Football World Cup 1954
|1954 FIFA World Cup|
|Championnat du Monde de Football 1954|
|Number of nations||16 (of 38 applicants)|
|World Champion||BR Germany (1st title)|
|Opening game||June 16, 1954 ( Lausanne )|
|Endgame||July 4, 1954 ( Bern )|
|Gates||140 (⌀: 5.38 per game)|
|spectator||768,607 (⌀: 29,562 per game)|
|Top scorer||Sándor Kocsis (11 goals)|
|References||3 (⌀: 0.12 per game)|
The final round of the FIFA World Cup 1954 ( French Championnat du Monde de Football , Italian Campionato Mondiale di Calcio ) was the fifth playout of the most important tournament for football - teams and found in from 16 June to 4 July 1954 Switzerland instead. 16 national teams competed against each other, first in group and then in qualifying games.
The 1954 World Cup was the first to be officially called the World Cup. For the first time, the games were broadcast directly on television and around 90 million people watched the matches of the tournament in front of around four million black and white televisions .
Outsider Germany won the tournament after a 3-2 victory over the favored Hungarians in the final in Bern and thus became football world champions for the first time . For many Germans, the “ Miracle of Bern ” was symbolic as a sign of the new beginnings after the lost World War and the privations of the post-war period. In the game for third place, Austria defeated defending champions Uruguay 3-1. Vice World Champion Brazil failed, like the hosts, in the quarter-finals.
The top scorer of the tournament was the Hungarian striker Sándor Kocsis, who scored 11 goals .
On July 22, 1946, Switzerland was the only applicant to host the 1953 World Cup in Luxembourg. On the same day, Brazil was awarded the 1949 World Cup. For organizational reasons, the World Cup in Brazil was postponed to 1950. In order to maintain the four-year rhythm, the date of the Swiss World Cup was postponed to 1954.
At the 25th FIFA Congress in Luxembourg at the end of July 1946 (the first post-war FIFA congress), Switzerland initially applied to host the 1950 World Cup. The application by the Swiss Football Association was initially large due to the small size of the country and the stadiums Viewed with skepticism. The Swiss then referred to their services as a neutral country in the war and their important role in the organization of world football - including as the headquarters of FIFA. After heated debates, a compromise was finally negotiated by the 80 delegates at the Luxembourg Congress. Brazil was to host the next World Cup, which was originally planned for 1949. Switzerland was awarded the contract for an interim World Cup in 1951, before the traditional four-year rhythm was to be switched back to the traditional four-year cycle from the 1954 World Cup, for which Sweden was the favorite.
After the FIFA Executive Committee postponed the World Cup in Brazil by one year to 1950 on January 18, 1947, "due to lack of time for the formation of the elimination groups", the Swiss interim tournament was also canceled with this decision. However, because Sweden was almost certain to host the 1954 World Cup, the Swiss would have had to wait until 1958. Due to the 50th anniversary of FIFA membership in 1954, the Swiss authorities urged the Swedes to swap places with them and were successful. Sweden withdrew its candidacy for 1954 and was put off until 1958, after which the 1954 World Cup was officially awarded to Switzerland at the 1948 FIFA Congress in London .
Venues 1954 in Switzerland
The World Cup games were played in six stadiums in six different Swiss cities.
- Basel : The St. Jakob Stadium , which was built within a year and opened on April 24, 1954, also known as Joggeli by locals , was the home of FC Concordia Basel . The venue, with a capacity of 54,800 spectators, was the venue for four preliminary round matches, a quarter-final game and the semi-final between Austria and Germany. A total of 220,000 viewers saw the six games, an average of 36,667. Most of them (58,000) came to the semi-final match between Germany and Austria, which meant that more spectators were present than capacity allowed. In contrast, only 14,000 wanted to see the preliminary round match between England and Belgium, after all they got to see eight goals.
- Bern : The Wankdorf Stadium , home of the Bernese Young Boys , was the largest stadium during the 1954 World Cup with 64,600 seats . The stadium , which was converted and expanded for four million Swiss francs, hosted the final, quarter-finals and three preliminary rounds. A total of 194,500 viewers saw the five games, an average of 38,900. Only 20,500 spectators wanted to see the defending champions Uruguay's game against Czechoslovakia. In contrast, 62,500, mostly German viewers came to the final.
- Geneva : In the Stade des Charmilles of Servette Geneva , three preliminary round games and a quarter-finals took place. During the World Cup in 1954, the football stadium held 36,000 spectators. A total of 53,470 spectators came to the four games in the stadium, which is located near the French border, with an average of 13,368. Most (19,000) came to the game France against Mexico, the fewest (4,000) to the game Turkey against South Korea, but then saw at least seven goals.
- Lausanne : The opening match between Yugoslavia and France took place on June 16, 1954 in the Stade Olympique de la Pontaise . In addition , two more preliminary round matches, a quarter-finals and the semi-finals between Uruguay and Hungary took place in the 50,300- spectator stadium, which was newly built for 7.5 million Swiss francs. 163,637 spectators came to the five games, an average of 32,727. Most (45,000) made it to the semi-finals between title favorites Hungary and defending champions Uruguay and saw one of the best World Cup games with six goals in 120 minutes. In contrast, only 16,000 saw the opening game.
- Lugano : In the Stadio di Cornaredo , which has a capacity of 35,800, only one match from the 1954 World Cup took place with the preliminary round match between Italy and Belgium, which was seen by 24,000 spectators.
- Zurich : The Hardturm Stadium , home of the Grasshopper Club Zurich football club , was the venue for five preliminary round matches and the third place match. The 34,800 -seat sports facility was the smallest stadium in the 1954 World Cup, but had an average (22,600) more spectators than the larger stadium in Geneva. A total of 113,000 came to the six games. With 13,000 spectators, the game Hungary against South Korea had the fewest spectators, but they then saw 9 goals. Most of the spectators came to the small final between Austria and Uruguay: with 32,000 the stadium was almost full.
