Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

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Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija / Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian)
Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija (Slovenian ) ija
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Coat of arms of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
flag coat of arms
Motto : Fraternity and unity
( Serbo-Croatian Bratstvo i jedinstvo , Slovenian Bratstvo in enotnost , Macedonian Братство и единство)
Official language There was no specific official language at the federal level.
In official matters in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, the Serbo-Croatian language was the de facto official language, which had several variants:
1946–1954: Serbian, Croatian;
1954–1974: Serbo-Croatian;
1974–1991: Serbo-Croatian or Croatian-Serbian

In Slovenia the Slovene language and in Macedonia the Macedonian language was the de facto official language.
At the local level, Albanian and Hungarian and the languages ​​of other nationalities were also used to a limited extent .
Capital Belgrade
Form of government Federal Republic
Government system One-party system
Head of state Ivan Ribar (1945–1953)
Josip Broz Tito (1953–1980)
Chairman of the Presidium of the SFRY (1980–1992)
Head of government Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
area 255,804 km²
population 23,271,000 (1990/1991)
Population density 91 inhabitants per km²
Gross domestic product per inhabitant 3,650 (1990)
currency Yugoslav dinar
1 dinar = 100 para
founding November 29, 1943 / November 29, 1945
resolution April 26, 1992
National anthem Hey Sloveni
National holiday November 29th ( Dan republike , "Republic Day")
Time zone CET / CEST
License Plate YU
ISO 3166 YU, YUG, 890
Internet TLD .yu
Telephone code +38
As a result of the wars in Yugoslavia , the SFRY disintegrated in 1991/1992.
Yugoslavia 1956-1990.svg

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (abbreviated SFR Yugoslavia or SFRJ ) was a non-aligned , socialist state in south-eastern Europe that existed from 1945 to April 26, 1992.

Before World War II , Yugoslavia was known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , or the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes . The name after the Second World War was initially Democratic Federal Yugoslavia and from 1946 to 1963 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( FVRJ ).

After the connection of Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste, Yugoslavia covered an area of ​​255,804 km² from 1954 to 1991. It consisted of the six republics of Slovenia , Croatia , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Serbia , Montenegro and Macedonia as well as the two autonomous provinces belonging to Serbia, Kosovo and Vojvodina . The state thus encompassed the territory of today's Slovenia , Croatia , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Montenegro , Serbia , North Macedonia and Kosovo .


Yugoslavia bordered Italy , Austria , Hungary , Romania , Bulgaria , Greece and Albania , with a long coast on the Adriatic Sea with numerous islands.

The northeast of the country is relatively flat, the rest of the country is more mountainous. The highest mountain is the Triglav (2864 m, in the Julian Alps near Jesenice ), followed by the Golem Korab (2753 m, in the Korab Mountains , on the border with Albania west of Gostivar ) and the Titov Vrv (2747 m, in the Šar Planina near Tetovo ).

There are three large lakes on the border with Albania: Lake Skadar , Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa . The Danube flows through northeast Yugoslavia (including the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade ) and forms part of the border with Romania, the breakthrough valley there is known as the Iron Gate (Serbo-Croatian: Đerdap). Important tributaries of the Danube in Yugoslavia are the Drau (Drava), the Save (Sava) and the Morava .


Population development 1961–1991 : Increase from 18.4 to 23 million (+ 25%)

Yugoslavia had around 23 million inhabitants in 1991, there were 19 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants each. The largest cities were Belgrade (1,168,000 inhabitants) and Zagreb (706,800 inhabitants), followed by Sarajevo , Skopje and Ljubljana . From 1961 to 1991, the population of Yugoslavia increased by 25%.


Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963)

Yugoslavia (dark green) between the power blocs (blue: NATO , red: Warsaw Pact )
Republics of Yugoslavia

With the AVNOJ resolutions of November 29, 1943, the foundation stone for a new federation of South Slav peoples under the leadership of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPJ) was laid during the Second World War .

The Temporary Government of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, presided over by Tito, was established in March 1945 and was recognized by Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union.

