de Football Association
|legal form||non-profit association|
|founding||May 21, 1904 in Paris , France
|Seat||Zurich , Switzerland|
|main emphasis||World Football Association|
|Managing directors||Fatma Samoura|
|Members||211 national associations|
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association ( German Internationaler Verband des Association Football ), or FIFA or Fifa for short , is a private association that aims to “control Association Football in all its forms”. The World Football Association is a non-profit association within the meaning of Article the Swiss Civil Code, with its seat in Zurich and registered in the commercial register. As a non-tax-exempt club in the Canton of Zurich, FIFA has to pay a reduced profit tax of 4%.
FIFA has earned $ 5.66 billion in its current four-year income period, 89% of which comes from the marketing of the men's soccer World Cup it organizes . It also organizes the Women's World Cup and numerous other tournaments. Its president is Gianni Infantino .
The last two words in the full name of FIFA, "Football Association", stand as a proper name for the English name of football, Association Football . This designation is used to differentiate between sports that also carry the designation football , for example rugby football or American football . The French name of FIFA therefore translates as “International Association of Association Football” or simply as “International Association of Association Football”.
FIFA was founded on May 21, 1904 in Paris by the Dutchman Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann and the Frenchman Robert Guérin . This was preceded by a meeting on the occasion of the first international match between Belgium and France on May 1, 1904 in the Ganzenvijver / Vivier d'Oie stadium in Uccle , where Louis Muhlinghaus, the club secretary of the Racing Club de Bruxelles, the leading club in Belgium at the time, founded the club with his French colleagues agreed, and then became the first FIFA Secretary General.
The founding members were the national football associations of Switzerland , Denmark , France , the Netherlands , Belgium and Sweden , although in some cases the founding members did not correspond to the associations that exist today, as well as Spain , although not represented by an association but by the Madrid Football Club . The German Football Association joined FIFA by telegram on the day it was founded. Other national associations were added over the next few years. The first major international football competition took place at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London . A soccer competition was also held as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics . During the First World War development stalled; games could no longer be played and several associations (e.g. England ) withdrew from FIFA.
After the First World War and the death of President Daniel Burley Woolfall , it was the Dutchman Hirschmann who was able to secure the existence of FIFA through his voluntary work as secretary and interim president. The big boom began with the election of the new president Jules Rimet , who from 1924 planned a world football tournament together with the wealthy Uruguayan and sports patron Enrique Buero . The first World Cup was held in 1930 . When Rimet resigned in 1954, the fifth World Cup was already taking place and FIFA had 85 members. The number of members grew from year to year in the following years. Especially in times of war, football and thus FIFA were an important link between nations.
According to FIFA statistics from 1972, 16 million people worldwide, including 42,220 professional players, took part in active football and organized themselves into around 300,000 clubs. The number of arbitrators was given as 243,596. The next big step was to expand the field of participants at World Championships from 16 to 24 (for the 1982 World Cup ) and later to 32 teams (for the 1998 World Cup ).
FIFA currently has 211 national associations. They have to be members of one of six continental federations at the same time, but some members of the continental federations are currently only associated [AFC (1), CAF (1), OFC (3)] or full members of the continental federation but not yet a FIFA member [CAF ( 1), CONCACAF (6)].
|The six continental associations of
the world football association FIFA:
In addition to the world association FIFA, there are the following six continental associations ( confederations ):
- AFC ( Asian Football Confederation ), founded in 1954
- CAF ( Confédération Africaine de Football ), founded in 1957
- CONCACAF ( Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football ), founded in 1961 (predecessor CCCF founded in 1938 and NAFC founded in 1946)
- CONMEBOL ( Confederação Sul-Americana de Futebol ), founded in 1916
- OFC ( Oceania Football Confederation ), founded in 1966
- UEFA ( Union of European Football Associations ), founded in 1954
Exceptions are, for example, Aruba , Curaçao , Guyana , Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago , which, despite their geographical location in South America, are members of CONCACAF. The Asian countries Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , the Republic of Cyprus and Israel are organized in UEFA, as are Turkey , Russia and Kazakhstan , which have parts of the country in Europe and Asia. Other UEFA members with non-European countries are France , Spain , the Netherlands , Portugal and Denmark . Indonesia as a member of the AFC has parts of the country on the Australian continent ( New Guinea ), the USA as a member of CONCACAF with Hawaii in Oceania and Egypt as a member of the CAF in Asia ( Sinai Peninsula ).
