School development

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As a school development of systematic, targeted, self-reflective and for the formation processes of is students functional development process called towards a professionalization of school processes. A school development defined in this way serves to improve the quality of the school as an institution and of teaching . Schools, school networks and educational regions in the context of the entire educational system are subjects of school development .

Levels of school development

Actions that affect school development take place on five levels:

  1. direct interaction
  2. the school's internal trading associations
  3. the individual school as a unit of action
  4. schools as part of the education system
  5. the education system as part of the overall social system.

Levels one to three form the micro level, levels four and five the macro level of school development. Each level is - in ascending order - a subsystem of the level above. Subsystem should mean that the next higher system includes all processes of action below. Each of these levels represents a part of overall school activity that can be excluded for theory and practice. If school development is to be discussed and described, the second and third levels are basically meant.

The micro level of school development is interlinked with the macro level: Laws and decrees ( school law ) mark the development corridor of the school. Central tests and benchmarks are to be implemented operationally at the schools. External and internal evaluations need to be coordinated. At the end of this process, the schools coordinate themselves, with the risk of a limited “Balkanisation” of the school system.

The control of the process of school development by the school authority or the higher-level authority, e.g. B. by the districts , is also referred to as school development planning.

The Lower Saxony Ministry of Culture legitimizes the interplay of the levels as follows:

  • School in Lower Saxony remains state responsibility. This relates both to the right to set binding guidelines for educational goals in schools and to the state obligation to check that the schools have achieved the specified goals.
  • In this context, “personal responsibility” of the schools means that the schools themselves will take on much more responsibility than before for the quality of school education they have achieved and the process of quality and organizational development in all areas that affect their daily activities. But if schools are to take on responsibility, they also need freedom to make their own decisions.

In more recent approaches, a distinction is made between three levels of school development:

  1. the level of the ministries / school inspectorate (macro level)
  2. the level of the educational regions (intermedial level)
  3. the level of the individual school and individual networks (meso level).

Requirements of the state (of the federal government, but above all of the federal state concerned) are implemented autonomously by the levels below the macro level. An expansion of the autonomous school development corresponds to a denationalization of the school system. Self-evaluation instruments such as SEIS can be used as a database for school development .

In city-states, the municipal school development planning coincides with the school policy of the country together. There is also a framework development plan in the territorial states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

School development according to Rolff

Hans-Günter Rolff differentiates between three types of school development:

School development 1st order:
Conscious and systematic further development of individual schools (also known as everyday school development ).
Second order school development:
School development aimed at creating learning schools (i.e. schools that organize, reflect and control themselves) (also referred to as institutional school development ).
3rd order school development:
Creating framework conditions through which individual schools are supported in their development, self-coordination is encouraged, an evaluation system is set up and the schools are corrected at a distance (also referred to as complex school development ).

Often mentioned aspects of school development at the micro level are (according to Hans-Günter Rolff): Personnel development in schools , teaching development , team development , organizational development , mission statement and school program , as well as institutional learning (e.g. according to Peter M. Senge ), educational psychology and project management . In the context, the three core questions about the personal, teaching and organizational dimensions of school development arise repeatedly.

In recent years, Heinz Klippert (teaching development, methodological skills , etc.), Hans-Günter Rolff as well as publications from the field of general (see e.g. Herbert Gudjons ) and applied pedagogy have made essential contributions to modern school development :

“All schools develop because the environment, the students and the learning requirements change. When we talk about school development, we mean something more, namely the further development of schools and systematically. "(Rolff, 2000)

School development in terms of a theory of school improvement can almost regarded as own scientific discipline, because, without the context of education , due to their inevitable focus on practical requirements and restrictions by some uncontrollable sociological factors and unpredictable individual phenomena, extreme momentum developed which cannot do without specific means (e.g. an evaluative, 'pedagogical school diagnosis'). Observing, understanding, explaining or predicting quality assurance in schools and education turn out to be enormous challenges, networked in a complex system with unstable properties.

