Peace or peace (from Old High German fridu, "sparing", "friendship") is generally defined as a beneficial state of stillness or calm, as the absence of disturbance or anxiety, and especially of war . Peace is the result of the virtue of "peacefulness" and the associated peace efforts.
In today's parlance, peace is the general state between people, social groups or states in which existing conflicts are resolved without violence in accordance with legally established norms . The term denotes a state of affairs in the relationship between peoples and states that excludes war to enforce politics.
In the language of German lawyers is of peace in connection with domestic conflicts (offense of disturbing the peace sbruchs ), with working life ( disruption of industrial peace as a category of the Works Constitution Act ) and with the protection of private property (crime of domestic peace sbruchs ) the speech. To mark properties that are to be protected against trespassing, these are often fenced in .
In the language of psychology and theology there is the term peace of mind (cf. the English term "peace of mind" or "inner peace"); The living should strive for this and find the dead in the cemetery or in the afterlife .
Terms of peace
In the standard German language, the word peace has three main meanings: it denotes a “state of coexistence within or between states in peace and security”, and a “state of harmony and calm”, and also, in the religious sense, “the feeling of security in God".
The term peace is often used to refer to the absence of violence or war . In this sense, peace is within and between nation-states , religions and populations as a goal of many people and organizations, especially the United Nations understood.
Voluntary or Forced Peace
Peace can be voluntary when potential parties to the dispute choose not to disturb the peace. However, it can also be enforced by sanctions provided for in international law or domestic law holding down those who would otherwise cause such disruption.
Positive / negative peace
In the scientific discussion, a distinction is made between the above-mentioned narrow concept of peace (" negative peace "), which includes the absence of conflict , and a broader concept of peace (" positive peace "). In addition to the absence of military violence, Johan Galtung calls it direct violence , the latter also includes the absence of cultural and structural violence . According to this definition, peace also means the absence of a “culture based on violence” and the absence of repressive or exploitative structures . A structural peace would be the concrete utopia of a social coexistence in harmony and without status struggles and "friction losses". Peace is positively defined here as "the ability [...] to resolve and resolve conflicts with empathy (= the willingness and ability to empathize with the attitudes and mentality of other people) with non-violence and creativity or playfully ." In addition to communicative peace work, the recognition of the importance of "legal communication " and a more intensive preoccupation with the causes of controversial behavior , which with "power communication" provokes and favors conflict escalations. An example of a “peace village” is Neve Schalom / Wahat as-Salam.
The thought of peace in history
The beginnings of the Chinese intellectual history, which has been handed down to this day, go back to the 3rd millennium BC. And can be found in the Taoist classic " I Ching - The Book of Changes". This is based on a structurally dualistic natural philosophy , in which all appearances from the ever changing relationships between the two original principles " Yin " (also the receiving, feminine, earth) and " Yang " (also the creative, masculine, the Heaven) are to be understood. The term “peace” is symbolically represented in this system by the arrangement: Yang below, Yin above. The receiver, whose movement descends downwards, is above; the creative, the movement of which rises upwards, is below. Their influences therefore meet each other and are in harmony so that all beings bloom and prosper. The sign in nature points to a time when heaven is on earth, so to speak. Heaven has placed itself under the earth. This is how their forces unite in intimate harmony . This creates peace and blessings for all beings. This power flow must be regulated by the ruler of the people. This is done through division. So the indiscriminate time is divided into seasons according to the sequence of its appearances by man and the all-surrounding space is differentiated by human determinations in cardinal directions. In this way nature with its overwhelming abundance of phenomena is limited and tamed. On the other hand, nature must be promoted in its productions. This is what happens when you adapt the products to the right time and place. This increases the natural yield. This taming and promoting activity towards nature is the work on nature that benefits people. In the human world it is a time of social unity. The high bow down to the low, and the low and low are kind to the high, so that all feuds come to an end. When the good are in the center of society and are in control, the bad also come under their influence and do better. When the spirit coming from heaven rules in man, the sensuality also comes under its influence and finds its due place. Heaven and earth are in contact and combine their effects. This gives a general - but tends to be temporary - period of bloom and prosperity.
In ancient Greece , the term “eirene” (ειρήνη) used until the 5th century BC. A static state of order, prosperity and calm. The goddess Eirene as personified peace was represented with the cornucopia , the symbol of wealth . The war was considered the normal state of affairs between the Greek poleis . Accordingly, times of peace were mostly described with terms such as “spondai” (σπονδαι), “synthekai” (συνθῆκαι) or “dialysis polemon” (διάλυσις πολέμων), which roughly meant “ armistice ”. It was not until the end of the Peloponnesian War that “eirene” was increasingly used in today's sense of the word “peace”. Peace treaties were now also referred to as "eirene" . Both are an indication that after decades of war the insight gained acceptance that peace is the normal state that is worth striving for. In the first half of the 4th century BC The idea of general peace , the "koiné eiréne" (κοινή ειρήνη), arose, which was supposed to establish a permanent peace order based on the autonomy and equal rights of the Greek states . However, it turned out that such an order could ultimately only be guaranteed by a strong hegemonic power .