After the Second World War, Yugoslavia was founded as a socialist federal state made up of six republics ( Slovenia , Croatia , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Montenegro , Serbia and Macedonia ). On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija ) was proclaimed after Tito's Communist Popular Front won the elections. On January 31, 1946, Yugoslavia received a constitution based on the model of the USSR . The 1946 constitution of Yugoslavia, to which Montenegro belonged at the time, for the first time guaranteed full legal, economic and social equality between the sexes, including women's suffrage .

In 1948 Tito distanced himself more and more from the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc and a break occurred. Tito pursued his own Yugoslav socialism ( Titoism ). Yugoslavia grew closer and closer to the West and was also a founding member of the non-aligned states . This and the model of workers' self-management led to a great deal of interest in the Western European left and far into the social democratic spectrum. In the FRG , the youth organization Falken in particular cultivated contacts and exchanges with Yugoslavia since the 1950s. This interest intensified with the student movement from 1967 onwards, but it was never without friction and criticism.

On April 7, 1963, the state was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija / SFRY).

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)

Under Tito

Josip Broz Tito (1961)

In Article 2 of the Constitution of February 21, 1974, the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo were declared autonomous provinces within Serbia. The provinces that were only formally subordinate to Serbia were de facto upgraded. In contrast to republics, however, they were not granted the right to self-determination (including the right to secession ). The SFRY consisted of six republics (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia) and two autonomous provinces within the Serb republic (Kosovo, Vojvodina).

Presidential term

After Tito's death on May 4, 1980, the Presidium of the Republic took over government. The eight members consisted of one representative each from the six constituent republics and the two autonomous provinces. However, there were more and more disagreements because the integrative personality of Tito was missing.

Surname Capital flag coat of arms location
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1946–1992) .svg Coat of Arms of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Locator map Bosnia and Herzegovina in Yugoslavia.svg
Socialist Republic of Croatia Zagreb Flag of Croatia (1947–1990) .svg Coat of Arms of the Socialist Republic of Croatia.svg Locator map Croatia in Yugoslavia.svg
Socialist Republic of Macedonia Skopje Flag of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963-1991) .svg Emblem of Macedonia (1946–2009) .svg Locator map Macedonia in Yugoslavia.svg
Socialist Republic of Montenegro Titograd Flag of Montenegro (1946–1993) .svg Coat of arms of Montenegro (1945–1994) .svg Locator map Montenegro in Yugoslavia.svg
Socialist Republic of Serbia
Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Novi Sad
Flag of Serbia (1947–1992) .svg Coat of arms of Serbia (1947-2004) .svg Locator map Serbia in Yugoslavia.svg
Socialist Republic of Slovenia Ljubljana Flag of Slovenia (1945–1991) .svg Coat of Arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.svg Locator map Slovenia in Yugoslavia.svg

Breakup of Yugoslavia from 1991

The political breakup of Yugoslavia

With the exception of Serbia, referendums on state sovereignty were held in all the former republics of the former Yugoslavia following democratic elections .

With very high voter turnouts, the following people voted for the respective state sovereignty:

In Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina in particular, however, the Serbian residents entitled to vote boycotted the votes.

Belgrade first tried to subdue the aspirations for independence militarily. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) first intervened in Slovenia in 1991 ( 10-day war ) and then on the side of the Krajina Serbs in Croatia ( Croatian war ). When this failed, however, the war then shifted more and more to Bosnia-Herzegovina ( Bosnian War ). Ultimately, however, the three states succeeded in achieving independence.

April 26, 1992 is considered by observers to be the final day of the dissolution of the Federation. Macedonia immediately parted ways with the Yugoslav dinar.

"Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (1992-2003) or "Serbia and Montenegro" (2003-2006)

After the federation broke up into its individual states, Serbia and Montenegro came to terms. These two countries initially formed the common state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , which was later converted into the confederation of Serbia and Montenegro .

On September 19, 1992, the UN Security Council resolved with Resolution 777 that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), consisting of Serbia and Montenegro, could not automatically become the legal successor of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a member state of the UN, but could instead be anew like the other successor states apply for membership. The General Assembly of the United Nations in New York confirmed this by majority vote (approval of 127 countries with 26 abstentions and six votes against). The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is therefore no longer allowed to take the seat of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the UN General Assembly. Since the FRY had always unwaveringly viewed itself as identical to this in terms of international law and refused to accept the contrary resolution, it lost its seat in the UN General Assembly.