"Aspects" mentioned above are sensitive parameters of this system that are dependent on one another and have remained unexplored for a long time in practice due to their complex interaction and difficult accessibility. After a long time school development mainly with methods training , communication training was associated and team development (especially for Heinz Klippert, the case of the autonomous work stands out), she was in the tradition of progressive education and country school movement , with their school experiments such as the Odenwald School and the Schule Schloss Salem on, more the development of the personality of the student and especially of the teacher. The question of the personal, mainly psychological, demands on the teaching profession and the necessary self-reflective and empathic key competencies of the educators is increasingly being asked . Against the background of the implementation of Article 24 of the UN Disability Rights Convention , inclusion has been a newly themed perspective of school development for several years . It is about the willingness to open schools to the heterogeneity of a possible student body, especially for children and young people with disabilities, migrant backgrounds and from poverty.

Participatory school development

Participatory school development is understood to mean a long-term influence of the learners (but also other actors in the school) in different school and lesson development processes, which can relate to the internal organization of school matters as well as to the participation in extracurricular social and political tasks and challenges.


  • Bastian, Johannes: Introduction to Teaching Development Beltz Verlag, Weinheim, 2007, ISBN 978-3-407-25443-6 .
  • Gottfried Biewer : From the special school to the inclusive education system - the perspective of school development . In: Ulrich Heimlich, Joachim Kahlert (Ed.): Inclusion in school and teaching. 2nd edition, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2014, pp. 117–152 ISBN 978-3-17-025725-2 .
  • Joachim Bröcher: Didactic variations in school refusal and behavior problems. Impulses for school and teaching development. Volume 1: Relationship recordings. Volume 2: Life explorations. Volume 3: Change Processes. Publishing house BoD, Norderstedt, 2006.
  • Joachim Bröcher: Teach differently, go to school differently. Contributions to school and teaching development in the funding priority learning , Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg, 2007.
  • Edmund Kösel: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume III: The development of postmodern learning cultures. A plea for rebuilding the school, 2007. SD-Verlag Bahlingen
  • Hans-Günter Rolff u. a .: Manual school development - action concept for educational school development advice Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 2000, ISBN 3407252196 .
  • Hans-Günter Rolff: Studies on a theory of school development , Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 2007.
  • Guy Kempfert / Hans-Günter Rolff: Quality and Evaluation. A guide to educational quality management. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 2005, ISBN 3-407-25360-5 .
  • Gerald Sailmann: School networking - slogan or key concept of school development? WiKu-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-86553-114-8 .
  • Special issue theory . Journal for School Development . Edition 2/2008, ISSN  1029-2624 + Edition 3/2009: Critical events in school development.
  • Theresa Röhrich: Ways of School Development. On the theory and practice of learning schools , Julius Klinkhardt Verlag, Bad Heilbrunn, 2013, ISBN 978-3-7815-1893-3
  • Gernod Röken: Learning about democracy and democratic-participatory school development as a task for schools and school inspectors. Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster 2011, ISBN 978-3-8405-0039-8
  • Volker Reinhardt: Participatory school development. A contribution to democracy education and the evaluation of school culture , In: Wolfgang Beutel, Peter Fauser (Ed.): Democracy, learning quality and school development. Wochenschau Verlag 2009
  • Jörg Schlee: School development failed. The false promises of the educational reformers. Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3170208889 .

See also

Web links

On the theory of school development
Useful examples

Individual evidence

  1. a b v. a. Katharina Maag Merki: The architecture of a theory of school development . In: journal for school development 2/2008. Pp. 22-30.
  2. Claudia Hamm. Educational networks and school development - understanding the connection between the development of a school (school development as teaching, personnel and organizational development) (PDF file; 117 kB)
  3. Sketches for a theory of school development ( memento of the original from June 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 439 kB), p. 17. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. z. B. the ordinance on medium-term school development planning (MitSEPl-VO) of the state of Saxony-Anhalt ( memento of the original of March 19, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 52 kB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  5. Gottfried Biewer : From the special school to the inclusive education system - the perspective of school development . In: Ulrich Heimlich, Joachim Kahlert: Inclusion in school and teaching. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2014, pp. 117–152 ISBN 978-3-17-025725-2 .
  6. Volker Reinhardt: Participatory school development. A contribution to democracy education and the evaluation of school culture . In: Wolfgang Beutel, Peter Fauser (Hrsg.): Democracy, learning quality and school development . Wochenschau Verlag, Schwalbach / Ts. 2009, p. 127-150 .