The Romans used the Latin term "pax" (to conclude a treaty from pangere ) as a term for peace . A distinction was made between domestic and family peace, interstate peace and religious peace with the gods. Only peace on all three levels could guarantee a balanced life. The Pax Romana or Pax Augusta of the Roman Empire became the model for a far-reaching peace .
In Judaism , the Hebrew term shalom in the Bible (the Tanakh ) has the meanings "intactness", "to be safe", "to be safe", "happiness", "friendly to one another", "in peace". Shalom is the fruit of righteousness ( Isa 32:17 EU ). Shalom became a central word in Judaism and is the most common greeting among Jews and in today's Israel . The word is closely related to the Arabic “salam”.
Is in the Old Testament (OT) of the Hebrew "shalom" v. a. the moment of well-being, the Greek "eiränä" became the most widely used translation of "peace" with the main moment of rest. With Jesus Christ , the Prince of Peace promised in the OT (Isaiah 9: 5) appeared, who ended the enmity between God and man because Jesus Christ took the punishment for sin, death, as a substitute. God's justice creates real peace ( Rom 5,1 EU ). This peace can be used for the be human reality, which is know as a sinner and Jesus Christ as his savior and thus assumes personal peacemaker. Only this peace with God also enables peace among people. So peace does not come to all of humanity (e.g. at Christmas ) without human intervention , but it has to be brought about by people. When Jesus comes again , he will establish the kingdom of peace .
In the New Testament Jesus Christ uses the greeting Shalom , his disciples to welcome ( Jn 20,19 EU ), and gives them this greeting on the trip with ( Mt 10,12 EU ). The virtue of “peacefulness” in the sense of the ability and willingness to make peace can already be found in the Beatitudes of the Sermon on the Mount . A sign of peace or -kuss is part of all classical Christian liturgies . For Christians, peace has the meaning of the “shalom” from the Bible, the well-being of body, soul and spirit. In the Bible, peace is also a fruit of the Holy Spirit , who descends on people from God ( Pentecost ).
Augustine designed the salvation-historical model of two parallel realms, a divine "civitas Dei" and an earthly state, the "civitas terrena", which the latter was to achieve eternal peace at the end of time. For the present, however, he adopted the ancient idea of a just war .
In the Middle Ages, the idea of the feud as a means of enforcing law competed with various ideals of peace: the peace of God , the peace of the land and the peace of the king. Marsilius of Padua developed the need for an independent political peace task in the defensor pacis . With the Eternal Peace of Land of 1495, the abolition of medieval feudal rights was proclaimed under Maximilian I.
One of the most resolute advocates against war and for peace is the humanist Erasmus von Rotterdam , who in 1517 gave peace a “voice” with his work The Lamentation of Peace and especially in Adagia 3001 (The war seems sweet to the inexperienced) against the war madness.
As in the Semitic sister language Hebrew , the meaning of the word peace can be derived from three radicals. The radical Sin Lam Mim (S, L, M) form the root of the word. salâm: security, integrity, wholeness, peace (cf. Hebrew shalom) Salima: be sure, be whole, be complete, be free; preserve, keep away from damage, hand over intact, submit, agree, greet; Keep peace, (with somebody), make peace; leave, give up, surrender; reconcile with one another, make peace with one another
The idea of peace in modern times was largely shaped by the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, which ended the Thirty Years War . Hugo Grotius († 1645) coined the idea of an international law within Europe that should exclude the use of force between the various denominations as a decisive requirement . The legal and moral principles should acquire principled and generally respected validity, regardless of the respective religious convictions (“On the Law of War and Peace” 1625).
In 1651, Thomas Hobbes called for the " Leviathan " within the state to have equal rights for all citizens. The state needs an appropriate authority to protect this right against the privileges of the powerful (for example the nobility ) and against the violence of fanatics . He saw the basis for this in the human striving for security, self-preservation and independence from foreign arbitrariness . With this, Hobbes ideologically prepared the ground for the modern central state ; the dangers of misuse of state power that were also inherent in it were then most evident in the totalitarian excesses of the fascist and communist regimes .
"Act only according to the maxim by which you can also want it to become a general law"
According to the Marxist view, only the working class can eliminate the causes of war and bring about a social order "whose international principle will be peace, because the same principle prevails in every nation - work" ( Marx / Engels total edition, vol. 17, p. 7). Peace is thus a necessary consequence of social ownership of the means of production and the social relationships that go with it, while war is just as legally inherent in class society and used by the ruling classes to consolidate and expand their power. In class society, therefore, peace for the Marxist is merely a pause between wars, which - especially under imperialism - only serves to prepare the next war on the way to world domination not only militarily, but also morally and propagandistically , politically and economically .
The Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928 resulted in the first legally binding outlawing of (aggressive) war as a means of international politics . Did the First World War can be relined propaganda, with its rich intellectual support even as cleaning and finishing project of individuals and nations, led the Second World War - in addition to the NS - Holocaust - with the development and testing of the atomic bomb ( Hiroshima , Nagasaki ) already possible Self-destruction of mankind in a nuclear war drastically in view. The war as the “father of all things” ( Heraclitus ) in the history of the 20th century has thus proven to be the ultimate corruption of human morality and quality of life , which is also evidenced by the ongoing disputes over the use of nuclear weapons.
The peace movement of our time is not based solely on religious sources, but also gathers ecologically and philosophically motivated atheists under the banner of pacifism and behind the project: " Swords to Plowshares !"
Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), philosopher, mathematician, agnostic author and Nobel Prize laureate , intervened in the Cuba crisis in 1962 by telegrams to John F. Kennedy , Nikita Khrushchev , UN Secretary General U Thant and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan who stood the world on the brink of nuclear war . Khrushchev wrote Russell a long reply letter published by the TASS news agency , actually addressed to Kennedy and the Western world. And he gave in, which averted nuclear war.
At the same time, during the Cold War, the idea of an “atomic peace” emerged as the result of a balance of horrors : this peace is based on an extreme contradiction. The absolute weapon sustains it by virtue of the anticipation of its horror. At the same time, however, the destruction of everything implicit in this weapon means the absolute negation of peace. Atomic peace consists in the unity of these opposites, and its necessary condition is the maintenance of this extremely fragile unity. In other words, if the nuclear self-deterrence that sustains this peace fails, the conditions of all peace are destroyed. The destruction of everything that has been brought about absolutely rules out a return to peace. That is the novelty of this specific form of peace. The previous cycle of peace - war - peace will be canceled.
Since 2008, a special form of data collection has offered one way of determining the peacefulness of countries and regions. The so-called Global Peace Index combines various indices, for example the number of wars fought at home and abroad, the number of murders but also the military capabilities of the respective state, and tries to quantify the "peacefulness" with a view to individual countries. The graphic on the right shows how the scores achieved by the countries under review have changed between 2008 and 2014. Events such as the civil war in Syria in recent years are reflected in the data. Furthermore, with the decline in the engagement of NATO forces, Afghanistan has very quickly fallen into the last ten ranks. The Global Peace Index is thus a way of looking at the development of peace globally.
Dimensions of peace
Absence of war between states
Peace as a state of not being involved in armed conflicts is more the exception than the rule in the history of states and peoples. The idea of world peace is considered a utopia . Nevertheless, there are states that have not participated in wars since the 19th century.
- Sweden (1815 - to date): Sweden is still the country with the longest lasting peace. Since its invasion of Norway to enforce the personal union according to the Kiel Treaty , it has been able to maintain the peace.
- Switzerland (1848 - until today): By insisting on neutrality , Switzerland was able to maintain a long-lasting peace.
To commemorate the beginning of the Second World War on September 1, 1939, the World Day of Peace (also called Anti- War Day) has been celebrated in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1966 on the initiative of the DGB ; in the GDR this day already existed in the 1950s. For the Catholic Church in 1968 by Pope Paul VI said the January 1 to the "World Day of Peace," the United Nations commit since 1981 on September 21, the International Day of Peace ( International Day of Peace ).
As Cyber Peace the absence of any form of cyberwar referred. The term Cyberpeace takes into account the relatively new possibility of waging wars not only on water, on land, in the air and in space, but also in cyberspace .
Absence of turmoil, feuds and vigilante justice in one country
Already in pagan times there was the custom of the thing (s) peace among Germanic peoples and tribes . The Thing Peace commanded all those present, "out of respect for the gods, the spirits and the ancestors", not to openly settle any disputes during the thing , but either to request a decision from the thing or to let the dispute rest until after the thing. The market peace of markets such as the Send in Münster , a fair that was previously held on the occasion of the conference of the Sendgericht developed from the Thingfrieden .
In the Christian Middle Ages there were the institutions of the peace in the country , the peace of God and the peace of the king . In today's criminal offense of breach of the peace (punishable in Germany under Criminal Code ), the idea of a peace that needs to be protected has remained alive.
The state's monopoly of force
According to the prevailing doctrine, peace within a state should be protected by the state's monopoly of force . The latter is therefore entitled to prevent anyone from threatening and using force by threatening and punishing them. Only in cases of self-defense and emergency aid may violence be lawfully exercised by everyone.
, The monopoly appears the state only as legitimate if the state is a state of law is, where there is a separation of powers are where the Constitution modern laws are decided by the people themselves or by an elected parliament and in the executive and judicial branches of law and are bound by law. In addition, the state organs have an interest in preventing acts of vigilante justice by ensuring that legal peace is maintained in the country.
In practice, however, it is not possible to reliably prevent acts of violence carried out by private individuals; even in courtrooms and airplanes, private individuals can even use firearms.