With the adoption of a new constitution in 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia renamed itself “ Serbia and Montenegro ”. This marked the end of the term "Yugoslavia" as a state name.


Political system

Unless otherwise stated, the information relates to the 1974 constitution, which was in force until 1988:

Federal level

Federal Assembly building in Belgrade

After Tito's death, the head of state was the Presidium of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , which consisted of one representative from each republic and autonomous province elected for five years, as well as the chairman of the BDKJ ; a new chairman of the presidium was appointed every year.

The Federal Executive Council had the function of a federal government . This was composed of:

  • the Prime Minister (Chairman of the Federal Executive Council, Head of Government )
  • the federal secretaries (ministers)
  • Representatives of the republics and autonomous provinces
  • Heads of federal administrative bodies

The parliament at the federal level was the Federal Assembly , made up of the Council of Republics and Provinces (12 delegates from each of the 6 republics, 8 delegates from each of the 2 autonomous provinces, together 88 delegates) and the Federal Council (delegates from the self-governing organizations and socio-political organizations: 30 per republic and 20 per autonomous province, a total of 220 delegates).

Republics and provinces

In contrast to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , which had been subdivided into nine banks (administrative districts) since 1929, the SFRY was divided into six republics, one of which, namely Serbia, contained two provinces (from 1974: autonomous provinces). Over time, the republics and provinces acquired more and more powers ( see sectionThe SFRY's Constitution ”).

Republics and Provinces of the SFRY
republic Capital Area (km²)
Slovenia Ljubljana 20,253
Croatia Zagreb 56,542
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo 51.129
Montenegro Titograd 13,812
Macedonia Skopje 25,713
Serbia Belgrade 88,361
(Serbia without AP) - 55,968
Autonomous Province Capital Area (km²)
AP Vojvodina Novi Sad 21,506
AP Kosovo Pristina 10,887

Municipal level

As a political unit at the municipal level, there was the municipality (Serbo-Croatian: opština ), which was divided into individual localities ( naselje ). This was usually a city and the surrounding smaller villages.

The Constitution of the SFRY

A first constitution of the SFRY came into force on January 31, 1946. This was replaced by the constitutional law of January 13, 1953. On April 7, 1963, the third constitution came into force, which was in turn amended on April 18, 1967, December 26, 1968 and June 30, 1971. A fourth constitution came into force on February 21, 1974 and remained in force until the SFRY fell apart. In it, Yugoslavia was described as the dictatorship of the proletariat in a "self-governing democratic" form. In the previous constitutions, however, there was talk of a “socialist democracy”. The constitution of 1974 was considered the longest constitution of all states (the - now obsolete - the People's Republic of China was considered to be the shortest , Great Britain has no written constitution). On November 25, 1988, the constitution was changed significantly.

While the constitution of 1948 was based on the model of the Soviet Union , self-government socialism was anchored in the constitution in 1963 (i.e. workers self-government and a departure from centralism, so that powers were transferred from the federal level to the level of the republics). The 1974 constitution contained an even stronger federalization and upgraded the provinces within Serbia (Vojvodina and Kosovo) to autonomous provinces , which were now given a status more or less equal to the republics.

Parties and mass organizations

The Union of Communists of Yugoslavia was the only existing party in the SFRY until the Association for a Yugoslav Democratic Initiative was founded in 1989 and gradually developed into a party. The Union of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved in January 1990 after the Slovenian Union of Communists left the party. In the course of 1990 numerous new, mostly nationalist parties were founded at the local level; In most republics, successor organizations to the League of Communists were formed, some of which were social-democratic or liberal, and some were also nationalist. The Prime Minister Ante Marković founded a new all-Yugoslav party with the Union of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia with a social-democratic to left-liberal profile.

Important mass organizations were:

  • Association of Pioneers of Yugoslavia / Youth Association
  • Socialist League of the Working People (SSRNJ)
  • Trade union confederation (with around 5 million members in the early 1980s)
  • Association of Participants in the War

Foreign policy

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the first state to which the Federal Republic of Germany applied its Hallstein Doctrine on October 19, 1957 because it had declared de jure recognition of the GDR a few days earlier . After the federal government their diplomatic relations broke off to Yugoslavia, the two countries agreed on 31 January 1968, the resumption of their relations.