To date (as of February 5, 2020), FIFA has had 211 national associations, most recently the associations of Gibraltar , Kosovo and South Sudan , Montenegro , East Timor and the Comoros . Between 1975 and 2002 alone, 60 associations were accepted as members.
The national associations receive financial and logistical support through various FIFA programs. It grants them a number of attractive rights and privileges. However, membership also entails obligations: As FIFA representatives in their country, the national associations must respect the statutes, goals and ideals of FIFA and promote and manage the sport accordingly.
As an alternative for national and regional associations that are not accepted by FIFA, CONIFA was launched.
FIFA organizes u. a. the following competitions:
- Football World Cup (since 1930)
- Football Women's World Cup (since 1991)
- Olympic football tournament with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) (since 1908)
- U-20 soccer world championship (since 1977)
- U-17 soccer world championship (since 1985)
- Women's U-20 World Cup (since 2002)
- Women's U-17 World Cup (since 2008)
- Beach soccer world championship (since 2005)
- Futsal World Cup (since 1989)
- FIFA Club World Cup (since 2000)
In August 1993 a world ranking list was introduced for men's national soccer teams and in 2003 for women's national soccer teams . Some of these are used to assign the teams to individual pots for the competition draws.
As part of World XI, FIFA organizes benefit games at irregular intervals with the world soccer team , against which the European soccer team has competed, most recently in 2005 and 2007.
|Surname||Term of office|
|Robert Guérin (†)||1904-1906|
|Daniel Burley Woolfall (†)||1906-1918|
|Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann (†) (Interim)||1918-1920|
|Jules Rimet (†)||1921–1954 *|
|Rodolphe William Seeldrayers (†)||1954-1955|
|Arthur Drewry (†)||1956–1961 **|
|Ernst Thommen (†) (Interim)||1961|
|Sir Stanley Rous (†)||1961-1974|
|João Havelange (†)||1974-1998|
|Sepp Blatter (suspended from 2015)||1998-2015|
|Issa Hayatou (Interim)||2015-2016|
|Gianni Infantino||since 2016|
* From 1920 to February 1921 as interim president
** From 8 October 1955 to 8 June 1956 as interim president
The two main bodies of FIFA are the Congress and the FIFA Council, chaired by the President of FIFA. The President had extensive powers and management competencies until 2016 , but was limited to the role of chairman of the supervisory board following the resignation of Sepp Blatter and reforms resolved by the FIFA Congress . Instead, operational business has since been largely determined by the Secretary General. Other bodies of FIFA are:
- Continental associations,
- National associations,
- Legal and Disciplinary.
The Congress is the highest decision-making body of the international football association. It met every two years until 1998, and has taken place annually since 1998. This new cycle allows Congress to make decisions on an ever increasing number of issues.
Congress makes decisions regarding the statutes and the methods by which they are employed and applied. The Congress also approves the annual report, decides on the admission of new national associations and holds elections, especially those of the FIFA Presidency. Each national association is represented by a delegate and has one vote. Members of the FIFA Council (prior to 2016 FIFA Executive Committee ) are not allowed to attend the Congress as delegates.
The FIFA Council consists of 37 members and is composed
- the president
- 8 vice presidents
- 28 ordinary members
The FIFA Council has existed since February 2016. Before that, there was the FIFA Executive Committee .
|Surname||Term of office|
|Louis Muhlinghaus (†)||1904-1906|
|Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann (†)||1906-1931|
|Ivo Schricker (†)||1932-1951|
|Kurt Gassmann (†)||1951-1961|
|Helmut Käser (†)||1961-1981|
|Michel zen ruffins||1998-2002|
|Fatma Samoura||since 2016|
There are 25 standing committees and two operational bodies, the disciplinary and appeal committees. The committees play an important role in making decisions about the organization of tournaments and the development of football in general. The decisions made by the committees are ratified by the Executive Committee .