Right to own, carry and use weapons
In Germany need people who are not of the state executive members, usually a gun license if they want to legally purchase a firearm or possess. There are also extensive legal regulations for other weapons (e.g. the ban on bringing weapons of all kinds into schools), which are intended to prevent the use of weapons from increasing the effect of physical violence.
Instrument of guarantee of peace
In Switzerland, according to Art. 66 of the Swiss Criminal Code, there is the possibility, at the request of the threatened person, of a person who has threatened to commit an offense or a crime , to promise that they will not carry out the act and to do so To stop performance with reasonable security. In Switzerland, this promise is called a peace guarantee.
Even in cities and in political communities , peace ( community peace ) can be disturbed. This is particularly true in cases where a directly elected mayor , whose term of office can last up to eight years, behaves in a way that many of his constituents do not accept, e.g. B.
- does not have his primary residence in the municipality,
- running for the office of mayor in another municipality,
- is too involved outside of the local area,
- is often not present at club celebrations, anniversaries and so on,
- identifies too strongly with the positions of a party and only tries to implement their positions.
Many municipal constitutions therefore provide for the possibility of early voting out of the mayor.
The editors of some official gazettes are required by the editorial statute not to publish contributions that “have a character that disrupts community peace”. This includes personal attacks, slurs and posts that violate applicable laws. Operators of communal facilities (such as town halls) are allowed to reject booking requests in order to maintain communal peace.
Religious peace, church peace and peace between religions
As a rule, the term religious peace does not refer to the state of peace between the world religions . Religious peace is rather a technical term used in historical studies to designate historical peace agreements between the Catholic and Protestant camps in the first century after the Reformation . Specifically, the Nuremberg religious peace of July 23, 1532 and the Augsburg imperial and religious peace of September 25, 1555 are mostly mentioned . The Augsburg High Peace Festival, which has been celebrated exclusively in the city of Augsburg on August 8th since 1650 (as part of a public holiday ), ties in with the tradition of the Augsburg imperial and religious peace .
The term church peace has several meanings. He describes
- the unity of the members or teachers of a church in matters of worship,
- the public security of places, people and things in worship (this peace was a peace of the place, which was therefore not only violated by violating the church and the objects belonging to it itself, but also by an outrage against persons who committed themselves to the holy, The spatial boundary of the pacified place was the church, the churchyard and a pacified perimeter of a certain number, e.g. 30 or 40 paces; depending on the size and importance of the church, it became more or more little high peace settled, which found expression in the amount of the peace penalty) and
- a papal rule that prescribed when and how Christian knights could fight.
Peace between religions
- “No peace among nations without peace among religions.
- There is no peace among religions without inter-religious dialogue.
- No interreligious dialogue without global ethical standards.
- No survival of our globe without a global ethos, a global ethic . "
As social peace are today predominantly circumstances referred to prevent it in one state to a " revolt of the underclass is" because their families mostly the extent of distribution injustice hold in that country intolerable. Maintaining “social peace” is one of the main tasks of the welfare state . Stefan Dietrich, however, doubts that a permanent "alimentation of the retired" by the welfare state would serve social peace.
Albrecht von Lucke understands "social peace" as "social integration, satisfaction in the population with democracy [...], through opportunities for advancement, with the opportunity to be active in society, both as a social and a political actor."
Industrial peace, industrial peace
The absence of labor disputes between social partners , in particular strikes and lockouts is called Operation Peace or (especially in Switzerland) as industrial peace called. The Works Constitution Act in Germany lays down rules according to which the legality of industrial disputes is measured.
The behaviors that count as “disturbances of the company peace” also include party-political activities by employees or entrepreneurs in the company, mobbing and other forms of socially undesirable behavior.
A "disturbance of the company peace" by an employee regularly leads to the dismissal of the disruptor as a "behavior-related reason for termination".
The term school peace has three different meanings:
- First, it denotes the absence of violence and ongoing serious conflict in a particular school .
- Second, it relates to a state of affairs in a particular country characterized by the fact that the long-standing educational policy dispute over the appropriate school structure and teaching in schools has been resolved.
- Thirdly, there is talk of school peace when the relationship between the school authority and those affected by school and lessons is not disturbed.
Peace in a particular school
The Federal Administrative Court defines school peace as a state of freedom from conflict and conflict management, which enables proper teaching so that the state educational mandate can be realized.
