Warsaw Pact

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Warsaw Pact
(Warsaw Treaty Organization)

Organization logo

The eight member states of the Warsaw Pact
English name Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance
French name Pacte de Varsovie
Russian name Организация Варшавского договора
Seat of the organs Moscow , Lvov
Member States 8 :

Albania 1946People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania (until September 13, 1968) Bulgaria German Democratic Republic (until October 2, 1990) Poland Romania Soviet Union Czechoslovakia Hungary
Bulgaria 1971Bulgaria 
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR 
Poland 1944Poland 
Romania 1965Romania 
Soviet UnionSoviet Union 
Hungary 1957Hungary 

founding May 14, 1955
Disbanded July 1, 1991

The Warsaw Pact - a name commonly used in the West , in the official language of the participating states called the Warsaw Treaty or Warsaw Treaty Organization - was a military assistance pact of the so-called Eastern Bloc under the leadership of the Soviet Union that existed from 1955 to 1991 .

He was with the Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (short: Warsaw Treaty - WV ) founded and formed in the Cold War , the counterpart to the US-American dominated NATO -Bündnis, the North Atlantic Treaty. Economically, the Eastern Bloc countries had already been united in the Council for Mutual Economic Aid since 1949 . With the fall of the Iron Curtain , the strict structures of the Warsaw Pact began to increasingly erode, whereupon it officially dissolved in 1991.

Prehistory and founding conference

The Prime Minister of the GDR, Otto Grotewohl , signing the contract in Warsaw

The Warsaw Pact was a result of the increasing tensions between the Allies of World War II and between the Federal Republic of Germany and the USSR since 1947 . In the West, the expansion of the Soviet Union and the formation of satellite states were perceived as a massive threat to the Western democracies, which attempts were made to contain them with the establishment of NATO in April 1949. The states of the later socialist camp in Europe have been under the influence of the USSR since the invasion of Soviet troops in 1944/45.

The members of the Brussels Pact and Italy signed the Paris Treaties with the Federal Republic of Germany on October 23, 1954 , which ended the occupation statute in West Germany and led to the establishment of the Western European Union's Collective Military Assistance Pact (WEU). The Western Allies underlined the sole representative of the Federal Government of Germany and were at the same time for those of the federal government considered necessary rearmament one of West Germany. The Soviet Union, for its part, feared a resurgence of militarism in Germany and wanted to prevent the Federal Republic from joining NATO , especially since it preferred a system of collective security , as provided for in the United Nations Charter , and was in principle opposed to systems of collective self-defense . After several diplomatic notes and declarations, she responded with a security conference in Moscow , which met from November 29 to December 2, 1954 and at which, in addition to the Soviet delegation, government representatives from Albania, Bulgaria, the GDR, the People's Republics of Poland and Romania, and Czechoslovakia of the People's Republic of Hungary participated. At the end of the conference, the Moscow Declaration (also: Moscow Declaration ) was adopted. In it, the signatories warned against ratifying the Paris Treaties and announced that they would set up their own military alliance . Corresponding declarations of intent for the joint organization of the armed forces should follow.

In order to be able to accept the GDR into the alliance, the state of war was formally ended on January 21, 1955. With the ratification of the Paris Treaties in the member states , they came into force on May 5, 1955. Was then the Polish Council of State building in Warsaw at the end of the second "Conference of European countries to ensure the peace and security of Europe" from 11 to 14 May 1955 by Albania, Bulgaria, East Germany, the Republic of Poland , the People's Republic of Romania , the VR Hungary , the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia signed the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance by the Prime Ministers; it consisted of a preamble and eleven articles. Defense Minister Peng Dehuai attended the conference as an observer for the People's Republic of China . By founding the military alliance, the Soviet Union secured its claim to hegemony in Eastern Europe . After all the signatory states had deposited their instruments of ratification with the government of the People's Republic of Poland, the Warsaw Treaty entered into force on June 4, 1955.

The GDR was initially excluded from the military part of the alliance. She joined it on January 28, 1956, ten days after the law establishing the National People's Army was signed .