Committees and legal institutions (as of June 3, 2015):
- Audit and Compliance Commission
- Beach Soccer Commission
- Appeals Committee
- Bureau Football World Cup 2018
- Disciplinary Committee
- Emergency committee
- Ethics committee
- Development Commission
- Finance Commission
- Football commission
- Futsal Commission
- Association Commission
- Player Status Commission
- Fair Play and Social Responsibility Commission
- Commission for Women's Football and the FIFA World Cup of Women
- Club Football Committee
- Legal Affairs Commission
- Security and Integrity Commission
- Marketing and Television Commission
- Media commission
- Medical Commission
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA Club World Cup
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA Confederations Cup
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA U-17 World Cup
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup
- Organizing Committee for the FIFA U-20 World Cup
- Organizing committee for the FIFA World Cup
- Organizing Committee for the Olympic Football Tournaments
- Referees Committee
- Strategy Commission
Other institutions support FIFA in fulfilling its tasks (as of June 2015):
- Dispute Settlement Chamber
- Development manager
- FIFA Medical Evaluation and Research Center
- Working group against racism and discrimination
The General Secretariat, which employs around 310 people in Zurich, is responsible for the administration of FIFA. It is headed by the Secretary General, who is responsible for ensuring that the decisions of the Executive Committee are implemented. Other areas of responsibility of the General Secretariat are financial matters, maintaining international relations, organizing the FIFA World Cup and the organization of other FIFA soccer competitions. The general secretariat is made up of different departments dealing with the subjects of business, development, finance, football management, communication, human resources, services and competitions.
The official languages of FIFA are German, English, French and Spanish. All statutes, regulations, decisions and the like are created in these languages. English is also used as the official language for minutes and correspondence. The three languages Arabic, Portuguese and Russian are also official for the congress.
Finances and sponsors
FIFA plans its business based on the cycle of the men's soccer World Cup in four-year periods that end with the calendar year in which the final tournament is held. FIFA is currently in the “2015–2018 financial period”. In its 2016 financial report, FIFA itself recorded contractual securing of currently 76% of the four-year revenue budget of a planned $ 5.66 billion as a high point. This revenue budget is largely based on the marketing of the Men's World Cup and is made to
- 53% from the sale of television rights ,
- 26% from the sale of marketing rights ,
- 10% off the sale of hospitality rights and ticket sales , and too
- 6% from the sale of the license rights.
Large amounts of the income from advertising contracts and television broadcasting licenses are passed on to the member associations every year. The worldwide television rights to the men's world championships in 2002 and 2006 alone raised 1.81 billion euros. FIFA demanded a full tax exemption for hosting the World Cup in Germany, which it was granted.
From 2003 to 2006, FIFA achieved a profit of CHF 816 million on revenues of CHF 3.328 billion. In 2006 alone it showed a profit of 303 million Swiss francs and paid only 1.06 million Swiss francs in taxes because it is considered a non-profit organization and is taxed like an association . From 2011 to 2014, FIFA made $ 5.718 billion, of which $ 338 million remained in profit. It has a capital of $ 1.523 billion in 2014. Around 70 percent of the income goes back to football in various forms.
FIFA is exempt from direct federal tax in Switzerland because, under Swiss law, legal entities that pursue public or charitable purposes can be exempt from direct federal tax. FIFA pays 3 million Swiss francs in taxes every year because it is a non-profit association and thus benefits from special taxation . A legislative initiative on a future legally binding tax liability failed in the Swiss parliament .
Hymn and motto
Before every game organized by FIFA up to the 2018 World Cup, the FIFA anthem composed by Franz Lambert will be heard when the referees and teams arrive on the pitch . It has been played since the 1994 World Cup .
