The methodology (from the Greek methodikè téchne = the art of the path to something) in the field of pedagogy is the “science”, “art” or “teaching” of the paths to the goals that are specifically to be achieved in pedagogy. The word elements hodós = path and metá = towards something denote the close connection between path and goal, which characterizes the relationship between methodology and didactics.
The "primal scene" (Terhart 2009) of the methodology was described by Plato in the Menon dialogue , in which Socrates leads an uneducated slave to correct mathematical knowledge through skillful questions ( Maieutik ). The hour of birth of didactics and methodology, the first theoretical penetration of the communication problem, lies in the work of Comenius and Ratke in the Baroque period. With Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Johann Friedrich Herbart , elementary education received a methodical foundation that the Herbertians of the 19th century converted into a strict scheme of formal levels . In the 20th century, reform pedagogy tried to gain new freedoms for methods that were more suitable for children.
Didactics and methodology
Methodology is about how ,
Didactics of what .
Both the what and the how must be justifiable. In principle, the how results from the what , which is why methodology can also be understood as a sub-area of didactics. This also applies if the what is not subordinate to the how , but rather an interdependence with the Berlin model is seen.
Everyone learns in his or her own way. While one learner can store everything in the long-term memory while listening , another has to see it as well. Others, in turn, have to “grasp” it in the true sense of the word, i.e. touch it, in order to achieve the most sustainable learning effect possible. One speaks here of different input channels . There are different types of learners that the learning methods should take into account.
Methodology is a conception of conveying teaching content in such a way that it addresses as many input channels as possible of the learner. This is the only way to achieve a sustainable learning effect that persists beyond a short-term learning control (cf. multidimensional learning ).
According to Wolfgang Klafki, the following methodological planning steps should be carried out after the educational goals and content have been determined:
- Securing the organizational prerequisites for teaching
- Structure / grading of lessons in time segments or lesson phases , e.g. B. teaching entry , development, securing, also called forms of articulation
- Choice of forms of teaching, work, play, exercise or repetition
- Use of teaching and working materials, teaching media
Reflecting on teaching methods leads to
- general teaching principles (principle of clarity , student orientation , etc.)
- Recommendations for action and teaching techniques (e.g. from the known to the unknown, a change of method every quarter of an hour)
- theory-based and practically tested concepts (methods in the narrower sense)
The narrower term teaching method is used to separate the teaching method for a concept of wider scope in literature.
Teaching methods / organizational forms
Yet other classifications of methods arise if the external organization of learning is also considered:
- School (classroom, subject room, school garden ) and extracurricular learning locations such as museums , memorials , excursions .
- Internal and external differentiation .
- School integration and inclusion of students with learning difficulties.
Project teaching or the preliminary form of project-oriented teaching are methodologically demanding forms of teaching and learning with complex structures. These result from the interdisciplinary way of working. A project is carried out within a certain period of time, with start and end dates being specified. Projects deal with topics or activities that have high methodological and organizational requirements. In order to carry out a project, a structured organization is required that is tailored to the achievement of the project objective. The project is carried out by a project group in which a project management team is determined at the beginning of the project work, who will moderate the way to the sub-goals and the division of tasks.
Learning through teaching (LdL)
Learning through teaching is a teaching method (as a whole of theory and practical implementation instructions) in which pupils or students prepare and carry out the lessons themselves - with the help of the teacher. This method should not be confused with giving lectures or presentations, because when learning through teaching, the students must fully involve the class (incorporating partner work and student-activating techniques). The method must not be equated with the helper system (peer-teaching, tutoring) either, because while the helper system delegates responsibility entirely to the students, the teaching process is intensively monitored and supported by the teacher when learning through teaching. The assumption of the teaching duties by the students can concern individual lesson sequences or even longer units. With some teachers, the learners even take over the entire course from the first lesson to the end of the school year.