The movement of the non-aligned states (English: Non-Aligned Movement (NAM); Serbo-Croatian: Pokret Nesvrstanih ) was founded in Belgrade in 1961 . Josip Broz Tito was one of the most important pioneers of the movement , alongside the Egyptian head of state Nasser and the Indian premier Nehru . In 1989 another non-aligned summit took place in Belgrade . With Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia provided the Secretary General of the NAM between 1961 and 1964. en In the years 1989–1992 the General Secretary was again provided by Yugoslavia. The office was held by the respective chairman of the collective presidency of the SFRY, first in 1989/90 by Janez Drnovšek , then successively by Stjepan Mesić and Branko Kostić and by the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , Dobrica Ćosić . At least the latter three only performed this function on paper, so that the NAM was effectively without a Secretary General at this time.

The SFRY was a member of the following international organizations :


The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) was a conscript army that had a strength of 240,000 soldiers in the 1980s (Army: 191,000, Air Force: 37,000, Navy: 13,000). Military service lasted 15 months and there was no right to conscientious objection . Pre-military training has already taken place in schools. In addition to the JNA, there was the Territorial Defense (TO) , which consisted of around 1 million people, was only lightly armed and, in the event of an occupation of the country, was supposed to start partisan warfare . It was noteworthy that, due to the country's non-alignment, the Yugoslav People's Army purchased both Soviet and US armaments for years . According to the Military Balance of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, the armored weapon in 1984/85 consisted of u. a. 1500 Soviet T-34 / -54 / -55 tanks and some T-72s as well as the license-built M-84, which was based on the chassis of the T-72A. The air force as well as the air defense consisted largely of weapons of Soviet origin, here u. a. 130 MiG-21 interceptors and some An-12 and An-26 transport aircraft.

Later, Yugoslavia was able to produce a large part of the weapons itself, albeit partly under license from foreign licensors. In some cases, Yugoslav armaments companies (e.g. Soko in Mostar) built aircraft and weapons that were composed of western and eastern components and that were built not only for their own use but also for export to non-aligned countries.


The SFRY and the constituent republics had constitutional courts ( ustavni sudovi ). In addition, the Federal Constitution of 1974 made a distinction between ordinary courts and self-governing courts. At the top was the Federal Supreme Court ( Savezni sud ). These included the federal military courts ( vojni sudovi ) on the one hand, and the ordinary courts ( redovni sudovi ) in the republics and provinces, i.e. municipal and district courts ( opštinski sudovi i okružni sudovi ), district economic courts and a higher commercial court ( okružni ) on the other privredni sudovi i Viši privredni sud ) and a supreme court. The self-governing courts ( samoupravni sudovi ) included a. the Associated Labor Courts and the Peace Councils.


The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia initially had a planned economy based on the model of the Soviet Union. On May 24, 1944, by the AVNOJ an expropriation of the assets of all Germans decided. This affected 50% of total industry and around 120,000 farms. In the mid-1940s, Yugoslavia was a country that was heavily influenced by agriculture. 70% of the population worked in agriculture, which generated 36% of the national product. On August 23, 1945 the Law on Agrarian Reform and Colonization (Zakon o Agrarnoj reformi i kolonizaciji) was passed, with which large landowners were expropriated (the "enemy property" had already been confiscated). The agricultural land was initially distributed to new farmers. The official slogan was “The soil for those who cultivate it”. In many cases, however, it was not the local farmers who profited from the land reform, but rather merited fighters of the resistance.

Tito's break with Stalin in 1948 led to a turn in economic policy towards a socialist market economy . In another land reform in 1948, the forced collectivization of large parts of agriculture was pushed. In industrial policy, Tito introduced a system of workers' self-management from the early 1950s .

The currency of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav dinar . Within Yugoslavia there was a clear economic north-south divide ( Slovenia , Croatia , Vojvodina compared to the other, more southern sub-republics / provinces, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina , Macedonia , Kosovo ). Yugoslavia was nevertheless the economically strongest country in south-eastern Europe .

