germany - drowned in 1975, led the Bundesliga match between Werder Bremen and Hannover 96 and whistled the first half after 32 minutes - but was persuaded by the linesman to continue playing before he could still play Finished the first half 90 seconds too early.
  • Ken Aston (1915–2001), England - inventor of the yellow and red cards (first used at the 1970 World Cup )
  • Peco Bauwens (1886–1963), Germany - SR of the 1936 Olympic Games, later DFB President
  • Tofiq Bəhramov (1925–1993), Azerbaijan (then Soviet Union) - line judge at SR Gottfried Dienst in the 1966 World Cup final and signaled at the controversial Wembley goal that the ball would have crossed the goal line.
  • Said Belqola (1956–2002), Morocco - headed the 1998 World Cup final
  • Günter Benkö (* 1955), Austria - SR of the 1998 World Cup and the 2000 European Championship
  • Horst Brummeier (* 1945), Austria - SR of the 1986 World Cup and the 1988 European Championship
  • Cüneyt Çakır (* 1976), Turkey - SR of the EM 2012 and the World Cup 2014
  • Georges Capdeville (1899–1991), France - headed the 1938 World Cup final
  • Carol Anne Chenard (* 1977), Canada - directed the 2010 and 2014 women's U-20 World Cup finals
  • Arnaldo Cézar Coelho (* 1943), Brazil - SR WM 1978 and 1982 (final)
  • Pierluigi Collina (* 1960), Italy - SR WM 2002 (final SR) and the EM 2004
  • André Daina (* 1940), Switzerland - SR EM 1984 and World Cup 1986
  • Gottfried Dienst (1919–1998), Switzerland - SR of the 1966 World Cup final. Gave the third goal in which the ball allegedly went behind the goal line ( Wembley goal ). Also directed the 1st European Championship final in 1968.
  • Ivan Eklind (1905–1981), Sweden - controversial SR in the 1934 World Cup final
  • Horacio Marcelo Elizondo (* 1963), Argentina - SR at the 2006 World Cup (opening match and final match)
  • Arthur Edward Ellis (1914–1999), England - headed the first European Championship final in 1960 and with 12 games most of the German national team
  • Ravshan Ermatov (* 1977), Uzbekistan, since the 2014 World Cup, referee with the most World Cup games (9).
  • Walter Eschweiler (* 1935), Germany, then Federal Republic of Germany - SR at the 1982 World Cup
  • Herbert Fandel (* 1964), Germany - SR of the EM 2008, DFB chief referee
  • Anders Frisk (* 1963), Sweden - SR EM 1996, 2000, 2004 and the 2002 World Cup, played 8 games and played the most of the European Championship finals
  • Bruno Galler (* 1946), Switzerland - SR WM 1982, EM 1988 and 1992
  • Rudi Glöckner (1929–1999), Germany, then GDR - first and only German SR in the World Cup final (Mexico 1970) as well as World Cup referee 1974 (FRG) and EM 1972 (Belgium)
  • Maurice Guigue (1912–2011), France - headed the 1958 World Cup final
  • Benjamin Mervyn "Sandy" Griffiths (1909–1974), Wales - SR at World Cup in 1950, 1954 and 1958
  • Bernd Heynemann (* 1954), Germany - SR at the EM 1996 and the 1998 World Cup
  • Robert Hoyzer (* 1979), Germany - the trigger for the referee scandal in 2005
  • Valentin Ivanov (* 1961), Russia - EM-SR 2004 and at the 2006 World Cup (4 sent off at a World Cup game).
  • Siegfried Kirschen (* 1943), Germany, then GDR - SR at the 1986 World Cup, the 1988 European Championship and the 1990 World Cup in Italy
  • Abraham Klein (* 1934), Israel
  • Rudolf Kreitlein (1919–2012), Germany, then Federal Republic of Germany - WM-SR 1966
  • Hellmut Krug (* 1956), Germany - SR at the 1994 World Cup and the 1996 European Championship
  • Björn Kuipers (* 1973), Netherlands - SR at the Euro 2012 and the 2014 World Cup in Brazil
  • John Langenus (1891–1952), Belgium - SR of the first World Cup final in 1930
  • Erich Linemayr (1933–2016), Austria - SR of the Frankfurt Water Battle
  • William Ling (1908–1984), England - final referee of the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland
  • Urs Meier (* 1959), Switzerland - SR at the 1998 and 2002 World Cups
  • Markus Merk (* 1962), Germany - SR at the 2002 and 2006 World Cups and the 2000 and 2004 EM (SR of the final)
  • Ľuboš Micheľ (* 1968), Slovakia - SR at the 2002 World Cup, 2004 European Championship, 2006 World Cup, 2008 European Championship and the 2007/08 Champions League final
  • Byron Moreno (* 1969), Ecuador - SR at the 2002 World Cup. Withdrawn from professional football after repeated allegations of manipulation.
  • Kim Milton Nielsen (* 1960), Denmark - SR of the European Championships 1996, 2000, 2004 and the 1998 and 2002 World Cups
  • Tom Henning Øvrebø (* 1966), Norway - SR at the EM 2008
  • Károly Palotai (1935–2018), Hungary - SR at the 1974, 1978, 1982 World Cups
  • Dieter Pauly (* 1942), Germany, then Federal Republic of Germany - member of the UEFA Referee Observer Committee
  • Vítor Melo Pereira (* 1957), Portugal - SR of the EM 2000 as well as the 1998 and 2002 World Cup
  • Nicole Petignat (* 1966), Switzerland - first woman in the men's UEFA Cup game
  • Konrad Plautz (* 1964), Austria - EM-SR 2008
  • Graham Poll (* 1963), England - SR at the EM 2000 and 2004 as well as the World Cup 2002 and 2006
  • Alexis Ponnet (* 1939), Belgium - WM-SR 1982, 1986 and at the EC 1984 and 1988
  • Adolf Prokop (* 1939), Germany, then GDR - WM-SR 1978 and 1982 as well as at the EM 1980 and 1984
  • Sándor Puhl (* 1955), Hungary - Final SR World Cup 1994
  • Joël Quiniou (* 1950), France - SR at three world championships (1986, 1990 and 1994)
  • George Reader (1896–1978), England - presided over the decisive final game of the 1950 World Cup
  • Roberto Rosetti (* 1967), Italy - EM-SR 2008, WM-SR 2010
  • Volker Roth (* 1942), Germany, then Federal Republic of Germany - SR of the European Championship 1984 and the World Cup 1986, former DFB chief referee
  • Rudolf Scheurer (* 1925), Switzerland - WM-SR 1970, 1974
  • Wolfgang Stark (* 1969), Germany - SR at the 2010 World Cup and the 2012 European Championship
  • Bibiana Steinhaus (* 1979), Germany - she was the first woman to whistle a game in the 2nd Bundesliga in the 2007/08 season and a game in the Bundesliga on September 11, 2017. Headed the 2011 Women's World Cup final and the 2012 Women's Olympics final
  • Bernd Stumpf (* 1940), Germany, GDR Oberliga and FIFA-SR - an example was made of him in 1986 because of an allegedly unauthorized penalty imposed for the BFC Dynamo in the form of an exclusion from the first and second division of the GDR.
  • John Taylor (1930–2012), England - WM-SR 1970 and 1974 (final)
  • Kurt Tschenscher (1928–2014), Germany, then Federal Republic of Germany - WM-SR 1966, 1970 and 1974 as well as the EM 1968
  • Mario van der Ende (* 1956), Netherlands - SR at the 1994 World Cup
  • Michel Vautrot (* 1945), France - WM-SR 1982 and 1990 as well as at the EC 1984 and 1988
  • Nelly Viennot (* 1962), France - assistant umpire in the UEFA Champions League
  • Karl Wald (1916–2011), Germany - inventor of the penalty shootout
  • Howard Webb (* 1971), England - SR at EM 2008 and 2012, Champions League finals and 2010 World Cup
  • Franz Wöhrer (* 1939), Austria - WM-SR 1982
  • Robert Wurtz (* 1941), France - the " Nijinsky the whistle"
  • Arturo Yamasaki (1929-2013), Peru / Mexico - WM-SR 1962, 1966 and 1970 (game of the century )
  • István Zsolt (1921–1991), Hungary - WM-SR 1954, 1958 and 1966 as well as at the EM 1968