Stamp issue for the 20th anniversary of the Warsaw Treaty (GDR 1975 )

The organization was based on the multilateral treaty of 1955 and the military alliance was called "Warsaw Treaty" (WV) in the parlance of the GDR . If necessary, the wording States of the Warsaw Treaty was used to clarify the organizational character. The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WVO) founded for this purpose saw itself as a political alliance with the mandate to coordinate foreign policy (Article 3). In the Federal Republic of Germany and many other western states, the term “Warsaw Pact Organization” was used, so that “Warsaw Pact” has established itself as a designation in scientific literature, even if the contemporary historian Wolfgang Mueller points out that “in general usage of the The term 'pact' was often applied pejoratively to the 'opposing' alliance and is still used today. "

The official name in the languages ​​of the Member States was:

  • Albanian: Pakti i miqësisë, bashkpunimit dhe i ndihmës së përbashkët , Pakti i Varshavës for short
  • Bulgarian: Договор за дружба, сътрудничество и взаимопомощ, Варшавски договор for short
  • German: Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance , Warsaw Treaty for short
  • Polish: Układ o Przyjaźni, Współpracy i Pomocy Wzajemnej , Układ Warszawski for short
  • Romanian: Tratatul de prietenie, cooperare și asistență mutuală , Tratatul de la Varșovia or Pactul de la Varșovia for short
  • Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи, Варшавский договор for short
  • Slovak: Zmluva o priateľstve, spolupráci a vzájomnej pomoci , Varšavská zmluva for short
  • Czech: Smlouva o přátelství, spolupráci a vzájemné pomoci , Varšavská smlouva for short
  • Hungarian: Barátsági, együttműködési és kölcsönös segítségnyújtási szerződés , Varsói Szerződés for short

Contract terms and partners

Signet of the Warsaw Treaty Organization


The wording of the underlying treaty is largely similar to that of the North Atlantic Treaty . The Warsaw Treaty member states assured each other of their will to maintain peace and provide mutual military assistance in the event of an attack on one or more of the participating states (Article 4). A joint command of the national armed forces should ensure the effectiveness of the alliance (Art. 5). One had to consult immediately if an attack was foreseeable (Art. 3). In the event of a collective security pact for the whole of Europe, the treaty should lose its validity (Art. 11).

However, the interpretation of these provisions differed fundamentally from those of the North Atlantic Treaty. On the one hand, the Warsaw Pact troops were almost entirely subordinate to the United High Command, which in turn was entirely under the command of the Soviet General Staff. On the other hand, the provisions were also interpreted restrictively internally and, with the help of this treaty, Soviet control of the contracting states was also enforced by military means.

In contrast to the North Atlantic Treaty, which also stipulated economic cooperation in Article 2, the Warsaw Treaty regulated military cooperation between the member states, while civil-economic cooperation was coordinated in the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon), founded in 1949 .


The Warsaw Pact served as a pillar of the official policy of the Soviet Union by the allies. The stationing of Soviet troops in almost all member states and the United High Command under Soviet control ensured that the rule of the respective Communist Party and loyalty to the Soviet Union could not be called into question.

In cases in which individual participating states wanted to leave the course set by Moscow, this was interpreted as an attack from the outside on the socialist state system and punished with military intervention: For example in Hungary ( Hungarian popular uprising , 1956) and in the Czechoslovakia ( Prague Spring , 1968) Warsaw Pact troops put down national uprisings. Even before the treaty was signed, the uprising of June 17 in the GDR had been put down by the Soviet Army . Such an approach was theoretically and ideologically underpinned after 1968 by the Brezhnev Doctrine .

Member States

____ NATO and__ Warsaw Pact in the Cold War


20th anniversary postage stamp

Bilateral treaties of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance

With the bilateral alliance treaties the obligation to provide mutual assistance was signed in order to prevent all violent military acts which are directed against the territorial integrity and sovereignty of a contracting party. The Soviet Union concluded the first of these friendship treaties with the Czechoslovak government-in-exile during the war on December 12, 1943 , which was extended for Czechoslovakia on November 27, 1963. From 1943 to 1949 there were already 23 bilateral agreements on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance (VFZ) of the first generation in Eastern Europe. In addition to this contractual system, there were also other agreements from 1956/57:

each with a term of 20 years. But the treaty on relations between the GDR and the Soviet Union of September 20, 1950 on border regulation already contained an agreement on the stationing of Soviet troops on the territory of the GDR.

In July 1963, the Mongolian People's Republic also asked to join the Warsaw Pact under Article 9 of the Warsaw Treaty. A special protocol should have been drawn up for this, as the text of the treaty according to Article 4 only referred to Europe . Due to the emerging Sino-Soviet rift , there was no accession, but rather observer status. Instead, Soviet troop stationing was agreed from 1966 onwards.