GDP per capita 1990
republic GDP per
capita in $
Slovenia 5,500
Croatia 3,400
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,600
Montenegro 1,700
Serbia (with Kosovo and Vojvodina) 2,200
- including the province of Vojvodina 3,250
- including the province of Kosovo 730
Macedonia 1,400
Yugoslavia 2,600


Between the 1960s and 1990, the SFR Yugoslavia was one of the most popular (summer) travel destinations in Europe, alongside Italy and Spain . Millions of tourists spent their holidays on the Adriatic coast , the islands and the hinterland. The most visited republic was Croatia , with a coastline of over 1,800 kilometers and 1,246 islands. Winter tourism focused on the Julian Alps , Karawanken (in the north / Slovenia) and Sarajevo, where the 1984 Winter Olympics took place. The landmark of the former Yugoslavia, Stari Most ( Mostar Bridge ), was also a popular destination for tourists. Not only the Mediterranean coast of Yugoslavia was popular with visitors, but also the numerous lakes in the country. The famous lakes were the Plitvice lakes , the Bled lake Scutari (the largest lake in South-Eastern Europe) and the Lake Ohrid in the former southern republic of Macedonia, which is one of the oldest lakes in the world.


University in Zadar (Croatia), located directly on the Adriatic Sea

At the time of the establishment of Yugoslavia, the University of Zagreb (founded in 1669) and the University of Belgrade (founded in 1808) existed.

Between 1918 and 1992 these universities were newly founded:

Several universities of applied sciences were also newly founded. The art academies in Ljubljana, Zagreb and Pristina were initially founded as independent universities, but later integrated into the respective universities. There were other art and music colleges in Novi Sad and Dubrovnik, among others.

The first university in what was to become Yugoslavia was the University of Zadar , which was founded in 1396 and closed in 1807. In 1955 a Faculty of Philosophy was established again in Zadar . From 1674 to 1786 the Pauline monastery in Lepoglava (near Varaždin ) ran a university.



Literature and theater

In 1947 there was a resurgence of publishing activities and the establishment of several literary magazines, whereby the literature of the smaller nationalities of Yugoslavia received more attention than in the prewar period. The older writers mainly published texts that were written during the occupation. This applies to the most famous Yugoslav writer Ivo Andrić (1892–1975) ( The Bridge over the Drina , German 1953; Das Fräulein , German 1958); the essayist, critic, novelist and playwright Miroslav Krleža (1893–1981), who was editor of literary magazines and an important cultural functionary between the wars; the prose writer and poet Branko Ćopić (1915–1984), whose books have been translated into around 15 languages; also for Mehmed Meša Selimović (1910–1982), Isidora Sekulić , Velko Petrović , Juša Kozak , Oskar Davičo and Miško Kranjec and for the Slovenes Anton Vodnik and Jože Udovič . For younger authors such as the Serbian Aleksandar Tišma (1924–2003), war, occupation and the Holocaust remained the main themes. Of the Croatian writers, mainly young people who had actively participated in the war of liberation, such as Ranko Marinković , Vjekoslav Kaleb , Peter Šegedin , Josip Barković and Vladan Desnica, published . The young Macedonian literature developed very dynamically after the Macedonian language was approved as the state language in 1945; but it took a long time before she had freed herself from the model of folk song forms. The most important author of the young Macedonian literature was Slavko Janevski , who wrote the first novel in the Macedonian language (Seloto zad sedumte jaseni) .

At the end of the 1940s, the orientation towards a socialist realism quickly established itself, which represented the new reality in an affirmative-schematic manner and glorified the construction work; however, socialist realism was able to tie in with the tradition of “social literature” of the 1920s, for which Milka Žicina should be named as an author ( Kaja, die Kleinmagd , German 1946). One could speak of a moderate variant of popular realism. In 1951, however, a progressive U-turn began. For the most part, the writers turned away from naive popular pedagogy and folkloric traditions and achieved new expressiveness.