The association's motto since 2007 has been “For the Game. For the World. ”(Eng.“ For the game. For the world. ”).
Headquarters of the organization
In 1932, the international football association FIFA moved from Paris to Zurich and has had its headquarters there ever since. In May 2004, on the 100th anniversary of FIFA, the laying of the foundation stone for the renovation and new building was celebrated. Inside the foundation stone is a steel soccer ball with a diameter of 1.3 meters, which is filled with 204 bags of earth from each FIFA member country, which is why FIFA attaches great importance to the fact that its house is “on the soil of all member countries”. At the end of October 2005 the topping-out ceremony was held. Before construction began, the old building was first torn down.
On May 29, 2007, the new FIFA headquarters was inaugurated in Zurich-Hottingen . The new FIFA headquarters - called “Home of FIFA” - has 270 office workplaces, an auditorium for 200 people, 240 underground parking spaces, storage and archive rooms. In the outdoor area, a complete soccer field according to international standards with underground changing rooms and meeting rooms is laid out. The building consists of nine floors (including the ground floor), six of which are below the surface of the earth for urban planning reasons and are almost 20 m deep. The use of energy-efficient building technology made it possible to dispense with energy from fossil fuels, which means that the building does not emit any CO 2 emissions.
FIFA is criticized for taking advantage of its monopoly position ; As in most other sports, there is only one world association in football.
The commercialization of football by FIFA and its sponsors is a source of criticism, as the association is using the marketing privileges it has requested and the like. a. tried to enforce even with tough legal action.
FIFA's rigorous approach is particularly evident when clubs or national associations question the association's basic rules. In the event of a dispute with the Grazer AK, FIFA threatened Austria's exclusion from the 2008 European Championship in its own country. In July 2006, the Greek association was temporarily excluded from FIFA.
The national team of Cameroon appeared for the African Cup of Nations 2004 in a newly designed, body-hugging one-piece suit (UniQT), which the organizing African association also approved. However, FIFA saw this as a violation of its own rules, according to which sportswear must consist of a jersey and pants. The Cameroon team was fined 200,000 francs and six points were deducted for qualifying for the 2006 World Cup . However, the point deduction was withdrawn by FIFA after a successful lawsuit by supplier Puma .
Because of this approach, newspapers and experts have issued the following criticisms:
- "In the end, Fifa always wins" ( Die Zeit )
- "Last dictator of Europe" (Die Zeit)
- "Dagobert Duck Capitalism" ( Indymedia )
- "Occupying Power " ( WiWo )
- "The money machine on the Zürichberg" ( FAZ )
- "Total commercialization of football" ( Winfried Hermann , sports policy spokesman for the Greens in Germany)
- "Monopoly violation" ( Karl-Heinz Rummenigge , CEO of FC Bayern München AG )
In June 2007, FIFA and its former sponsor Mastercard reached an out-of-court settlement , according to which FIFA paid the credit card company US $ 90 million. In addition to a dispute over the use of the FIFA logo, a US court ruled that FIFA, contrary to its contractual obligations, had passed Mastercard over in favor of VISA in the previous year in the renegotiations about sponsorship in the credit card sector . FIFA has thus used half of the income from the new contract with VISA for the dispute with Mastercard. The then FIFA negotiator, Jérôme Valcke , was then initially dismissed before he became FIFA General Secretary on June 27, 2007.
Towards the end of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa , the media criticized that FIFA remained silent on its role during the apartheid regime . FIFA also received criticism for awarding the 2018 World Cup to Russia and the desert emirate of Qatar in 2022 . The Zürcher Tages-Anzeiger said that Russia was the choice of power and Qatar the choice of money.
FIFA is also criticized for having used its income, which has risen sharply in recent years, for prestigious new buildings and excessive operating costs (especially in the form of personnel costs). FIFA's turnover rose between 1990 and 2009 from 10 to 778 million euros. According to Swiss and Zurich law, FIFA pays 4.25 percent tax of its net profit.