After the Soviet Union concluded a treaty on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance with the GDR on June 12, 1964, which provided for the full inclusion of the GDR in the bilateral alliance system, a total of 20 alliance agreements of the second generation were signed between 1964 and 1972:

Member State Bulgaria GDR Poland Romania Czechoslovakia Soviet Union Hungary
Bulgaria 1967Bulgaria Bulgaria 7th September 1967 April 6, 1967 November 19, 1970 April 24, 1968 May 12, 1967 July 10, 1969
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR German Democratic Republic 7th September 1967 March 15, 1967 May 12, 1972 March 17, 1967 June 12, 1964 May 18, 1967
Poland 1944Poland Poland April 6, 1967 March 15, 1967 November 12, 1970 March 1, 1967 March 1, 1967 May 16, 1968
Romania 1965Romania Romania November 19, 1970 May 12, 1972 November 12, 1970 16th August 1968 July 7, 1970 February 24, 1972
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia April 24, 1968 March 17, 1967 March 1, 1967 16th August 1968 May 6, 1967 June 14, 1968
Soviet Union 1955Soviet Union Soviet Union May 12, 1967 June 12, 1964 March 1, 1967 July 7, 1970 May 6, 1967 7th September 1967
Hungary 1957Hungary Hungary July 10, 1969 May 18, 1967 May 16, 1968 February 24, 1972 June 14, 1968 7th September 1967

The hegemony of the Soviet Union was strengthened by the bilateral alliance treaties, as these provided for a direct obligation to provide assistance in the event of an armed attack, which in most treaties was not limited to Europe.

In the third generation of the Treaties of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, after the signing of the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in August 1975, the Brezhnev Doctrine and economic integration were incorporated. In addition, the term of the contracts was set at 25 years. The GDR signed this new treaty with the Soviet Union on October 7, 1975, and later others with Hungary (March 24, 1977), Poland (May 29, 1977), Bulgaria (September 14, 1977) and Czechoslovakia (October 3, 1977) .

Hungarian popular uprising

Troop strength of NATO member states (including contingents from the United States and Canada ) and the Warsaw Pact states in Europe in 1959
Troop strength of the NATO member states (with contingents from the USA and Canada) and the Warsaw Pact states in Europe in 1973

As a result of the reform course of the Hungarian government under Imre Nagy and during the popular uprising from October 23 to November 4, 1956, Nagy proclaimed Hungary's neutrality on November 1, 1956 and withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Three days later the Soviet Army intervened and used tank units to suppress the popular uprising in Hungary. Over 3,000 people were killed in the fighting that lasted until November 15th in Budapest.

Intervention in Czechoslovakia and the exit of Albania

After the invasion of the troops of most Warsaw Pact states in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR) in August 1968, in which the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria participated with soldiers and 98 Czechs and Slovaks and around 50 soldiers of the Intervention troops died, Albania formally withdrew from the alliance on September 13, 1968 in breach of the treaty provisions. Membership had been suspended since February 1, 1962, when diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were broken off in 1961 . After leaving the military alliance, Albania was increasingly supported by the People's Republic of China.

Major maneuvers

A maneuver visit in October 1970 by Walter Ulbricht , Chairman of the State Council of the GDR, here in conversation with Iwan Ignatjewitsch Jakubowski , the commander in chief of the United Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty

From October 12 to 18, 1970, the alliance's largest maneuver in the GDR was carried out for the first time under the name “Brotherhood of Arms of the Brotherly Armies of the Countries of the Socialist Community ”. In September 1980, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the military alliance, the largest maneuver in the history of the Warsaw Pact was held with the large-scale maneuver " Brotherhood of Arms 80 " and 40,000 soldiers from seven participating states.

Nuclear plans

On September 13, 2008, Hans Rühle , the former head of the planning staff in Bonn's Federal Ministry of Defense , and Michael Rühle , the head of the planning staff in the NATO political department in Brussels, published plans for a first use of nuclear weapons in an article in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung of the Warsaw Pact in the event of war against NATO in Western Europe ( see also: Nuclear Weapons in Germany , History of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Poland ).

According to Rühle, these plans were surprising, as it had previously been assumed that the Warsaw Pact would first use conventional weapons. According to the authors, it becomes clear from released Polish and Czechoslovakian documents as well as from documents of the NVA that the Warsaw Pact planned a preventive first nuclear strike against NATO from 1961 . As an example, they cite the large-scale exercise “Buria” from 1961, during which training was given to carry out the strike three minutes before a NATO attack began. According to Rühle 422 nuclear warheads should explode on West German soil.