Almost unimaginable from today's perspective, the players of the national teams of Brazil and Switzerland stayed only 20 meters apart in Magglingen . The German national team stayed in Spiez during the World Cup .
The application deadline for qualifying for the 1954 World Cup ended on January 31, 1953. In addition to the teams from Uruguay and Switzerland who qualified as defending champions and hosts , 43 other nations applied for the remaining fourteen starting places for the final tournament in Switzerland. After eleven registrations - including those of the former World Cup participants Netherlands , Bolivia and Peru - were not admitted by FIFA due to their late registration and Poland , the People's Republic of China and Taiwan withdrew their registrations , 34 national teams finally took part in the qualification, which was one meant a new attendance record. With the exception of Argentina , all major football nations were represented for the first time.
The qualifying groups were determined on the weekend of February 15, 1953 by the Organizing Committee of the FIFA World Cup. The teams were not assigned to the individual groups by lot, but on the basis of more or less geographical considerations, which in some cases led to violent protests.
During the qualifying games, which lasted from May 9, 1953 to April 4, 1954, the failure of Spain , fourth in 1950 World Cup, and Sweden , which won gold at the 1948 Olympic Games and third place in 1950, came as a surprise . The Scandinavians had to admit defeat to the Belgian team in their qualifying group , which was mainly due to the fact that Sweden's best players could not be used for the national team because they played as professionals in Italy or France and the Swedish Association therefore did not take them into account. Spain missed the qualification extremely unlucky. After defeating the only group opponent Turkey 4-1 in the first leg, the Spaniards lost 1-0 in the second leg. Since the goal difference did not count in the event of a tie, this meant a play-off on a neutral pitch, which ended 2-2 after extra time. The lot finally decided for Turkey, which for the first time reached a World Cup final. In addition to the Turkish team, Scotland and South Korea also qualified for the first time. It had prevailed somewhat unexpectedly against Japan .
Germany , England , France , Italy , Yugoslavia , Brazil and Mexico also prevailed as the superior group winners . Hungary reached the final tournament due to the withdrawal of the Polish federation without playing a single game.
The following teams finally qualified for the final round of the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland:
|12 from Europe||Belgium||BR Germany||England||France|
|2 from South America||Brazil||Uruguay|
|1 from North, Central America and the Caribbean||Mexico|
|1 from Asia||South Korea|
The drawing of the preliminary groups for the World Cup finals took place on November 30, 1953 in Zurich. For the draw, the teams were divided into seeded and unset teams according to the mode on the basis of their supposed performance. A special feature here was that the draw and determination of the seeded teams took place before the qualifying games were over. The teams from Italy and Spain were among the seeded teams, although they had not even qualified at the time. This ultimately led to the fact that after Spain left Turkey, they took the place of the seeded Spaniards, although the Turks were rated significantly weaker than other un seeded nations such as Belgium, Scotland or Germany.
|Uruguay||Japan - South Korea * - Taiwan|
|Brazil - Paraguay - Chile||Mexico - USA - Haiti|
|France||Federal Republic of Germany - Saarland|
|Italy - Egypt||Yugoslavia - Greece - Israel|
|Austria||Scotland - Wales|
|Spain - Turkey *||Switzerland|
- The teams in bold were favored by FIFA at the time of the draw to qualify for the finals.
However, Turkey and South Korea qualified instead of Spain and Japan.
After the draw and the conclusion of the qualifying games, the following group allocation finally resulted:
|Group 1||Group 2||Group 3||Group 4|
For information on the individual groups and squads of the teams, click on the respective link.
The 1954 World Cup was held according to a new, very controversial mode. The 16 participants formed four groups with four teams each. In order to reduce the number of games to be played and to prevent the favorites from being eliminated prematurely - which led to the expectation of a high number of spectators - each group consisted of two seeded and two unseeded teams, which did not have to play against each other in the group games. A win was awarded two points. Preliminary round matches that were tied after regular playing time were extended by 15 minutes twice. If there was still no winner after that, the points were shared.
After the group matches, the first and second placed in each group qualified for the quarter-finals. When determining the placements, only the points scored were counted , not the goal difference . In the event of a tie in second and third place, a playoff was set for the quarter-finals. If the points were equal in first and second place, the lot decided , so that two teams with a worse goal difference were group winners. In the event that all four teams were tied, there would have been a playoff between the two seeded and the two unset teams. In the end, it would have been a complete group stage, so everyone would have played against everyone. A tie between three teams was mathematically not possible.
A draw in the play-off would have led to the extension of the season. Had the extension not brought a decision either, the winner, and thus the quarter-finalist, would have been determined by lot.
Of the eight seeded teams, three (France, Italy and Turkey) failed to qualify for the quarter-finals.
From the quarter-finals onwards, the tournament was played in a knockout system , in which the winner qualified for the next round and the loser was eliminated. A tie in the knockout round games initially led to the extension of the playing time. If the extension had not brought a decision either, the winner would have been determined by drawing lots. At the final there would have been a rescheduling of the final. Only after a draw despite extra time in the second final would the lot have decided the 1954 World Cup.
|1.||Yugoslavia||2||1||1||0||2: 1||+1||3: 1|
|2.||Brazil||2||1||1||0||6: 1||+5||3: 1|
|3.||France||2||1||0||1||3: 3||± 0||2: 2|
|4th||Mexico||2||0||0||2||2: 8||−6||0: 4|
|June 16, 1954 at 6:00 p.m. in Lausanne|
|France||-||Yugoslavia||0: 1 (0: 1)|
|June 16, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Geneva|
|Brazil||-||Mexico||5: 0 (4: 0)|
|June 19, 1954 at 5 p.m. in Geneva|
|France||-||Mexico||3: 2 (1: 0)|
|June 19, 1954 at 5:10 p.m. in Lausanne|
|Brazil||-||Yugoslavia||1: 1 n.V. (1: 1, 0: 0)|
The opening game of the final round of the 5th World Cup was played on June 16, 1954 by Yugoslavia and France in Lausanne. Already in the 15th minute, Miloš Milutinović scored the decisive goal for the Yugoslavs 1-0 victory. In the second game of the group, Brazil beat the underdogs from Mexico 5-0. The two winners of the first match day, Brazil and Yugoslavia, played an exciting game. After 120 minutes it was 1-1 through the goals of the later, two-time world champion Didi and the later Bundesliga coach Branko Zebec . Both teams were thus qualified, because the simultaneous 3-2 victory over Mexico did not help the French to advance. The Mexicans also had to return home without winning a point in their third World Cup participation after 1930 and 1950.