See also Category: Football Referees and List of FIFA Referees .


  • Referees at Work - Documentation about the procedure of the referees at the EM 2008. For the first time the radio communication between the referee and his assistants was recorded and reproduced in the original.
  • The Referee (Rättskiparen) - Documentation about the Swedish FIFA referee Martin Hansson and his way to the 2010 World Cup. The World Cup relegation match France-Ireland, in which he made a fatal mistake, is highlighted.
  • Pooper - documentary about the SR-contender Kevin Prösdorf, the Swiss Senior SR Oreste Steiner and FIFA referee Herbert Fandel . The referee system is examined from different positions.
  • Galileo broadcast on February 25, 2011 - FIFA-SR Wolfgang Stark is shown in an 18-minute broadcast both at a Bundesliga match and privately.
  • The 19th team in the Bundesliga - Sky Deutschland documentary about Knut Kircher (2015).

See also


  • Christoph Schröder: I whistle! From the life of an amateur referee . Tropen-Verlag, Stuttgart 2015, 221 pp.

Web links

Commons : Soccer Referee  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Official football rules of the DFB. DFB, accessed on April 6, 2020 .
  2. Football rules of the game , publisher: Referees Committee of the Swiss Football Association, rule 6
  3. ^ Matthias Stolz: Mon referee. In: April 8, 2010, accessed April 6, 2020 .
  4. Curious debut. In: September 16, 2009, accessed March 9, 2018 .
  5. 265 million play football. In: FIFAmagazine, July 10, 2007, accessed April 5, 2020.
  6. How do I become a referee? In: Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  11. EStG §3 (viewed on May 21, 2014)
  12. a b Advantages as an arbitrator. In: Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  13. Referees deserve it. In: , accessed on April 5, 2020.
  14.  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) 2Template: Toter Link /
  15. Start of the Bundesliga: Premiere for Hawk-Eye Spiegel Online, August 13, 2015, accessed on September 26, 2015.
  16. Mostly positive experience with the use of "Free Kick Spray" in FIFA competitions, November 20, 2013, accessed July 6, 2014.
  17. ↑ Free- kick spray: Shaving foam on the soccer field WZ newsline, July 19, 2011.
  18. Referee cream for the first time in the Bundesliga Spiegel Online, October 16, 2014, accessed on December 8, 2015.
  19. Then he really steps in - Eight facts about video evidence. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  20. The video evidence. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  21. Behind the scenes - This is how "the 19th team" of the Bundesliga True Table ticks , November 24, 2014, accessed on December 8, 2015.
  22. The bitter charm of amateur football , review by Thomas Jaedicke in Deutschlandradio Kultur on June 5, 2015, accessed on June 8, 2015