From around 1964 the Warsaw Pact planned a limited preventive nuclear war with over 1000 nuclear weapons against Western Europe. Conventional troops should later have occupied Western Europe within a few days. The radiation and the ensuing incapacity to fight the first wave of attacks by their own troops would have been accepted.

It was only under Mikhail Gorbachev that these war plans were changed in 1986. “Only the GDR continued to work on the old basis. During the 'Staff Training 1989' exercise, she planned the devastation of regions near the border in Schleswig-Holstein with 76 nuclear weapons, some of which were large-caliber, ”said Rühle.

Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

On November 19, 1990, on the occasion of the CSCE summit in Paris, the 22 heads of government of the member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) and the Warsaw Pact (WP) signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) on mutual arms restrictions . It entered into force provisionally on July 17, 1992, and finally on November 9, 1992, when the Warsaw Treaty had long been declared repealed.


On April 26, 1985, the Warsaw Treaty was last extended by 20 years and would have been automatically extended for a further ten years at a time.

In the course of the perestroika initiated by Gorbachev in the USSR, doubts about the Brezhnev doctrine arose. With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the Soviet approval of the reunification of Germany in 1990, it finally became clear that aspirations for freedom in the other Warsaw Pact states could no longer be violently suppressed. Then the other member states began to push for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from their countries and for the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Although the Soviet leadership would have preferred a simultaneous dissolution of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, they eventually gave in.

On September 24, 1990, Rainer Eppelmann, as Minister for Disarmament and Defense (MfAV) of the GDR, and the Commander-in-Chief of the United Armed Forces of the Warsaw Pact, Soviet Army General Pyotr G. Luschew , signed a protocol in East Berlin on the separation of the National People's Army the military organization of the alliance. On October 2nd, just before German reunification, the NVA was dissolved.

During the CSCE summit meeting in Paris from November 19 to 21, 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization states and NATO issued a Joint Declaration in which they reaffirmed their previous commitment to non-aggression. They no longer define each other as opponents, but rather as partners who are willing to "shake hands with each other". The declaration follows on from the CFE agreement negotiated in Vienna in March 1989 . The Paris Charter was also signed at the conference , a fundamental international agreement on the creation of a new peaceful order in Europe after the reunification of Germany and the end of the East-West confrontation.

The military structures of the alliance were officially dissolved on March 31, 1991, the Warsaw Pact itself on July 1, 1991. The Soviet troops stationed in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary were withdrawn; in Germany, on the other hand, the Soviet (from December 22, 1991 Russian) Western Group of Troops (WGT, formerly GSSD) remained stationed on former GDR territory until the end of August 1994 .

After NATO had already offered the Warsaw Pact countries a friendly cooperation in 1990, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council followed in 1991, which dealt with security cooperation between the former Warsaw Treaty states , the CIS states and the NATO states.


Warsaw Pact meeting in East Berlin, 1987 - v. l. From right: Gustav Husak (ČSSR), Todor Schiwkow (VRB), Erich Honecker (GDR), Michail Gorbatschow (USSR), Nicolae Ceaușescu (SRR), Wojciech Jaruzelski (VRP) and János Kádár (UVR)

Political Advisory Committee (PBA)

The leadership and coordination of the Warsaw Pact was the task of the Political Advisory Committee (PBA), which met once a year in Moscow and also represented itself as a “WP Summit”, as the highest decision-making body of the alliance. The General Secretary of the PBA was also the head of the United Secretariat , which was viewed as an executive body and was supported by standing commissions, including a liaison office to the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon).

The member states were represented in the PBA by:

  • the first or general secretaries of the central committees (ZK) of the socialist and communist parties,
  • the heads of government and
  • the foreign ministers.

The chair changed.

The first session of the Political Consultative Committee was held in Prague from January 27-28, 1956 . Representatives of the Mongolian People's Republic also took part as observers .

There were also conferences of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Warsaw Treaty states . For the first time on 27./28. April 1959 in Warsaw, in which the People's Republic of China was also involved.

Committee of Defense Ministers

After the violent suppression of the Prague Spring , which was also seen as a reason for Albania's withdrawal from the alliance, pressure also increased on the Soviet Union to give member states more say. From 1969 onwards, the Committee of Defense Ministers was formed as a coordinating body for military questions. The committee included - in addition to the defense ministers as deputy commander-in-chief - the Soviet commander-in-chief of the United Armed Forces and at the same time 1st deputy of the defense minister of the Soviet Union and its chief of staff .