|2.||BR Germany||2||1||0||1||7: 9||−2||2: 2|
|3.||Turkey||2||1||0||1||8: 4||+4||2: 2|
|4th||South Korea||2||0||0||2||0:16||−16||0: 4|
|June 17, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Bern|
|Turkey||-||BR Germany||1: 4 (1: 1)|
|June 17, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Zurich|
|Hungary||-||South Korea||9: 0 (4: 0)|
|June 20, 1954 at 4:50 p.m. in Basel|
|Hungary||-||BR Germany||8: 3 (3: 1)|
|June 20, 1954 at 5:00 p.m. in Geneva|
|Turkey||-||South Korea||7: 0 (4: 0)|
Decision game for 2nd place:
|June 23, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Zurich|
|Turkey||-||BR Germany||2: 7 (1: 3)|
In Group 2, the Hungarians , who are the biggest favorites for the World Cup and who had already impressed the whole world with a fantastic offensive game in previous years, started with a 9-0 victory over the World Cup newcomer South Korea . After a fortnightly training camp in Grünwald near Munich, Germany had the seeded Turks as opponents in their first game . Although Germany fell behind after just three minutes, the players around playmaker Fritz Walter ultimately prevailed. Schäfer equalized after almost a quarter of an hour. Despite clear superiority, it took until the 50th minute before Klodt got the 2-1. Then Ottmar Walter and Max Morlock produced the final result of 4: 1. After the clear opening win against the seeded Turks had promised progress, Sepp Herberger only offered a better reserve team against the Hungarians, as the only consequence of the foreseeable defeat was an additional play-off against Turkey for second place. The game against the strong Hungarians ended 3: 8. As the Turks had defeated South Korea 7-0, the Germans had to face Turkey a second time, as expected. Again starting with what was supposedly the best line-up, the second meeting with the Turks at the shooting festival for the Germans also turned out to be 7-2: the end result was 7: 2, with Max Morlock standing out with three goals.
|3.||Czechoslovakia||2||0||0||2||0: 7||−7||0: 4|
|4th||Scotland||2||0||0||2||0: 8||−8||0: 4|
|June 16, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Bern|
|Uruguay||-||Czechoslovakia||2: 0 (0: 0)|
|June 16, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Zurich|
|Austria||-||Scotland||1: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 19, 1954 at 4:50 p.m. in Basel|
|Uruguay||-||Scotland||7: 0 (2: 0)|
|June 19, 1954 at 5:00 p.m. in Zurich|
|Austria||-||Czechoslovakia||5: 0 (4: 0)|
In addition to Hungary, the reigning world champion Uruguay was a second favorite for the title. The team, which was only slightly younger than at the World Cup in 1950, started very carefully in the first game of Group 3 against Czechoslovakia , so that, to the surprise of the audience, it was still 0-0 after 45 minutes. Only after the half-time break did the defending champion step up the pace and win with goals from Mínguez and Schiaffino . Uruguay also won the second round game against the overwhelmed Scots 7-0, which, as expected, reached the next round. In addition to Uruguay, the strong Austrians prevailed in Group 3 . The team around players like Ocffekt , Happel , Stojaspal or Probst dominated their opponents in the preliminary round. Scotland were defeated 1-0 and Czechoslovakia 5-0. Austria was thus in the quarter-finals and won the group by drawing lots despite the worse goal difference against Uruguay.
|1.||England||2||1||1||0||6: 4||+2||3: 1|
|2.||Switzerland||2||1||0||1||2: 3||−1||2: 2|
|3.||Italy||2||1||0||1||5: 3||+2||2: 2|
|4th||Belgium||2||0||1||1||5: 8||−3||1: 3|
|June 17, 1954 at 5:50 p.m. in Lausanne|
|Italy||-||Switzerland||1: 2 (1: 1)|
|June 17, 1954 at 6:10 p.m. in Basel|
|England||-||Belgium||4: 4 n.V. (3: 3, 2: 1)|
|June 20, 1954 at 5 p.m. in Lugano|
|Italy||-||Belgium||4: 1 (1: 0)|
|June 20, 1954 at 5:10 p.m. in Bern|
|England||-||Switzerland||2: 0 (1: 0)|
Decision game for 2nd place:
|June 23, 1954 at 6:00 p.m. in Basel|
|Italy||-||Switzerland||1: 4 (0: 1)|
It was exciting in Group 4. The team from England were the clear favorites in the game against Belgium , but could only achieve a 4-4 after extra time. In the second game, hosts Switzerland defeated the Italian team , which despite their great field superiority could hardly prevail against the bar variant practiced by the Swiss, 2-1. After England's 2-0 win over Switzerland, the British qualified as group winners for the quarter-finals. By beating Belgium 4-1, Italy kept their chance of staying in the tournament. Italy and Switzerland met for the second time at this World Cup in the decider, which became necessary due to the equality of points between the two teams. Due to the form shown by the Italians in the 4-1 win against Belgium, the omens seemed to speak for the southern Europeans. However, after Josef Hügi shot Switzerland in the lead after 14 minutes, they were clearly overweight. Shortly after the break, Robert Ballaman scored the 2-0. Against the "Azzurri" who rushed uncontrollably after Fulvio Nesti's subsequent goal , the World Cup hosts managed two counterattacks in the final phase, which produced the final score of 4: 1. The failure of the two-time world champions Italy and the quarter-finals of Switzerland was the first big surprise of the 1954 World Cup.