Multi-dimensional learning is a method of teaching in which, on the one hand, several learning dimensions of the student are activated and, on the other hand, several learning paths are linked with one another in a goal-oriented manner. For example, cognitive, sensory, motor, manual, etc. a. Talents in working on the same subject matter next to one another and with one another and enable each student to develop individual starting points for their learning. The teaching and learning method is a further development of "holistic learning", which uses the interdependencies of human dispositions. It is a demanding methodical approach that is mainly used for complex and complicated learning objectives and learning projects, for example in project-oriented teaching or project teaching . But even with more simply structured learning goals, multidimensional learning strives for greater student proximity and learning efficiency by taking into account the specific learning requirements and learning methods of the individual student and incorporating them into the learning processes. The learning objective can thus be achieved in various ways. The different learning methods also enable a more varied and sustainable processing of the learning material. Success with the method, however, requires the teacher to have a sound didactic training.
Programmed learning is a method of learning that is geared towards the most independent acquisition of the subject matter by the individual student. It goes back to the preparatory work of the learning psychologist BF Skinner . For this purpose, tasks are given that have to be completed in small steps and at an individual learning pace. A success check after each learning step enables the way to the next task. While in the 1960s and 1970s the programs led through the program mainly through paper picture boards, rows of pictures and questions, with the advent of the computer age, e-learning programs increasingly determined this form of learning. Learning programs are used both in theoretical subjects such as math or language classes and in physical activity subjects such as physical education. The traffic education works about the so-called Karlsruher 12-step program with which children under the care of adults as a sign of school readiness the first alone as an independent pedestrians in the road open.
Lessons can also be divided according to the social forms practiced , i. H. the nature of the interaction between those involved. Possible are individual work , the partners work , the group work and class discussion with all students. Special forms are:
In frontal teaching (also direct instruction ) the teacher dominates. The subject matter is cursory illustrated and conveyed as a teacher lecture and as a guided teaching discussion. In the frontal learning situation, it is assumed that everyone is learning the same content at the same time and in the same way. The learning process (including the work equipment) is centrally controlled by the teacher; they set the goals, structure the process, set the tasks and ensure the result; all attention is on them.
Chair / seat circle
The main concern of the chair group is to give the students the opportunity to participate. They should learn to recognize and understand social guidelines and have the opportunity to discuss things in the sitting circle. It has a dual function:
- Lessons are discussed in a group of chairs,
- Rules for peaceful dealings are laid down.
Procedure and history
In the circle of chairs, the children choose a group leader who should ensure that work-promoting behavior is strengthened and work-hindering behavior is eliminated. The teacher is available as the “last resort” because the children should try to resolve their problems themselves before they resort to his help. It is important that every group member takes the position of group leader once per school year in order to be confronted with the tasks and possible problem situations. The seat circle is an important form of organization. One advantage of this teaching method is that every child has the opportunity to comment. All children are equal and can look at each other when they speak. One problem is that the children can interact more easily with one another and can thus quickly be distracted from the topic.
The teacher should make sure that the tables and chairs are moved quickly and carefully. Its task is to build a circle without any blind spots. He must ensure that a moderator has been appointed and that the results are then saved.
themes and exercises
In the 1st class, the circle of seats is used as a method to give the children space for personal things. They should have the chance to present experiences from the weekend or problems in front of the class. In the sitting circle, work is also reflected on (strengths, weaknesses, suggestions for improvement) in order to strengthen the children's personality. The children not only present their work in a circle of chairs, but also learn to speak in front of a group, visualize content, summarize and try out feedback techniques. Not to forget that the seat circle is used to regulate organizational matters.
In the sitting circle, the children learn how to interact socially with one another. In order for social coexistence to function, certain regulations and agreements are required that can be easily negotiated in the chair group.
The circle of chairs is “the” seat form in the context of theme-centered interaction and the most common seat form in applied social group work.
