The terms teaching method and teaching method are not used uniformly. They describe the teaching process, i.e. instruction and guidance that is used in teaching at school , in training , at the university and in adult education . The range of common meanings ranges from a pedagogical concept on which the teaching of an entire institution is based, to the teaching style of an individual teacher, to the social and working form in a certain phase of an individual lesson.
A distinction must be made between the teaching method and the learning method , in which the focus is on the learner.
Basics and related sciences
The pedagogical methodology and with it the appropriate choice of method are an essential part of lesson planning and practical lesson design. Successful teaching methods are based on the knowledge about the learning processes, i.e. on learning psychology , developmental psychology and didactics . Often they are developed on the basis of learning theories . Learning methods deal with how learning should be designed. They also play a major role in adult education.
From drill to action orientation
Drill (also known as "kettling", "buffalo" or "pumice") are considered out of date. Today, the focus of teaching is on the learners as subjects. The student-centered teaching is often the predominantly teacher-centered lessons preferred: Modern teaching but is characterized by the normal form of social integrative teaching , join the students and teachers in a cooperative communication. Depending on the age level, subject matter and learning objective, the other two teaching styles can also be used sensibly, in which either the students or the teacher determine the lesson more strongly. Examples of forms of communication in which an individual, teacher or student, comes to the fore when teaching is, for example, the lecture , the lecture or the presentation . Research-based teaching , open teaching , learning through teaching or free work are more characteristic of student activities. In project work , the coordinated community effort of teachers and students comes to the fore.
Teaching methods structure a topic to provide ideal conditions for learning. So they are the path of instruction. Teaching methods can be divided into macro and micro methods. Macro methods are used to structure an entire lesson or a teaching unit. It determines the preparation of the learning path. Examples of macro methods would be:
- the case analysis,
- the talkshow,
- the debate,
- the case principle (using the case study and case analysis methods )
- the simulation game or
- the expert survey.
Micro-methods, on the other hand, support individual phases of the lesson. These include:
- the teacher's lecture,
- Cartoons or
- the text analysis.
When using a method, a distinction should also be made between the social form in which it is carried out. Social forms are:
Challenges for the future
Due to the possibilities of information and communication media, teaching methods nowadays have to be additionally reconsidered and adapted to the new challenges. One example of this is the media didactic conception of the digital school desk .
- Horst Küppers, Hermann Schulz, Peter Thiesen: Errweg learning field conception in the teacher training. In small & large volume 12/2014, Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2014.
- Arthur Thömmes: Successfully complete the teaching units. 100 result-oriented methods for the secondary publishing house an der Ruhr, Mülheim 2006.
- Arthur Thömmes: Productive work phases. 100 methods for the secondary level Verlag an der Ruhr, Mülheim 2007.
- Peter Baumgartner: Taxonomy of teaching methods. Waxmann, Münster 2011, ISBN 978-3-8309-2546-0 .
- Sibylle Reinhardt, Dagmar Richter (Ed.): Political methodology. Cornelsen 2007.
- Sibylle Reinhardt: Political Didactics. 2nd edition, Cornelsen 2007.
- Siegfried Frech, Hans-Werner Kuhn, Peter Massing (eds.): Method training for political education I. 4th edition. Wochenschau Verlag 2010.
- Thomas Unruh, Susanne Petersen: Good teaching - tools for teachers and trainee teachers. 8th edition. AOL Publishing House , 2007.
- Ulrich Gutenberg: The digital school desk. Use computers as a thinking and learning aid. In: Computer + Studium Friedrich-Verlag. Special issue:, No. 50, p. 56/57, 2nd quarter 2003.
- Method case of the Federal Agency for Civic Education
- Constructive method pool - Kersten Reich
- Methods of Social Sciences
- Extensive collection of links on teaching and learning methods, teaching methods and forms of teaching
- Digital school desk - methods
- See: Hans-Werner Kuhn, Peter Massing: Methods and Political Lessons. In: Siegfried Frech, Hans-Werner Kuhn, Peter Massing (eds.): Method training for political education I. 4th edition. Wochenschau Verlag 2010, pp. 7–8.