1 win after extra time
|June 26, 1954 at 5:00 p.m. in Lausanne|
|Austria||-||Switzerland||7: 5 (5: 4)|
|June 26, 1954 at 5 p.m. in Basel|
|England||-||Uruguay||2: 4 (1: 2)|
|June 27, 1954 at 5:00 p.m. in Geneva|
|Yugoslavia||-||BR Germany||0: 2 (0: 1)|
|June 27, 1954 at 5 p.m. in Bern|
|Hungary||-||Brazil||4: 2 (2: 1)|
The quarter-final match between hosts Switzerland and Austria in Lausanne is still the highest-scoring game in World Cup history. In the “ Heat Battle of Lausanne ” the Swiss were already 3-0 up after 23 minutes. Before the end of the first half, Austria was already 5: 3 ahead. The teams came out of the cabins 5: 4. 6: 4, 6: 5 and 7: 5 was the next hit sequence, with which Austria had surprisingly thrown Switzerland out of the tournament.
Defending champions Uruguay and England were two of the favorites in the second quarter-finals. The South Americans got off to a better start. After just five minutes, Carlos Borges was able to use the confusion in the English back team and dusted off to make it 1-0. In the 16th minute, the English center forward Nat Lofthouse made the equalizer, but the Uruguayans did not lose their rhythm in the following period. With goals in the 39th minute and shortly after half-time, which made England goalkeeper Gil Merrick look unhappy, the South Americans took the lead 3-1. The hard-fighting but playfully disappointing British came again through Tom Finney , but after the 4-2 through Javier Ambrois in the 79th minute, the match was decided in favor of the reigning world champion.
Germany had to compete with the strong Yugoslavs and was considered an outsider. An unfortunate own goal by Horvath gave the Germans the lead after nine minutes. Then began a defensive battle against the incessantly attacking Yugoslavs. But luck and skill in the person of the fantastic Toni Turek in the goal of the Germans helped to overcome the immense pressure of the opponent. A counterattack in the 85th minute even brought the 2-0 through Helmut Rahn and the surprising entry of the German team into the semi-finals.
The 4-2 victory of the favored Hungarians over runner-up world champions Brazil was remembered as the roughest encounter of the tournament, overshadowed by excessive severity. The Brazilians lost Nílton Santos and Humberto, while the Hungarians Bozsik were sent off. After the game that went down in football history as the Battle of Bern , those involved continued to fight in the cabin corridors.
|June 30, 1954 at 6 p.m. in Basel|
|BR Germany||-||Austria||6: 1 (1: 0)|
|June 30, 1954 at 6:00 p.m. in Lausanne|
|Hungary||-||Uruguay||4: 2 n.V. (2: 2, 1: 0)|
Austria also went into the semi-finals as favorites against the Germans. After a weak start on both sides, Schäfer made it 1-0 for Germany. After the break, the Austrians came up strongly, but Turek proved to be insurmountable again. A corner kick from Fritz Walter was the outcome for the important 2-0 by Max Morlock, in the middle of Austria's urgent period. The 1: 2 fell shortly afterwards. However, when Schäfer was fouled in the penalty area with a promising chance and Fritz Walter scored the 3-1 with a penalty, the game was decided. Against the now almost defenseless Austrians, Fritz and Ottmar Walter twice scored a 6: 1 victory and the sensational participation in the finals.
As expected, the alleged changing of the guard of the reigning world champions Uruguay by Hungary in the second semi-final match. However, it was again a hard-fought victory after extra time for the Hungarians against the defending champion, who had previously been unbeaten at the World Championships. The Hungarians were already leading 2-0, but they had to accept 2-2 in regular time. In extra time, however, the Hungarians' art of playing prevailed. Striker Kocsis was unstoppable and shot the favorites with two goals for a 4-2 success in the final.
3rd place match
|July 3, 1954 at 5:00 p.m. in Zurich|
|Austria||-||Uruguay||3: 1 (1: 1)|
The day before the final, the game for third place was played in the Hardturm Stadium in Zurich. On July 3, 1954, the dethroned world champions Uruguay and the Austrian team met. In a game that could hardly inspire the 30,000 spectators, the Austrians looked a little fresher and more motivated than their South American competitors, who were still noticing the wear and tear from the extension of their semi-final game against Hungary. Austria took the lead in the 16th minute of the game thanks to a penalty that Ernst Stojaspal converted. The equalizer six minutes later by Juan Hohberg brought Uruguay back into the game. Two more goals in the second half meant the 3-1 victory and third place for Austria, the Alpine republic's greatest success so far at a football world championship. For Uruguay this game was the end of an era. After most of the players who had become world champions in 1950 also played in the 1954 World Cup finals, the tournament in Switzerland ended for most of their international careers.
Toni Turek - Josef Posipal , Werner Liebrich , Werner Kohlmeyer - Karl Mai , Horst Eckel - Helmut Rahn , Max Morlock , Ottmar Walter , Fritz Walter , Hans Schäfer Trainer: Sepp Herberger
Gyula Grosics - Jenő Buzánszky , Gyula Lóránt , Mihály Lantos - József Bozsik , József Zakariás - Sándor Kocsis , Nándor Hidegkuti , Ferenc Puskás , Zoltán Czibor , Mihály Tóth Trainers: Gusztáv
1: 2 Morlock (10th)
2: 2 H. Rahn (18th)
3: 2 H. Rahn (84th)
0: 1 Puskás (6th)
0: 2 Czibor (8th)
In the final of the soccer World Cup on July 4, 1954, later called the Miracle of Bern , the tournament favorite Hungary and the unseen outsider Germany faced each other in the rain. Despite being injured, Ferenc Puskás gave Hungary the lead in the sixth minute after a Kocsis shot ricocheted off. Two minutes later, Czibor increased to 2-0 after a back pass from Werner Kohlmeyer , before Max Morlock shortened in the 10th minute. The German attacking efforts did not ebb and so Helmut Rahn scored after a corner from Fritz Walter and a mistake by the Hungarian goalkeeper Grosics in the 18th minute. The Hungarians then took over the game again and increased the pressure on the German goal. In the second half, too, the favorite Hungary came dangerously in front of the German goal several times. Hidegkuti hit the post, Kocsis hit the crossbar, Kohlmeyer saved on the line and German goalkeeper Toni Turek made some successful saves. Six minutes before the end of regular time, winger Helmut Rahn took a half-heartedly blocked cross, pulled away from the corner of the penalty area and overcame Grosics with a low shot to make it 3-2 for Germany. Shortly afterwards, a second goal from Puskás was not recognized due to alleged offside position. The German team brought the lead over time. When the English referee William Ling whistled, the Hungarian team had lost their first game since 1952.