In the period that followed, foreign literature was increasingly translated, for example the youth novel Die Rote Zora und seine Gang , published in Switzerland in 1941 by Kurt Held , who is set in Yugoslavia. A translation by Gustav Gavrin appeared in Yugoslavia in 1952 under the title Družina riđokose zore . Art opposed dogmatism, avant-garde currents made themselves felt (as in the work of the surrealist Dušan Matić ). The Yugoslavian-born writer Milo Dor (1923–2005) lived in exile in Vienna and wrote in German; many of his works are set in Yugoslavia. The high point of foreign interest in the new Yugoslav literature was the award of the Nobel Prize in 1961 to Ivo Andrić. But older authors also had their say, such as Oton Župančić , Alojz Gradnik and Anton Vodnik . In addition to narration, the novel emerged as an art form to a greater extent. The subjects now also included the life of the South Slavic peoples in the 19th century, in the Middle Ages and in antiquity (Ivo Andrić: Wesire und Konsuln , German 1963; Dobrica Ćosić : The stove will go out , German 1958). The translations of the works of German authors such as Thomas Mann and Günter Grass gained increasing influence on Yugoslav literature .

Poetry also experienced a rebirth in the 1950s with Vasco Popa , Ivan Lalić , Slavko Mihalić . Srbo Ivanovski , Izet Sarajlić and Aleksandar Ivanović . The poet Miloš Crnjanski returned from exile in London in 1965. The initially very intellectual and hermetic poetry, which had turned against socialist realism (the so-called "socialist aestheticism"), opened up to dialogue and gained psychological authenticity. In addition, a poetic and fantastic prose developed (e.g. represented by the Montenegrin Miodrag Bulatović , one of the authors most frequently translated into Western European languages, who also wrote the anti-war satire The hero on the back of the donkey  - German 1965).

In the 1960s and 1970s, a "renewed realism" regained momentum (for example by Aleksandar Tišma or David Filip ). The everyday life of city dwellers under the conditions of forced urbanization (soi with Grozdana Olujić ), the alienation through technology ( Sveta Lukić ) and the particular problems of regional milieus came to the fore as topics. Dramatic literature also developed, although not nearly as vigorously as narrative literature. Mention should be made of Bratko Kreft , Marian Matković , Aleksandar Obrenović , Ivica Ivanec , Jovan Hrstić ( Pure Hands , German 1962; Savonarola and his friends , German 1965). The production of radio plays and children's radio plays as well as teaching in literary theory and literary history at universities also played a growing role. Dušan Radović was also known in Germany as a children's book author. Branislav Crnčević has written comedies, television plays, but also collections of aphorisms ( state examination , German 1966). Danilo Kiš ( Garden, Ashes , Ger. 1968) thematized the atrocities of war and the Holocaust, whereby autobiographical experiences flowed into his work. When the cultural bureaucracy reacted to his anti-Stalinist narrative cycle Ein Gravmal für Boris Dawidowitsch with a politically motivated plagiarism campaign in 1978 , he finally went to France in 1979, where he had previously worked as a lecturer for Serbo-Croatian.

For a long time, Miroslav Krleža remained a central figure in Yugoslav literature with his attempt to achieve a synthesis between tradition and modernity.

In the 1980s, the "Jeansprosa" ( Momo Kapor ) emerged as a new genre . In the course of this decade, against the background of the severe economic crisis and the creeping erosion of the political system, two opposing political currents emerged: on the one hand, the advocates of economic and political liberalization (especially in Slovenia), and on the other, those in favor of the Strengthening the federal state (especially in Serbia). This conflict was reflected in an increasing "renationalization" and ideologization of literature, which was also expressed in different developments in the Serbian and Croatian languages.

In Yugoslav literary historiography, Montenegrin authors were assigned to Serbian literature. In the case of authors from the Bosnian-Herzegovinian area, the classification was based on their feeling of belonging to the Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian nation. Authors who wanted to avoid national restrictions felt themselves to be "Yugoslav" writers.


Few films were made in Yugoslavia until 1945. In the 1950s, a style based on Italian neorealism was predominant, which was then replaced by the Novi Film . In the 1980s, Emir Kusturica's films were also internationally successful.

In the 1960s in particular, there were numerous co-productions between Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Germany, including numerous Karl May films that were often made in the Plitvice Lakes National Park .