Military Council of the United High Command

Affiliated to the committee was a military council of the United High Command under the leadership of the Commander-in-Chief of the United Armed Forces and the Deputy Defense Ministers, who met and discussed regularly to improve the operational capability of the armed forces, as well as a technical committee.

United High Command

With the establishment of the Warsaw Pact in 1955, in accordance with Articles 5 and 6 of the Warsaw Treaty, a strictly confidential protocol for the creation of a united command of the armed forces of the participating states was drawn up. The participating states were obliged to provide parts of their national armed forces for the United Armed Forces. At the beginning of the alliance, the Soviet Union provided the largest contingent with around 75 percent of the personnel, as the other participating states were only in the phase of building and modernizing their armed forces. Contingents of the GDR were assigned to the United Armed Forces from May 24, 1958, as the NVA was only founded on March 1, 1956 and was also still being established. According to this, the member states should make the following contingents of land forces and air force units available to the United High Command as a contribution:

Member country Number of land troop divisions Number of air force divisions
Soviet Union 1955Soviet Union Soviet Union 32 34
Poland 1944Poland Poland 14th 10
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR German Democratic Republic Scope by separate agreement Scope by separate agreement
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 11 7th
Hungary 1957Hungary Hungary 6th 2
Romania 1965Romania Romania 8th 4th
Bulgaria 1967Bulgaria Bulgaria 7th 4th
Albania 1946People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania only coordination, no subordination only coordination, no subordination

The naval forces of the member countries Bulgaria, Poland and Romania were all incorporated into the United High Command. Albania coordinates the actions of its navy only with the United High Command. The Soviet Union provided the 4th Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet . The 4th Baltic Red Banner Fleet was designated as the 4th Fleet, which was merged with the 8th Baltic Red Banner Fleet to form the Baltic Fleet on December 24, 1955 .

The Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Stepanovich Konev was appointed the first VSK commander in chief. The commander-in-chief was always a Soviet general, who at the same time exercised the function of the first deputy of the Soviet defense minister and was therefore directly subordinate to him. The staff of the United Armed Forces (other designation: Staff of the United Armed Forces , OVS) was led by a deputy, also a Soviet general. The first chief of staff was the Soviet Army General Alexei Innokentjewitsch Antonov . The headquarters of the United High Command was from 1972 in Moscow and in parts also in Lwow (Lemberg).

In the peace of the area of responsibility included:

  • the management and coordination of multinational maneuvers,
  • operational planning and deployment decisions,
  • the organization of training, equipment and leadership control and
  • the close cooperation with the Soviet General Staff, which exercised control over the entire air defense and supply.

Subordinate to the United High Command were most recently:

In wartime, the United High Command had no operational tasks; the General Staff of the Soviet Union would have assumed complete command of all land , air and naval forces of the member states.

Supreme Commander of the United Armed Forces

Surname of to
1. Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Konev May 14, 1955 1960
2. Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko 1960 July 1967
3. Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Jakubowski July 1967 November 30, 1976
4th Marshal of the Soviet Union Viktor Kulikov 1977 February 2, 1989
5. Army General Pyotr Luzhev February 2, 1989 1991

Chief of Staff of the United Armed Forces

Surname of to
1. Army General Alexei Antonov 1955 June 16, 1962
2. Army General Pavel Batow 1962 1965
3. Army General Mikhail Kazakov 1965 1968
4th Army General Sergei Shtemenko 1968 1976
5. Army General Anatoly Gribkov 1976 1989
6th Army General Vladimir Lobov 1989 1990


  • Torsten Diedrich , Winfried Heinemann , Christian F. Ostermann (eds.): The Warsaw Pact. From the foundation to the collapse in 1955 to 1991 . Links, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86153-504-1 .
  • Torsten Diedrich, Walter Suess (ed.): Military and state security in the security concept of the participating states of the Warsaw Pact . On behalf of the Military History Research Office and the Federal Commissioner for the Documents of the State Security Service of the former GDR, Links, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86153-610-9 .
  • Mary Ann Heiss, S. Victor Papacosma (Ed.): NATO and the Warsaw Pact - Intrabloc Conflicts . Kent State University Press, Kent 2008, ISBN 978-0-87338-936-5 .
  • Dieter Krüger: At the abyss? The Age of Alliances: North Atlantic Alliance and Warsaw Pact 1947 to 1991. Parzellers Buchverlag, Fulda 2013, ISBN 978-3-7900-0459-5 .
  • Vojtech Mastny , Malcolm Byrne (Eds.): A Cardboard Castle. An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991. Central European University Press, Budapest 2005, ISBN 963-7326-08-1 .
  • Frank Umbach : The red alliance. Development and disintegration of the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1991. Christoph Links, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-86153-362-6 .
  • Wilfried Düchs: The organization of the Warsaw Pact states as a “partial federal state”? Univ. Diss., Würzburg 1976.
  • Gottfried Zieger: The Warsaw Pact. Lower Saxony State Center for Political Education, Hanover 1974.