The world championship title is the only one so far in which a world champion only played against teams from their own continent during the tournament.
The football boots with screw studs developed by Adolf "Adi" Dassler are said to have given the Germans an advantage. While the Hungarian shoes, softened by the constant rain, doubled their weight to up to 1.5 kilograms, the German shoes weighed only 700 grams. And in addition, the slim, high nylon studs, in contrast to the nailed leather studs of the Hungarians, offered a much better stand and did not collect any dirt.
World Champion Germany
With the final whistle of the finals on July 4, 1954, Germany (Federal Republic) became football world champions for the first time. The squad of the German team supervised by Sepp Herberger included a total of 22 players, 18 of whom played the tournament. The following players were used during the World Cup:
- Goalkeeper: Toni Turek , Heinrich Kwiatkowski
- Defense: Fritz Laband , Werner Kohlmeyer , Hans Bauer , Josef Posipal , Werner Liebrich
- Midfield: Horst Eckel , Karl Mai , Paul Mebus , Max Morlock , Fritz Walter
- Attack: Helmut Rahn , Bernhard Klodt , Ottmar Walter , Richard Herrmann , Alfred Pfaff , Hans Schäfer
Immediately after the final whistle, the German players hugged each other and then ran into the curve of the German fans, who waved their black, red and gold flags. Then the team spread out in front of the stands and celebrated winning the World Cup with the spectators. Little by little, the German players and responsible persons gathered in front of the main stand, where the Hungarians and the team of referees were already waiting for the award ceremony.
The outgoing FIFA President Jules Rimet , who has been in office since 1921 , his successor Rodolphe William Seeldrayers , the Swiss Federal President Rodolphe Rubattel and the head of the Organizing Committee, Ernst Thommen, stepped onto the podium. With the words “Attention, attention, Silentium! Attention, attention, dear sports fans now the handover of the trophy follows, ” the stadium announcer asked the audience for attention.
Protected under an umbrella, the 80-year-old Rimet went to the microphone and gave a speech lasting about four minutes on the course of the tournament and the development of the football World Cup since its premiere in 1930 , which he initiated. Around 7 p.m., Rimet congratulated the German team and presented the world cup named after him to the German captain Fritz Walter.
A band played the German national anthem . Some of the German audience sang the first verse of the Deutschlandlied because of the victory . Then the team turned a lap of honor. Fans had meanwhile stormed the field and celebrated with the German team, carrying the captain, the coach and many other protagonists on their shoulders. Later in the evening, the celebrations continued in the team headquarters in Spiez, and the myth of the Spiez spirit arose.
On the morning of July 5th, the team set out in a special red railcar labeled “Football World Champion 1954” in Spiez, and drove via Schaffhausen , Singen and Konstanz along Lake Constance to Lindau . The world champions were celebrated on the way and the train had to stop again and again for congratulations. The next day we went from Lindau through the Allgäu to Munich . Almost every place with a train station on the edge of the route gave the team a special welcome. However, the carefully prepared choreographies and speeches were mostly lost in the cheers of the masses. A total of over a million people received the DFB-Elf on that Tuesday on the track and celebrated the team. The arrival in Munich, scheduled for 4 p.m., was postponed until the evening. Lord Mayor Thomas Wimmer received the German team there. In the evening there was a big celebration in the Löwenbräukeller . In the days that followed, the world champions were celebrated in their hometowns.
Each player received 1,000 marks for the title . After long negotiations, the DFB was finally ready to pay another 200 DM per use. In addition, each player in the final team received a Goggomobil motor scooter from the company Glas , the companies SABA , Telefunken , Grundig and Blaupunkt presented each one with a television set, and Maggi donated gift baskets filled with their products.
Alleged use of stimulants
The former team masseur to several players in the German national team during the tournament, the methamphetamine "pervitin" have administered intravenously and not, as claimed, vitamin C . According to the research work Historical Aspects in the Pre-Anabolic Phase by Erik Eggers at the Humboldt University in Berlin , which was presented as part of the Doping in Germany 2010 study at the University of Leipzig , there are indications of this .
Best goal scorers
The Hungarian Sándor Kocsis was the top scorer of the World Cup with eleven goals. In the 9-0 game of the Hungarian team against South Korea, Kocsis scored three goals, and even four in the second round against Germany. Also in the knockout round, Sandor Kocsis scored two goals each in the quarter and semi-finals, but in the final against Germany, of all things, the striker, known as the “golden head” because of his blond hair and his head-ball strength, failed to score.
In addition, there were 11 players with two and 27 players with one hit. There were also four own goals.
The top scorer of the entire competition (qualification and final round) was the German Max Morlock with 12 goals.
In the 26 games, 26 different referees from 15 associations were deployed, 16 referees and 10, without exception, Swiss linesmen. The 16 referees came from 15 different, including 2 South American, associations. Only two referees were nominated by the English association. With William Ling, an Englishman also whistled the final. For the first time since 1938, Emil Schmetzer, a German referee, was used again. With the referees Ellis, Griffiths, Marino, Viana and da Costa Vieira, 5 referees were nominated in Brazil as early as 1950.
|Emil Schmetzer||BR Germany||1||2||0|
|Carl Erich Steiner||Austria||2||1||0|
|Jose da Costa Vieira||Portugal||1||3||0|
|Albert by Günter||Switzerland||0||2||0|
Organization and environment
A World Cup Organizing Committee (OC for short) was set up to plan the course and implementation of the 1954 World Cup, with its headquarters in Zurich . The president of the OC was the later FIFA vice-president Ernst Thommen .