In November 2019, FIFA received further criticism from Human Rights Watch for awarding the FIFA Club World Cup 2021 to China for having disregarded its own "... human rights obligations in the context of the procurement process ...".
Negative price "sealed oyster"
In 2012 , the journalists' association Netzwerk Recherche awarded the World Football Association the negative prize for closed oyster . FIFA has so far " blocked all attempts by critical journalists to research corruption and inconsistencies in the allocation of posts," said the chairman of the Research Network, Oliver Schröm . The laudation was given by sports manager Roland Büchel , former FIFA employee and member of the Swiss National Council . The system of wages, allowances and bonuses at FIFA is "completely opaque," said Büchel, pointing out that FIFA paid out $ 96.8 million in wages, payments to volunteers and bonuses last year. However, critical media inquiries on the topic were not answered. The Euro Europe had come the end of April in 124 points to a "damning verdict" on the football world organization and I remembered that autonomy is for the interests of the sport there and "not for the interests of unscrupulous individuals." FIFA did not send a representative to the award ceremony.
Corruption in FIFA
Revelations and investigations since 2006
In May 2006, the British described investigative journalist Andrew Jennings in his book Foul! an allegedly extensive system of corruption under the aegis of João Havelange and Sepp Blatter, which came to light in the wake of the collapse of FIFA marketing partner ISL . Shortly after the book was published, the BBC broadcast a four-hour critical contribution on June 11, 2006, in which the alleged bribery scandal was examined in detail. In total, ISL is said to have paid around 100 million US dollars in bribes to influence FIFA decisions. The BBC has a list of 175 secret payments. According to this, three members of the FIFA Executive Committee , which decides on the selection of the World Cup host, are said to have received payments. According to this, Nicolás Leoz , President of the South American Football Confederation CONMEBOL , will receive 600,000 US dollars in 1998 and 1999, Issa Hayatou , President of the Confédération Africaine de Football , 20,000 US dollars in 1995 and Ricardo Teixeira , President of the Brazilian national football association Confederação Brasileira de Futebol , received $ 9.5 million.
In June 2010 the public prosecutor's office in Zug ordered the termination of the proceedings based on testimony of the ISMM / ISL group against a FIFA leadership group not named except for two officials for an amount of 5.5 million Swiss francs. Of this, FIFA had to pay 2.5 million Swiss francs itself. FIFA resisted the publication of a 41-page paper by the public prosecutor's office describing the corruption system surrounding FIFA, former FIFA President João Havelange and his former son-in-law Ricardo Teixeira , who, according to the document , are said to have collected millions in bribes . The document shows the international flow of money and how FIFA leaders deal with the bribe system. The discontinuation order refers to the then FIFA President Sepp Blatter (without naming him), who should at least have known about the bribe payments. In a judgment of July 3, 2012 by the Swiss Federal Supreme Court, it is determined that there is great “public and worldwide interest” in the content of the document. The media are given a control function here. In spring 2014, the Swiss anti-corruption expert Mark Pieth prepared his final report on FIFA's role in the bribery scandal involving the former rights agency ISL . Before its publication, the then FIFA chief lawyer Marco Villiger removed several explosive passages.
Scandal 2015 and consequences
Before the 66th FIFA Congress, which was held in Zurich on May 27, 2015, several FIFA officials were arrested independently of one another and a search was carried out at FIFA headquarters on the basis of a criminal complaint.
On the morning of May 27, 2015, six soccer officials were arrested by the Zurich canton police on behalf of the Federal Office of Justice on the basis of a US arrest request in the Hotel Baur au Lac . According to the spokeswoman for the Federal Office, the application is dated May 21, 2015. It was issued by the Office for International Affairs of the United States Department of Justice . The officials are accused of corruption. According to the US Department of Justice, officials Jeffrey Webb , Eduardo Li Sánchez , Julio Rocha , Costas Takkas , Eugenio Figueredo , Rafael Esquivel and José Maria Marin were arrested for extradition . On the evening of May 27, 2015, the Trinidad and Tobago authorities received an arrest warrant for former FIFA Vice-President Jack Austin Warner .