Visual arts

Some of the most important representatives of naive painting lived in Yugoslavia (including Ivan Generalić ).

In addition to numerous historical monuments, there were also significant examples of modern architecture in Yugoslavia. Well-known representatives of Yugoslav industrial design were among others Saša Mächtig and Davorin Savnik .



Even before the First World War, Yugoslav sport had split into a bourgeois and a more social democratic, popular sport-oriented workers' sport . Even under Tito , workers 'sport continued, even if the objective shifted more and more towards competitive sport, so that the possibilities within the framework of workers' self-administration were hardly used and the objectives were increasingly oriented towards international success. In addition, Yugoslavia used its position as a non-aligned country and directed z. B. the European Athletics Championships in 1962 . Yugoslavia also hosted the 1976 European Football Championship . The 1984 Winter Olympics took place in Sarajevo. It has also hosted numerous European and world championships in other sports (e.g. basketball, athletics, swimming, handball, water polo, tennis, motorcycle racing).

The national soccer team became Olympic champions in 1960 after winning the silver medal three times in a row in 1948 , 1952 and 1956 . In 1984 she won the bronze medal. The greatest success at a world championship was fourth place in 1962 in Chile . In 1960 and 1968 she was vice-European champion, in 1976 fourth.

The country was strong in basketball : the men's national team was world champion in 1970, 1978 and 1990, and European champion in 1973, 1975, 1977, 1989 and 1991; Yugoslavia won the gold medal at the 1980 Summer Olympics . In addition, Yugoslavia was handball world champion in 1973 (women) and 1986 (men) and won the Olympic gold medals in water polo (men) in 1968, 1984 and 1988 as well as four silver medals. The rowing world championships took place in Bled in 1966, 1979 and 1989 .

Famous athletes included:


  • The constitution of the SFR Yugoslavia , introduced by Herwig Roggemann. 1980, ISBN 3-87061-146-4 (on the 1974 constitution)
  • Herbert Büschenfeld: Yugoslavia , 1981, ISBN 3-12-928821-X
  • Statistics from abroad . Federal Statistical Office , Yugoslavia country report (several editions), last published in March 1990, ISBN 3-8246-0210-5
  • FW Hondius: The Yugoslav community of nations . Diss. Leiden 1968 (on nationality politics and the constitutions of 1948, 1953 and 1963)
  • Klaus-Detlev Grothusen (Ed.): Yugoslavia (=  Southeast Europe Handbook . Volume 1 ). 1975, ISBN 3-525-36200-5 (especially the contributions by George Zaninovich (on the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia , pp. 11–32), Franz Mayer and Ivan Kristan ( State, Constitution, Law, Administration , p. 33– 149), Klaus-Detlev Grothusen ( Die Außenpolitik , pp. 150–187), Günther Wagenlehner ( National Defense , pp. 188–198) and Ivan Kristan ( The highest organs in party and state , pp. 465–469; Treaties and agreements , Pp. 487-512)).
  • Wolfgang Höpken: Participation and local self-government in Yugoslav communities . In: Klaus-Detlev Grothusen, Othmar Nikola Haberl, Wolfgang Höpken (eds.): Yugoslavia at the end of the Tito era . Volume 2, 1986, ISBN 3-486-51411-3 , pp. 67-141
  • Dejan Jović: Yugoslavia. A State that Withered Away. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette 2009, ISBN 978-1-55753-495-8 ( limited preview in Google Book Search)
  • Holm Sundhaussen : Yugoslavia and its successor states 1943–2011. An unusual story of the ordinary . Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-205-78831-7
  • Holm Sundhaussen : History of Yugoslavia 1918–1980 . Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-17-007289-7