The following are rated as disturbances to peace at school (also by the courts):
- Disturbances in the constructive cooperation of all those involved in school life
- Use of violence and bullying
- the appeal to be able to obey the rules of one's own religion within the framework of religious freedom in the rooms of the school during class time (e.g. in the form that teachers insist on being allowed to wear a headscarf in class, or that students have their own premises to perform ritual prayers). An individual case was heard before the Federal Administrative Court and a decision was made on November 30, 2011. The Federal Administrative Court: The performance of prayers in the school finds its barrier in the maintenance of the school peace. A pupil is not entitled to say a prayer while attending school outside of class if this is specifically likely to disturb the peace at school. “The Federal Administrative Court decided ... for the plaintiff's specific case that, due to the conditions at the school he attended, performing prayer in the school hallway could increase an already existing danger to school peace. This means a state of conflict-free and conflict resolution that enables the proper course of instruction in the interests of realizing the state's educational mandate. The school peace can be impaired if a religiously motivated behavior of a student causes or exacerbates religious conflicts in the school. "
- In Bavaria , a school authority justified the transfer of a teacher in 2008 by stating that there was a "demonstrable and lasting disturbance of the peace at school" after the teacher at a primary school had recommended a "too high proportion" of students in her class to attend grammar school .
Consensus on school development in the state
An example of a school truce in the second meaning of the term is the “Consensus on School Development ” in Bremen , decided in December 2008. The SPD, the Greens, the CDU and the FDP in Bremen agreed not to take any initiatives for ten years , through which the measures for school structural reform decided in 2008 are to be substantially changed.
In Hamburg , however, the attempt by the parties supporting the black-green Senate to establish a school peace by including the SPD and the left failed through a successful referendum in which the majority of the voters voted against the introduction of a six-year elementary school in Hamburg. It is therefore a matter of dispute whether politicians can bring about a school peace without involving the affected citizens.
Efforts to school peace is also available in larger states .
Consensus on school development in a community, district or school association
Disruptions to peace at school can also result from resolutions by the school authorities of one or more schools in a region. Conflicts are often triggered by demographic change in an area, which is associated with declining student numbers, or changes in the behavior of parents with regard to the choice of secondary schools in countries in which the parents' will about the transition of a child to a lower secondary school is crucial. This concerns on the one hand the protection of existing schools, but on the other hand also the merging of schools of different school types and the establishment of new schools. Problems also arise when the number of pupils falls because pupils often have to travel further to school as a result of school closings. An example of a conflict that was triggered by the school authorities is the dispute over the allocation of students in the Rheingau-Taunus district in Hesse .
Peace at home, peace in the home, and peace at home
Respecting the human right to the inviolability of the home (protected in Germany by Article 13 of the Basic Law ) is also called home peace . The violation of house peace fulfills the criminal offense of trespassing (in Germany punishable according to Criminal Code ). A trespass can not only be committed by breaking into private apartments or houses without authorization, but also by unauthorized entry into other people's properties and publicly accessible facilities despite a house ban or by not leaving a facility although requested to do so has been.
In a figurative sense of the word, “trespassing” is also used when malware penetrates a computer. This process is often referred to as "digital trespassing".
The term house peace has a further meaning as an analogy to company peace : It is permissible for the landlord to terminate a tenant in an apartment building on the grounds that his misconduct is disturbing the peace in the house .
With domestic peace , the prosperous coexistence, in a household referred. A shared apartment may also count as such . Offenses committed by members of the household in which the victim of the offense lives are not prosecuted by special criminal law. Since rape and sexual assault in marriage have also become punishable in Germany, all provisions of the Criminal Code are in principle also applicable to cases of domestic violence. An exception is in German criminal law Criminal Code (house and family theft), according to which, for the sake of "domestic peace", theft or embezzlement of those who live in the same household as the victim is only prosecuted upon application. In 1982 "Spiegel" rated homework for schoolchildren as "trespassing" in the sense of disturbing domestic peace , as it is a constant source of harassment from parents (who are expected to help their children) and domestic unrest.
Family peace, peace between spouses or partners and between relatives is closely related to domestic peace , peace in the household or in the residential community . The family peace can come from within, i. H. be disturbed by members of the family concerned, but also from outside. In particular, claims against those liable for maintenance by persons who do not belong to their household or by the state are often viewed by defendants and their lawyers as a "disturbance of family peace", i. H. here specifically assessed as financial undermining of the current community.
According to a ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court, the wish of a son or daughter to have his or her parentage checked by the mother's husband is no longer considered an inadmissible disturbance of family peace even if the marriage is still in existence. However, the Nuremberg Higher Regional Court found that, in the interests of family peace, it might be necessary not to tell a young child that his social father was not his biological father.
In the interests of family peace, the German state tolerates the punishment of children by their legal guardians in the form of a waiver of prosecution, althoughstates: “Children have a right to a non-violent upbringing. Corporal punishments, emotional injuries and other degrading measures are not permitted. "
Peace between the sexes
Since September 1, 1999, there has been a serious breach of the peace by women in Sweden . The new legal norm of the breach of the peace of women was formed according to the terms of the house and land breach. When it was introduced, it was seen as necessary to e.g. B. Facilitate the prosecution of persistent domestic violence. As a result, the legal term “gross violation of the integrity of a woman”, or “breach of the peace” for short, describes repeated crimes committed by men against women with whom they have a close relationship. The individual acts, taken on their own, might not be prosecuted, but on the whole they are serious enough to be punished.