Independently of this, FIFA filed a criminal complaint against unknown persons on November 18, 2014, as a result of which criminal proceedings were initiated. Thereupon, on behalf of the Federal Prosecutor's Office , the FIFA headquarters was also searched on the morning of May 27, 2015. This is about the awards for the World Cup to Russia and Qatar.
Four days after his re-election by the FIFA Congress, Sepp Blatter announced his resignation on June 2, 2015 at a press conference called at short notice.
On October 8, 2015, the FIFA Ethics Committee announced that it would ban both FIFA President Sepp Blatter and his representative Michel Platini for 90 days. Presidential candidate Chung Mong-joon was banned for six years and fined 100,000 Swiss francs. On December 21, 2015, Sepp Blatter was banned from office for eight years by the FIFA Ethics Committee; a sentence reduced to six years on appeal.
On February 26, 2016, UEFA General Secretary Gianni Infantino was elected Blatter's successor at an extraordinary association congress in Zurich. He prevailed in the second ballot against the previously favorite ACF President Salman bin Ibrahim Al Chalifa .
At the FIFA General Assembly in Mexico City in May 2016 , it was decided, at Infantino's suggestion, that the Council should appoint and dismiss all members of the Audit and Compliance Committee, the Ethics Committee, the Disciplinary Committee and the new Governance Committee by next year can. Thereupon Domenico Scala resigned as Head of the Audit & Compliance Committee of FIFA on the same day and justified this step as follows: "I am dismayed by this decision, as it undermines a central pillar of Fifa's good governance and an essential one Achievement of reforms will be undone. "
On June 2, 2016, the FIFA headquarters in Zurich was again searched by representatives of the investigative authorities. On June 3, two representatives of the law firm Quinn Emanuel, which has been hired by FIFA to represent their interests since June 2015, announced that Blatter, Valcke and the former CFO and interim general secretary Kattner had had at least 79 million Swiss francs on a questionable basis over the past five years had received. Blatter's New York lawyer Richard Cullen stressed in a statement that the payments to Blatter were "clean, fair and in line with those of presidents of major sports leagues around the world." It was noticeable that the lawyers explicitly took the Fifa legal director Marco Villiger , who was considered the fourth most powerful man in the Fifa administration, out of the line of fire.
From 2015, FIFA's chief lawyer, Marco Villiger, headed the internal legal investigations at FIFA and delivered the results to the Swiss Federal Prosecutor's Office . In autumn 2018, the Federal Prosecutor's Office started a criminal investigation against one of its own employees, Olivier Thormann, then Head of Economic Offenses in the Federal Prosecutor's Office, who was responsible for investigations into the FIFA issue. The reason for this was his close and private relationship with Marco Villiger as chief lawyer and legal representative of FIFA. The investigation came to the conclusion that Thormann had lacked the necessary distance, objectivity, neutrality and impartiality. In terms of the frequency of reports and their diction, the contact with Villiger exceeded the professional framework. As a result of these incidents, the Swiss Federal Criminal Court declared Olivier Thormann to be biased in the FIFA proceedings in its decision of June 17, 2019.
FIFA intrigues against investigators 2017
In February 2017, media reported on efforts by President Infantino to replace the two heads of the ethics committee at the FIFA Congress in Bahrain in May and to part with the US law firm Quinn Emmanuel. Quinn Emmanuel is investigating internal proceedings at FIFA on behalf of the American judiciary. Criminal law experts have warned that this action in the US could place FIFA under suspicion of Mafia under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act and result in heavy fines. At the same time, the Council of Europe has announced its own investigation by FIFA. DFB President Reinhard Grindel warned Infantino against the dismissal of the FIFA ethics commissioners.
The organization runs the FIFA World Football Museum in Zurich .
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