In addition to the Swiss Thommen, the Italian Ottorino Barassi, the Swiss Gustav Wiederkehr , FIFA President Jules Rimet and seven other gentlemen were represented in leading positions on the organizing committee.
At the 1954 World Cup, the organizers first commissioned a World Cup logo. The signet created by the Swiss graphic artist Herbert Leupin consisted of three elements and connected the globe of the FIFA flag with a leather football and the Swiss cross . The logo was surrounded by the words Football World Cup 1954 in German, French and Italian. The logo was used for all types of external presentation and adorned, for example, the information bulletins published by the organizing committee and the latest releases from the press service. There was no World Cup mascot in Switzerland in 1954. Such was first introduced with World Cup Willie in 1966 at the World Cup in England.
Swiss Post dedicated a special stamp to the World Cup finals in Switzerland and to the 50th anniversary of FIFA . The stamp issued on March 15, 1954 had a value of 40 centimes . It depicted a leather soccer ball in front of a world map in different shades of blue.
Sponsorship as it is common today did not yet exist at the 1954 World Cup. The later winning team from Germany was the only one that, unlike all other participating teams, had its own team bus. The vehicle of the type O 6500 was made available to the German team by Magirus-Deutz . In this context, the manufacturer advertised itself with a photo of two players and the national coach smiling from the open bus window and the slogan “From victory to victory with Magirus-Deutz”.
The budget for organizing the 1954 World Cup was around 1.6 million Swiss francs . In order to minimize the risk for the organizing Swiss Football Association, the Football World Cup in Switzerland was founded on November 19, 1949. It started a broad advertising campaign and was therefore responsible for the financial success of the World Cup.
The total income was around 5.75 million Swiss francs. In the first place on the revenue side were around 5.593 million francs, which were turned over from ticket sales. There was also an amount of 87,500 francs from the broadcasting radio stations and 15,000 francs from the sale of the television broadcasting rights. In addition, a Swiss media company paid 50,000 francs for the exclusive film rights.
After deducting all costs, there was a profit of around 2.75 million Swiss francs, which was divided up using a fixed key. 60 percent went to the participating associations, 15 percent to FIFA and 25 percent to the organizer.
Spectators and stadiums
In the course of several years of preparation, the six stadiums in which the games took place were rebuilt and modernized or rebuilt, so that the resulting venues ultimately proved to be extremely worthy of a world championship at that time. After FIFA was initially extremely skeptical when awarding the World Cup to Switzerland, mainly because of the allegedly insufficient stadium capacity, it became clear during the course of the tournament that the capacity of the venues was large enough and that there was even a yawning emptiness at some games.
Overall, the 26 final round matches were watched by around 889,500 spectators, according to the world football association FIFA. The average stadium occupancy was 58%. With the exception of the final, the semi-finals between Germany and Austria and the preliminary round match between Germany and Hungary, none of the matches was sold out, so you could buy a ticket at the stadium before the start of each game. The prices for grandstand tickets for a preliminary round match were CHF 14.40. For the cheapest final ticket, 6 francs had to be paid, for the most expensive seats 30 francs.
Most of the spectators came to the matches of the host Swiss team, the strong Hungarians and those of neighboring Germany, where many Germans used the short journeys, especially for the games taking place in Basel. By far the least interest was in the preliminary round match between Turkey and South Korea, when only 3,541 paying spectators could be welcomed in Geneva's Stade des Charmilles.
|Herbert Zimmermann's radio broadcast went down in history. His words about Helmut Rahn's winning goal were as follows:
“Six minutes left in the Wankdorf Stadium in Bern, nobody wobbles, the rain pelts down incessantly, it's hard, but the spectators, they don't hold out [sic!] . How could they - a soccer world championship is every four years and when do you see such a final, so balanced, so gripping. Now Germany on the left wing through Schäfer. Schäfer's pass to Morlock is blocked by the Hungarians - and Bozsik, again and again Bozsik, the Hungarians right runner on the ball. He lost the ball - this time, against Schäfer. Shepherd flanked inside. Header - blocked. Rahn should shoot from the background - Rahn shoots - Gooooor! Tooooor! Tooooor! Tooooor! "
A novelty of the 5th World Cup, which took place in Switzerland in 1954, was the first broadcast of the tournament on television . Around 1,300 reporters from 30 countries reported on the soccer World Cup. Switzerland was most strongly represented with almost 400 accredited media representatives, followed by the Germans. Australia, the USSR and Norway each sent a representative. Although the television reporters were still a minority among the reporters posted, the interest of the audience was overwhelming. Almost 90 million people saw the matches in the tournament in front of around four million black and white televisions . The 1954 World Cup made a decisive contribution to popularizing television in post-war Europe. In Germany, for example, the manufacturers Telefunken , SABA and Mende sold all of their stocks during the tournament . The Philips company sold 1,000 desktop devices within 14 days.
The European broadcasters that were members of the Eurovision were able to report free of charge and use the images provided by Swiss television . The transmission rights for other commercial broadcasters were sold for a total of 15,000 Swiss francs.
In Germany, ARD broadcast eight of the 26 games live. In addition to the final between Germany and Hungary, a semi-final, two quarter-finals and four preliminary rounds were broadcast. For this purpose, the ARD sent a team of four reporters who reported for television and radio from Switzerland. The journalists were Herbert Zimmermann , Gerd Krämer , Kurt Brumme and Rudi Michel . Robert Lembke and Josef Kirmaier were on site as editors . What is most memorable, however, is the radio report of the final by Herbert Zimmermann, which played a major role in the legend of Bern. A co-moderation with Swiss television was organized for the television broadcast of the final. Bernhard Ernst took over the German commentary . Electronic recording of television broadcasts ( MAZ ) was technically not yet possible in 1954, which is why there are no archive recordings of the live television images at that time; there are also no audio recordings of the television commentaries. The existing film recordings are now mostly accompanied by Herbert Zimmermann's radio commentary.