- Christmas Peace (First World War)
- Christmas Peace (Public Service)
- Christmas Peace (Scandinavia)
- Public peace
- CND symbol
- Dove of Peace : The dove is very often used to represent peace. Usually it carries an olive branch in its beak
- Olive branch / tree
- Rainbow flag with inscription PACE
- Peace bell as a memorial for peace
- Peace light
Different evaluations of quarrel and conflict
In 2008, Hans Grothe pleaded for an upbringing for peacefulness in the magazine Eltern : “Children have to experience or be shown that conflicts can be overcome without anger and without violence [...]. This includes patience and self-control. And once it has become routine to resolve conflicts together at the family table, soon no one thinks about arguments and outbursts of anger. ”In this article,“ peace ”and affects such as anger are perceived as irreconcilable opposites.
In 1922 the “revolutionary pacifist” Kurt Hiller fiercely opposed the goal of educating people to be peaceful. He took the view that a peacemaker is "a peaceful, meek, thoroughly indulgent, tolerant person [...], a never opposing, revolting, aggressive, even angry man, rather humble creature dripping with the honey of unity and all the ointments of unconditional human love", characterized by "lamb ethos" and "prayer virtue".
Also in the context of the activities of the German peace movement it was criticized in the 1980s that the word field “peace” in German had many questionable connotations that contribute more to resignation than to promoting the process of establishing peace.
Already Martin Luther had with the German translation of the Bible in the Beatitudes of the Sermon on the Mount not peacemakers but by peacemakers talked, a term less than guess at which one according to Fritz Pasierbsky of Combatants for Peace to people who "are left in peace “Want, so to avoid conflict. But peacemaking presupposes (also conflict-prone) activity and not inaction ("calm"). It is not about conflict avoidance, but about non-violent conflict resolution.
To the idea of peace was a synonym for "rest", disturbs critics, especially the proximity to the rest of Fried Justice. The idea suggests that man can only find peace in death that was denied him in life. The formula: “ rest in peace !” Creates a conceptual proximity of peace and “death”, while in reality it is war that brings death and peace that enables people to continue living. According to Pasierbsky, the task of the peace movement is to remove the connotation that peace implies avoidance of conflict and that only the principle of “war” stands for “life”.
The view that there can be no life without conflict is confirmed by philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . According to him, life or changes in general are only possible through enduring contradictions, through conflicting moments:
- “[...] Something is therefore alive, only insofar as it contains the contradiction in itself, namely this power is to grasp the contradiction in itself and to endure it. If, however, something that exists cannot in its positive determination at the same time overlap its negative, then it is not the living unity itself, not the ground, but perishes in the contradiction. "
Regarding the negative connotations of the term “peacefulness” it should be noted that the word component “skill” in the term refers to the pair of terms skills and abilities . Both terms are combined in the competence category . The ability to secure or bring about peace generally has no negative connotations.
- Jeremy Bentham : Principles for International Law and Peace , (1786/1789) trans. K. v. Raumer in: K. v. Raumer 1953, pp. 379-417.
- Émeric Crucé , The New Kineas, or Treatise on the Opportunities and Means of Establishing a General Peace of Commerce all over the world , transmission from “Thomas Willing Balch, Le Nouveau Cynée de Émeric Crucé. Réimpression du texte original de 1623 avec introduction et traduction anglaise, Philadelphia 1909 “by Walther Neft in: K. v. Raumer 1953 pp. 289-320.
- Johanna J. Danis : War and Crossed Peace, Triangulation of Opposites , Edition Psychosymbolik, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-925350-70-5 .
- Erasmus of Rotterdam : The Lamentation of Peace, which was rejected and suppressed by all peoples ( Querela Pacis undique gentium ejectae profligataeque ), 1517, first edition by Georg Spalatin, first German edition 1622.
- Sebastian Franck : The war Büchlin des frides. A war of love, against all fears, to get upset and nonsensical, with thorough investigation, with important causes, with thorough arguments of the Hailige Schrifft, old empties, councils, decrees, which Hayden writes and reasonably refutes , 1539 and 1st reprint by Cyriacus Jacob zum Bock, Frankfurt am Main 1550.
- Friedrich Gentz: About Eternal Peace , in: Historisches Journal , pp. 709–790, 1800.
- I Ching - The Book of Changes . Edition used here 1974, Eugen Diederichs Verlag Düsseldorf; Cologne. ISBN 3-424-00061-2 .
- Immanuel Kant : To Eternal Peace. A philosophical draft. Verlag Friedrich Nicolovius, Königsberg 1795 and as an increased edition there, Königsberg 1796.
- William Penn : An essay on the present and future peace of Europe through the creation of a European Reichstag, parliament or house of states, 1693 in: von Raumer 1953 pp. 321–342.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau : Excerpt from the plan of the Eternal Peace of the Abbé de Saint-Pierre (1756 to 1761) trans. v. Gertrud von Raumer in: K. v. Raumer 1953, pp. 343-368.