Web links

Individual evidence

  2. Milovan Đilas writes in Years of Power. Play of forces behind the iron curtain. Memoirs 1945–1966 , Seewald, 1983, that this designation was “naturalized” as early as 1943.
  3. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  4. ^ Jad Adams: Women and the Vote. A world history. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, ISBN 978-0-19-870684-7 , page 438
  5. Kay Schweigmann-Greve: "Neither East nor West - for an undivided socialist world!" The contacts of the SJD - the falcons in the 50s and 60s to Yugoslavia and their aftermath up to the present day . In: Work - Movement - History , Issue II / 2018, pp. 161–181.
  6. full text.
  7. ^ Marie-Janine Calic : History of Yugoslavia in the 20th century. CH Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60645-8 , p. 263.
  8. Thomas Olechowski: Legal history: Introduction to the historical foundations of law . 3rd, revised edition. facultas.wuv, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-7089-0631-7 , p. 89 .
  9. See in detail Andreas Zimmermann , State Succession in International Treaties (= Contributions to Foreign Public Law and International Law; Volume 141). Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 2000, ISBN 3-540-66140-9 , pp. 98 ff. , 308 .
  10. Cf. The Constitution of the SFR Yugoslavia ( see above ), p. 21.
  11. Georg Brunner : Newer tendencies in the constitutional development of Eastern European states. In: Yearbook of Public Law , New Series 23 (1974), p. 215.
  12. Armed Forces 1985/86. The "Military Balance" of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. London / Koblenz 1986, p. 173.
  13. International Institute for Strategic Studies, London (ed.): Military Balance 1984/85. London 1985, p. 132.
  14. Tobias Pflüger , Martin Jung: War in Yugoslavia. 2nd edition 1994, ISBN 3-9803269-3-4 , pp. 103 f.
  15. ^ Federal Constitution, Art. 375 ff. (Seat: Belgrade, Bulevar Lenjina 2); Serbian Constitution, Art. 401 ff.
  16. Federal Constitution, Art. 217
  17. ^ Federal Constitution, Art. 369 (seat: Belgrade, Svetozara Markovića 21); 1953 Supreme Court of the Federation ( Savezni vrhovni sud ), 1963 Supreme Court ( Vrhovni sud ) named; Until 1975 there was also a Supreme Economic Court ( Vrhovni privredni sud )
  18. Zakon o vojnim sudovima ( Službeni list SFRJ 4/77 )
  19. Serbia: Zakon o redovnim sudovima ( Službeni glasnik SRS 46/77 ), Art. 19; Macedonia: Zakon za redovnite sudovi ( Služben vesnik SRM 10/76 , 17/79 ), Art. 31
  20. ^ Federal Constitution, Art. 225; see. Social courts
  21. Zakon o sudovima udruženog rada ( Službeni list SFRJ 24/74 , 38/84 ); Serbia: Zakon o sudovima udruženog rada ( Službeni glasnik SRS 32/75 ); Macedonia: Zakon za sudovite na združeniot trud ( Služben vesnik SRM 41/75 )
  22. Serbia: Zakon o mirovnim Vecima ( Službeni glasnik SRS 43/79 ); Macedonia: Zakon za mirovnite soveti ( Služben vesnik SRM 39/77 )
  23. Decree on the transfer of hostile property into state property and the state administration of the property of absent persons, as well as the confiscation of property that has been forcibly alienated by the occupying powers
  24. Zoran Pokrovac: Socialist reforms in the case of Yugoslavia and socialist construction of reality . In: Christoph Boyer (Ed.): On the physiognomy of socialist economic reforms . Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-465-04026-2 , pp. 123-137.
  25. ^ Fischer Weltalmanach 1993, columns 411/412
  26. ^ Jugoslavija , section "Nauka". In: Enciklopedija Jugoslavije , 2nd edition, Volume 6, pp. 510 f.
  27. Katica Marendić: Faculties and Academies of Art . In: Yugoslav Survey , 26, 1985, No. 4, pp. 85-96 ( ISSN  0044-1341 ).
  28. Books of the Yugoslav peoples and nationalities in German translations. Editor: Sveta Lukić. Jugoslovenski bibliografski institut, Beograd and Cultural Office of the City of Dortmund, 1979, esp. Pp. 7-14.
  29. ^ Drago Stepisnik: Yugoslavia . In: Horst Ueberhorst : History of physical exercises . Volume 5. Bartels & Wernitz, Berlin 1976, pp. 347-368; ISBN 3-87039-980-5
  30. Sergije Bjeloborodov: Yugoslavia . In: Arnd Krüger , James Riordan (ed.): The international workers 'sport: The key to workers' sport in 10 countries . Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1985, pp. 103-109; ISBN 3-7609-0933-7