The 5th soccer world championship in Switzerland is generally referred to as the first “real” world championship. From the organization to the idea of holding it in the form of group games with a subsequent knockout round, the tournament was trend-setting for subsequent world championships.
Experts attested the quality of the football played at the 1954 World Cup to an unprecedented level. The participating teams showed an attractive risk-oriented offensive game. In 26 games they scored 140 goals, which corresponds to an average of 5.38 goals per game, and is still the current record number for goals scored in a World Cup. Tactically, the 1954 World Cup saw a change. Up until then, almost all teams had practiced the World Cup system , but the two coaches of the opposing teams Gusztáv Sebes and Sepp Herberger , in particular, relied on more modern game variants. Up until now, the focus was primarily on the individual players, but from then on the development clearly went in the direction of team play, so that excellent players like Ferenc Puskás , Fritz Walter or Juan Schiaffino also had to adapt to the overall strategy. In the future, team spirit and the tactics of the collective, but increasingly also stamina and fighting ability, would be decisive. The teams from Hungary and Germany, which took up these developments during the World Cup in Switzerland, finally faced each other in the final. If the Hungarians bet on technique and short passing, which they practiced in countless preparatory games, Herberger had given his team physical and tactical training.
As in the following decades, the tournament was dominated exclusively by South American and above all by European teams. While nations from Oceania or Africa did not even take part in the final tournament, South Korea and Mexico, representing Asia and North and Central America, were clearly inferior to the other teams. Without winning a single point and with 2:24 goals they had to start their journey home. The South American teams could not meet the expectations placed in them. This time it was similar to what happened to the Europeans four years earlier, when they had no real chance at the World Cup in Brazil . Brazil failed in the quarter-finals to Hungary, and Uruguay, which at least reached the semi-finals as the reigning world champion, lost it as well as the game for third place. Among the European teams, two other teams caused a sensation in addition to the two finalists. The host Switzerland managed to beat the Italian team, which meant that the two-time world champion was eliminated in the preliminary round. In a big game the Swiss were finally defeated by Austria, who celebrated their biggest success so far with third place. By far the biggest surprise of the tournament, however, was the German final victory over Hungary, the undisputed favorite for winning the 1954 World Cup, which two years earlier won the gold medal at the Olympic Games, and since May 1950 in 31 games with 27 wins and 4 draws was unbeaten.
Germany's final victory over Hungary became a symbol of the fate of the two nations. Just as it is seen, on the one hand, as the "real hour of birth" of the Federal Republic of Germany, it also anticipated Hungary's decline, which ended in the suppressed popular uprising in autumn 1956 .
In Germany, winning the title caused a rapture of joy. Nine years after the war lost by Germany and its ongoing consequences, the first great success in the history of German football seemed like a liberation and gave people back lost self-confidence - at least that is the interpretation of the “founding myth” of Bern , the however, it was shaped by publicists decades later. However, at least in the first days after the World Cup victory, the enthusiasm gripped all strata and groups of the population regardless of zone boundaries . The inhabitants of the GDR , whose football association was only accepted by FIFA in mid-1952 and did not take part in the World Cup qualification, celebrated the victory of the West German team, although the political leadership would have preferred a victory for the socialist brother from Hungary.
While there was exuberant celebration in Germany, there was sadness in Hungary. Thanks to their playfulness, the Magyars had not lost since 1950 and had to admit defeat to Germany, which had previously been insignificant in terms of football and had been defeated 8: 3 in the group stage. In Hungary, the defeat of Ferenc Puskás' team is still considered a national trauma. The country suffered under the communist leadership of "Stalin's best student" Matyas Rakosi . As long as the footballers were successful , as on November 25, 1953, when the Golden Elf defeated the Englishmen, who had been unbeaten at home for 90 years at Wembley, 6-3, the nation won with them. The people kept quiet until they were defeated. In Budapest hundreds of thousands of disappointed people marched through the streets after the lost final. They overturned trams, shop windows broke, and pictures of the team were taken from the shop windows and thrown on the pavement, they ravaged the apartment of communist national coach Gusztáv Sebes. The first political demonstration after the end of the war quickly developed from the riot. The returning Hungarian players were branded as the main culprits for this “national shame” by the population, the communist government and the secret service . The political leadership charged goalkeeper Grosics with treason in December 1954 and banished him to the province. Players like Puskas, Czibor and Kocsis later turned their backs on the country and emigrated to Spain. Hungarian football has never recovered from this. While Germany was three times world and three times European champions, Hungary sank into insignificance. Since 1986, the country has not participated in the finals of a World Cup.
Over the decades, the victory of the national team at the 1954 World Cup in Germany has become a national myth. After the purely sporting significance of the World Cup victory was emphasized in the first few years after the triumph, over time the victory became transfigured and mythicized. This begins with the glorification of Sepp Herberger after his death in 1977 and was first taken up again in the 1990s for the 40th anniversary of the final victory. With the deaths of Fritz Walter and Helmut Rahn and the 50th anniversary of the triumph in 2004, public perception of the event reached a new high with a flood of published books and documentaries as well as the movie " The Miracle of Bern ". From the German squad of the 1954 World Cup, only Horst Eckel is still alive (as of June 27, 2018).