- Kurt von Raumer: Eternal Peace. Peace calls and peace plans since the Renaissance. Karl Alber Verlag, Freiburg 1953.
- Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker : Conditions of Peace . Goettingen 1964
- Andrea Cagan : Peace is possible. Prem Rawat - His life, his way. Albatros, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-85219-031-0 .
- Wolfgang Dietrich , Josefina Echavarría Alvarez, Norbert Koppensteiner (eds.): Key texts of peace research , Lit, Münster / Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9731-1 (Lit, Münster) / ISBN 3-7000-0502-4 (Lit, Vienna).
- Wolfgang Dietrich: Variations on the many peace. Writings of the UNESCO Chair for Peace Studies at the University of Innsbruck.
- Johan Galtung u. a .: New ways to peace. Conflicts from 45 years: diagnosis, prognosis, therapy . Bund für Soziale Defense 2003, ISBN 3-00-011703-2 .
- Hans-Werner Gensichen: World Religions and World Peace. Göttingen 1985
- Häberle, Peter : The "culture of peace" - subject of the universal constitutional theory. Or: The Principle of Peace , Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3428153251 .
- Alfred Hirsch, Pascal Delhom (ed.): Paths of thought of peace. Aporias and Perspectives. Alber, Freiburg / Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-495-48204-9 .
- Karlheinz Koppe: The Forgotten Peace. Ideas of peace from antiquity to the present . Opladen 2001. ISBN 3-8100-3099-6 .
- Norbert Koppensteiner: The Art of the Transpersonal Self; Transformation as Aesthetic and Energetic Practice. ATROPOS New York / Dresden 2009.
- Samrat Schmiem Kumar: Bhakti - the yoga of love. Trans-rational approaches TP Peace Studies ; (= Masters of Peace / 1) Lit, Münster, Vienna; 2010
- Terry Nardin: The Ethics of War and Peace : Religious and Secular Perspectives. The Ethikon Series in Comparative Ethics, Princeton University Press 1996.
- Terry Nardin: The Philosophy of War and Peace. in: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 9 (1998), pp. 684-691.
- Wolfgang Dietrich, Josefina Echavarría Alvarez, Gustavo Esteva, Daniela Ingruber, Norbert Koppensteiner (eds.): The Palgrave International Handbook of Peace Studies. A cultural perspective . London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2011
- Nigel Young (Ed.): The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. Oxford University Press, 2010
- Online bibliography Theology and Peace of the IThF - The online bibliography Theology and Peace of the Institute for Theology and Peace (IThF), Hamburg, contains approx. 148,000 subject-specific titles with detailed descriptors. Relevant literature from individual disciplines of theology and other sciences is taken into account for research on peace ethics
- Manifesto for a World of Peace, Love and Happiness (from Wikiversity)
- Working Group for Peace and Conflict Research (AFK)
- Center for Peace Research and Peace Education at the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
- Manifesto against conscription and the military system (trilingual)
- German Peace Council V.
- Duden | Peace, peace | Spelling, meaning, definition, synonyms, origin. In: www.duden.de. Retrieved March 27, 2016 .
- Part of this text was taken directly from the ancient commentary from the I Ching - The Book of Changes . In the edition used (see literature) pp. 62-63
- Wolfgang Scheler: The atomically armed peace as a form of militarism . Dresden Study Group on Security Policy (DSS) . Nuclear weapons and the future of humanity. Contributions to the 13th Dresden Symposium “For a Global Peace Order” . November 15, 2008, p. 35.
- Markus Beckedahl: Twelve demands on Cyberpeace - creating peace with computer science . Forum Computer Scientists for Peace and Social Responsibility (FIfF). October 2013
- Dietrich Meyer-Ebrecht: Warfare in Cyberspace . FIiF 2015
- Liberpaganum: Tag Thing peace
- Martin Kotynek : Violence in the courtroom. The judiciary is arming . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . November 13, 2009 ( Memento of the original from January 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Pistol taken on plane. Security margin at Frankfurt Airport . Rheinische Post . September 6, 2003 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Art. 66 Swiss Criminal Code
- Timm Kern: Why are mayors voted out? A study from Baden-Württemberg . Kohlhammer. 2008. p. 357
- Official Journal of the large district town of Leinfelden-Echterdingen. Editorial statute. Section 1: Basic understanding ( Memento from July 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 89 kB)
- Birenbach community: Usage regulations for the Birenbach community hall, Section 1, Paragraph 4, Clause 2 (PDF file; 60 kB)
- City of Augsburg: Peace and Religions ( Memento from September 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Johann Christoph Adelung: Grammatical-critical dictionary of the High German dialect . Leipzig. 1793
- Ernst Götzinger: Reallexicon of the German antiquities. Leipzig. 1885
- Hans Küng: No peace without peace of religions. On the role of religions after the 9/11 attacks in the United States. Reader's Digest . 11/2001, p. 12 ff. ( Memento of the original dated December 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Inge Kloepfer: Uprising of the lower class - what is to come. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 3-455-50052-8
- Stefan Dietrich: Trapped in the welfare state . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. October 19, 2006
- Nico Nissen: Social peace in Germany is at risk. Albrecht von Lucke on critical developments in the post-democratic age . heise.de. December 18, 2009
- Keyword:peace . www.kuendigung.de ( Memento from June 3, 2010 in the web archive archive.today )
- BVerwG judgment of November 30, 2011 - 6 C 20.10
- School law: violence against classmates justifies immediate exclusion from school
- Juraforum: Judgments by administrative courts on the subject of "school peace"
- OVG Berlin-Brandenburg, judgment of May 27, 2010 , Az. OVG 3 B 29.09, full text.