Web links

Commons : Warsaw Pact  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Protocol on the separation of the NVA troops from the VSK of the participating states of the Warsaw Treaty of September 24, 1990 (BA-MA, DVW 1/44532); On October 2, 1990, the almost 35-year existence of the NVA ended. For more information, see Rüdiger Wenzke in: The Warsaw Pact. From the foundation to the collapse 1955 to 1991 (=  military history of the GDR. Vol. 16). On behalf of the MGFA ed. by Torsten Diedrich, Winfried Heinemann and Christian F. Ostermann, Ch. Links, Berlin 2009, p. 109 f .; See also The NVA is released from the Warsaw Treaty , MDR television , September 24, 1990 (1:26 min).
  2. At the Foreign Ministers' Conference in Berlin in 1954, Vyacheslav Molotov actually unsuccessfully proposed the accession of the Soviet Union to NATO.
  3. Federal Archives (PDF; 0.3 MB)
  4. ^ Journal of the GDR 1955 pp. 381, 392.
  5. Law on the Creation of the National People's Army and the Ministry of National Defense of January 18, 1956
  6. BI-Universallexikon A – Z , VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1988, ISBN 3-323-00199-0 .
  7. Cf. among others: Central Committee for Youth Consecration of the GDR (editorial board), Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin 1983, ISBN 3-355-00493-6 .
  8. Oliver Bange , Bernd Lemke : Introduction. In this. (Ed.): Ways to reunification: The two German states in their alliances 1970 to 1990 (=  contributions to military history , vol. 75). Oldenbourg, Munich 2013, pp. 1–29, here p. 1 , fn. 1.
  9. ^ Wolfgang Mueller: The Warsaw Pact and Austria 1955-1991. In: Manfried Rauchsteiner (Ed.): Between the blocks. NATO, Warsaw Pact and Austria. Böhlau, Wien / Köln / Weimar 2010, pp. 135–191, here p. 135, note 1 .
  10. Security and Peace. Handbook of Military Interrelationships - Military Alliances, Armaments, Strategies - Analyzes of Security Policy , ISBN 3-8132-0266-6 , p. 39 ff.
  11. ^ National uprising in Hungary. In: What is what . Tessloff Verlag, accessed November 27, 2016 .
  12. See also point 1 of the Order No. 030/9/007 of the Minister for National Defense on the consolidation of the brotherhood in arms relations between the National People's Army and the brother armies of the socialist community - Brotherhood of Arms order - of September 20, 1983, p. 1 (AMBl . B13-2 / 1).
  13. ^ A b Hans Rühle, Michael Rühle: The Warsaw Pact planned the nuclear attack on Western Europe. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung-Online of September 13, 2008, p. 9. Accessed on August 22, 2010.
  14. 25 years ago: End of the Warsaw Pact , bpb , March 30, 2016.
  15. Georg Paul Hefty: The coup was not intended , FAZ.NET , February 28, 2021.
  16. See Peter Schlotter : The CSCE in the East-West Conflict: Effect of an International Institution (=  Studies of the Hessian Foundation for Peace and Conflict Research , Vol. 32), Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1999, ISBN 3- 593-36122-1 , pp. 90-93 .
  17. Wichard Woyke (Ed.): Handwortbuch Internationale Politik . Licensed edition for the Federal Agency for Civic Education , Bonn 2000, ISBN 3-89331-489-X , p. 331 f.
  18. ^ Resolution of the Warsaw Pact powers on the establishment of a joint high command of May 14, 1955 (PDF; 9.9 kB)
  19. Entry by Vera and Donald Blinken: Open Society Archives .
  20. ^ February 1989 - Events. In: chroniknet.de. Retrieved January 22, 2017 .


  1. For this z. B. Wolfgang Mueller: The founding of the Warsaw Pact and the Austrian State Treaty , in: Manfried Rauchsteiner : Between the blocks: NATO, Warsaw Pact and Austria , Böhlau, 2010, p. 143 ff.
  2. ^ Declaration by the Prime Minister of the GDR, Otto Grotewohl , at the first meeting of the Warsaw Conference on May 11, 1955 ( Federal Archives; PDF ).