- Andreas Bauer: The miracle of Bern: players, goals, backgrounds. Everything about the World Cup 54. Wißner-Verlag, Augsburg 2004; ISBN 3-89639-426-6
- Ludger Schulze, Josef Kelnberger, Markus Schäflein, Thomas Hummel, Christian Andiel: The Soccer World Championships - 1954, Switzerland (= Süddeutsche Zeitung WM-Bibliothek 1). Süddeutsche Zeitung, Munich 2005; ISBN 3-86615-153-5
- Christian Jessen u. a .: Football World Cup 1954 Switzerland. (= AGON World Cup history, 5). AGON Sportverlag, Kassel 2003; ISBN 3-89784-218-1
- Peter Kasza: Football is history. The miracle of Bern in 1954 . Be.bra Verlag, Berlin, Brandenburg, 2004; ISBN 3-89809-046-9
- Raphael Keppel: WM 54 - 5th Football World Cup 1954 in Switzerland . ISBN 3-86125-004-7
- Thomas Raithel: Football World Cup 1954 - Sport - History - Myth . Bavarian State Center for Political Education A / 117, Munich 2004.
- Joachim Schweer: The victory of Bern. V. Football World Cup 1954 in Switzerland . AGON Sportverlag, Kassel 1994; ISBN 3-928562-51-7
- Harry Thommen (eds.) And Max Ehinger (text editor): Soccer World Cup 1954: Official memorial work Coupe Jules Rimet . Olten: Otto Walter, international edition. Edited under the patronage of the "Swiss Organizing Committee of the 1954 Football World Cup", 1954, 160 pages
- Rudi Michel: Germany is world champion! My memories of the miracle of Bern in 1954 . With the collaboration of Harro Schweizer, Munich 2004; ISBN 3-517-06735-0
- Sebastian Dehnhardt : The miracle of Bern. The true story. Edited by Guido Knopp, Munich 2004; ISBN 3-453-88165-6
- Official website of FIFA for the 1954 World Cup
- Objects in the German Sports & Olympic Museum for the final of the 5th FIFA World Cup
- Details on the 1954 World Cup on Fussballdaten.de
- “The miracle of Bern”: Comprehensive page on the subject
- ¿Quiénes son los equipos que irán a Suiza? (PDF; 969 kB) (Spanish) in Mundo Deportivo of May 30, 1954, p. 4; Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Jürgen Leinemann: The miracle of Bern . In: Spiegel Special of February 21, 2006 . No. 1 , 2006 ( online ).
- Sport1.de: Kocsis buried in Hungary. In: sport1.de. September 21, 2012, accessed October 29, 2015 .
- Buzánszky died: The last of Hungary's wonder eleven is dead. In: Spiegel Online . January 12, 2015, accessed October 29, 2015 .
- Host announcement decision .
- Christian Jessen: Before the start - The World Cup award: Switzerland brings the World Cup out of the 1954 World Cup , p. 17
- Volker Stahl: The stadiums: football temple, blessed with plenty of goals from the football world championship 1954 , p. 42 ff.
- rsssf.com: World Cup 1954
- Christian Jessen: The qualification from the football world championship 1954 , p. 27 ff.
- Christian Jessen: The mode: From laws and unconditional from the football world championship 1954 , p. 46
- different times are given for the gates, which in some cases only differ by one minute. In the FIFA match report ( memento from June 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), the 0: 3 is the 19th minute, the 2: 3 is the 26th, the 3: 3 is the 27th, the 5: 4 is the 39th minute ., the 6: 4 called the 53rd and the 6: 5 the 60th minute. The ÖFB names in its statistics  , the 20th for the 0: 3, the 23rd for the 1: 3, the 24th for the 2: 3, the 26th for the 3: 3, the 30th for the 4: 3, the 32nd for the 5: 3. the 60th for the 6: 5 and the 77th for the 7: 5. In the Süddeutsche Zeitung WM-Bibliothek and  the FIFA minutes are mentioned except for the 6: 5 (58th minute). At Weltfußball.de, sometimes significantly different goal minutes are mentioned.  , the 5: 3 only fell in the second half, the 7: 5 six minutes before the end.
- Werner Raupp : Toni Turek - "Football God". A biography, Hildesheim: Arete 2019 ( ISBN 978-3-96423-008-9 ), p. 139, cf. also pp. 104-105.
- The Trauma of Bern: The Unknown Side of the Legendary Endgame ( Memento September 4, 2009 on WebCite ) Webcitation.org.
- Who screwed the first studs into their shoes? on faz.net
- On the course of history on zeit.de
- Excerpt from the radio report with Herbert Zimmermann , from 4:57 min.
- Erik Eggers: The 4th of July 1954: Past and present from the football world championship 1954 , p. 129 ff.
- Christof Siemes: Das Wunder von Bern , p. 292
- Eva Ludwig, Melanie Kabus: Sepp Herberger and the miracle of Bern , p. 279
- Study: Heroes of Bern were upset. In: sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved October 12, 2012 .
- Volker Stahl: Der Macher: Marketing à la Switzerland from the 1954 World Cup , p. 26
- post.ch: Two stamps honor FIFA and UEFA ( memento of April 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- sammler.com: Stamps on the subject of football and football championships
- Rolf J. Ambrosius: Magirus-Deutz , 2002, p. 74
- Christian Jessen: audience statistics from the football world championship 1954 , p. 159
- fifa.com: 1954 FIFA World Cup Switzerland . The organizer's audience statistics are based on different figures and come to a total audience of 729,744, which corresponds to an average of 36,269 viewers per game
- Dietrich Schulze-Marmeling and Hubert Dahlkamp: The History of the Football World Cup 1930–2006 ( Memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) , pp. 101–102
- Volker Stahl: When the pictures learned to run: The World Cup and television from the 1954 World Cup , p. 18 ff.
- Heinz Gerhard: The World Cup as a television event ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Hans-Jürgen Jakobs: Cheers to the apparatus
- Johann Schlüper: Summary: game development at the 1954 World Cup from 1954 World Cup f, p 109th
- Franz-Josef Brüggemeier : The “football miracle” from 1954. In: Federal Center for Political Education (Ed.): Information on political education . Issue 290, May 4, 2006.
- Jacob Sebastian Eder: The “Miracle of Bern” - Reception history of a German myth. (PDF; 205 kB).