- Tagesspiegel: Controversy over religious freedom Quote: "Contrary to what many suspect, schools are not religion-free areas, even in the opinion of the OVG judges. The restriction is justified, however, because a" very concrete danger "for the school peace is to be encountered." The appeal was rejected; Yunus M. can still go to the Federal Constitutional Court and contest the verdict there.
- BVerwG, judgment of November 30, 2011 ( Memento of the original of January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Az. 6 C 20.10, full text
- Press release No. 106/2011 of the BVerwG
- Christian Bleher: Störerin des Schulfriedens: Critical Bavarian teacher transferred . taz . August 4, 2008
- punishment for good grades: Elementary school rebel receives Courage Prize , spiegel.de of June 4, 2009
- Eckhard Stengel: Bremen makes school peace . The daily mirror . January 5, 2009
- Bremen Consensus on School Development. (PDF; 17.8 kB) (No longer available online.) In: spd-land-bremen.de. December 19, 2008, archived from the original on June 25, 2016 ; Retrieved June 25, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kaija Kutter: Hamburg school reform - parties close school peace . taz . February 23, 2010
- Albrecht-Thaer-Gymnasium: Referendum successful! July 18, 2010 ( Memento from April 15, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Klaus Wallbaum: GEW suggests "school peace" . Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung . March 25, 2010
- Theo Schumacher: Education Summit: Red-Green in North Rhine-Westphalia is looking for peace at school . Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung . September 22, 2010
- State government of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Strategy of the state government to implement inclusion in the education system in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania by 2023 . May 2016, p. 12 (point 1.3)
- Oliver Bock: Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis: No school peace in Idsteiner Land . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . June 13, 2009
- Thomas Feil: Spying on data according to § 202a StGB / digital break-in - up to three years imprisonment . ChannelPartner (IDG Business Media GmbH). November 19, 2009
- Bernd Behr: Legal initiative against "digital trespassing" . heise online . March 12, 2016
- Homework is trespassing . Der Spiegel , issue 12/1982. March 22, 1982, pp. 56-73
- Klaus-Jürgen Tillmann: Learning support or "trespassing"? Homework from a parent's perspective . In: Schüler 2015: FamilienLeben . Velber. Friedrich-Verlag 2015, pp. 118ff.
- BVerfGE 79, 256 - Knowledge of one's own descent . Judgment of January 31, 1989
- paternity, taking blood from the mother . Higher Regional Court Nuremberg. January 3, 1996
- Manfred Heinrich: Parental Chastisement and Criminal Law . In: Journal for International Criminal Law Doctrine (ZIS) . Edition 5/2011. P. 437
- Elke Wittich: Peace to women! Rape in Sweden . jungle world. September 3, 2003
- The Swedish model women's peace ( memento from January 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 3.7 MB) by Sonja Plessl (as print: Zwischenwelt. Zeitschrift der Theodor Kramer Gesellschaft , 2011). The law reads: Anyone who obtains a casual sexual relationship in exchange for remuneration will - if the act is not punishable by a penalty under the Criminal Code - be fined or sentenced to a maximum of 6 months in prison for purchasing sexual services. The attempt is also punishable.
- Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth: Excerpt from the study "Effects of the Prostitution Act". Final report . Footnote 526 ( Memento of the original from February 17, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 459 kB)
- Learn from Austria . Die Zeit, April 1, 2004
- Howeducation can succeed. The theses of the expert Hans Grothe in the current issue of the ELTERN magazine . February 20, 2008
- Wolfram Beyer: What actually is pacifism? To clarify a political term ( memento from June 29, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ). German Peace Society / United War Resisters (DFG-VK), February 4, 2011
- Fritz Pasierbsky: War and Peace in Language. A linguistic text analysis. S. Fischer. Frankfurt am Main 1983, pp. 11-27. ISBN 3-596-26409-X
- Matthew 5: 9. Luther Bible. 1912
- G. W. F. Hegel: Science of Logic - The Doctrine of Being. (1813) p. 61, Meiner Verlag, 2nd edition