The advantage of a chair circle is u. a. that everyone involved - and thus the group management as well as the group members - can see, perceive and communicate with each other at all times. This makes it easier for everyone involved to perceive whether someone has finished speaking, wants to say something, has been injured by statements or whether agreements have been violated. The “center” of the seat circle is not the individual, but the topic itself (see topic-centered interaction). The procedure is usually grassroots and enables the entire group to deal with the topic in depth, taking into account the diverse skills of all individual group members. The results developed in such a framework are usually much broader and more in-depth than would be possible with individual or silent work. In this way, the scope of learning of the individual is economically expanded and reflected in a short time by the experience and knowledge of the other group members.
The students also have the opportunity in the circle of chairs to reflect on their own actions and to control them to a certain extent. If moments of conflict arise, alternatives are found together, which can then also be logged. The participants learn communication skills, willingness to compromise and practice tolerant behavior.
Free quiet work
Free quiet work is a form of school work that reveals the individuality of the students. Through a suitable environment and self-education materials from all areas of life, the learners develop educational content independently. They are given the freedom to choose the work topic, partner, workplace and the form of the result. Working together in this form of work practices social behavior; doing one's own thing serves to activate thinking and personality development. Admitting to work out something yourself and to be able to decide or design things freely strengthens the students' personality. Independent work and action is also expressed in the choice of working method and the free time management. The urge for knowledge is very much promoted by this method.
Student competitions are tenders from companies, foundations, authorities and organizations, with the purpose of students participating in them according to certain criteria in order to later award the winner with a previously determined prize for the entry determined by a jury as the best submission. During processing, social and cooperative learning is realized. The teacher has to perform a comprehensive “competition management”. In particular, if an extracurricular sponsor is involved in the implementation of the “competition in the classroom”.
Teaching methods / forms of work
According to the content or the type of actions in the various social forms, Hilbert Meyer can also differentiate between action patterns , work forms or work techniques in class. This includes everyday school activities such as exercises , repetitions , illustration, etc. that cannot be assigned to specific social forms.
There are different ways of working in learning:
- Individual work
- Programmed lessons
- Class work
- House work
- Partner lessons
- Small group lessons
- Large group lessons
- Simulative processes as well as educational, art and sports games, role-playing games
- Teacher performance
- Student performance
- Questioning-developing teaching discussion
- Free class discussion
- Round table
- Team teaching
- Student competition
A classification of the teaching methods can be made here based on their interactive polarity. This involves the teacher, student, classmate, object, sponsor and medium. In methods of bipolar interaction, the student interacts with an issue or (learning) object. This includes points 1–4. In three-pole interaction methods, students communicate with each other and their classmates. This includes points 5–8. The methods of four-pole interaction mean an interaction between student, teacher, class and object. It comprises points 9–16. The penultimate method is the only five-pole teaching method in which several teams of teachers and students prepare the lesson and all other teaching methods listed above can be incorporated into the process. Method 18 is a holistic, integrating method, as it can use and combine parts of the micro, meso and macro methodology in an action-oriented manner. A six-pole interaction arises through the acquisition and cooperation of a sponsor for and in the implementation of the student competition.
Use of media in school
The use of media offers great potential for diversity. The most important medium in the school is still the school board and the panel . Popular media are electronic computer-based media, school films and school books , which often function as a secret curriculum . Media can be used individually, but there can also be an exchange with others, i.e. the encounter of joint work. This is what media education deals with .
Media in class
Media only convey an image of reality, but can also represent what the immediate experience no longer captures. This improves the quality of teaching and supports learning processes. In addition, the use of media increases the motivation of the students.
Among other things, the following areas of law must be observed when using media in schools:
- Law on Copyright : intellectual property of third parties must not be violated.
- Data protection law : data e.g. B. by parents and students may only be processed within the framework of what is permitted.
- State Treaty on Media Services.
- Law regulating the framework conditions for information and communication services.
Integrative media education
The integrative media education aims to promote the media competence of the learners, i. H. to consolidate the use of media in such a way that independent work with media is possible. The integrative approach encompasses all media.
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