Teacher training

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The village school, Jan Steen (1670)

The teacher training is the institutionalized guidance for the profession of teacher at universities and subsequent teaching practical preparation in different forms. In Germany this is the preparatory service , in other countries there are other ways.

The knowledge, behavior and skills teachers should have is a matter of controversy. It is closely related to the cultural conditions of school education.

In addition to the technical content, there are four minimal central areas in the training curricula:


In Germany, according to the Basic Law, teacher training is the responsibility of the federal states , which organize it differently within agreed limits. The constitutional requirement of freedom of movement and practical considerations enforce minimal agreement. The Conference of Ministers of Education defines principles for the mutual recognition of teacher training in all countries .

The teacher training usually takes place in two phases. The first phase consists of studying at a university or equivalent college or at a technical college (specialist teacher at vocational schools) or vocational training ( technical teacher at vocational schools). The second phase is followed by training at a study seminar or at a seminar school and a school in the desired training direction.

In addition, there are many other ways to acquire a teaching qualification due to the current shortage of teachers , e.g. B. as a career changer.

The teacher training together with the teacher training and further education form the teacher training .

Career training with university studies

According to the KMK agreement, there are special training courses for teaching posts for

In the past, teacher training courses were even more oriented towards the structured school system . The federal states have adjusted this in different ways.

The training usually includes studying two subjects at a university or teacher training college (only in Baden-Württemberg for elementary, secondary, secondary and special school teachers ), art college or sports college , the respective subject didactics , general educational science and some in different forms and weightings Areas of psychology (e.g. educational psychology , developmental psychology ). The main focus of teaching for grammar schools and vocational schools is on the technical part. In the case of the other teaching posts, the educational science component takes up a larger area.

The subject didactics can be integrated into the subject course because it is part of the discipline from an epistemological perspective. Many university disciplines still consider subject didactics to be the purely methodical teaching of school lessons, which does not correspond to the state of subject didactics and science. It can also be understood as part of pedagogy and organizationally assigned there.

Nationwide, all university teacher training has been designed in accordance with the requirements ( modularization , ECTS point system ) of the Bologna Agreement . The first state examination or a corresponding Master of Education degree ends the teaching degree at a scientific university. Foreign teaching qualifications from the European Union are generally to be recognized. The federal states have decided on different options for a degree: In some cases, the Bachelor of Education and Master of Education degrees have been introduced, in some cases the First State Examination has remained as the final examination (Bavaria, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony). The requirements for the duration of study for teaching posts for elementary, secondary and secondary schools also differ from at least seven to nine semesters. Conceptually, there is a conflict between more subject-oriented and subject-didactic-pedagogical courses in teacher training. Specifically, it is about the division of the hours of study, which is regulated differently in the federal states depending on the type of school.

In most countries, internships in schools are required during the course of study , and increasingly a whole semester of practical experience, which has long been the norm at teacher training colleges. This is now the consensus in the Conference of Ministers of Education in order to determine the professional qualification earlier than before. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania these are z. B. a social internship, an orientation internship (four weeks in a different school type than the chosen one) and a main internship (nine weeks in the chosen school type). The internship semester is partially considered to be an existing examination (e.g. in Baden-Württemberg).

In 2004, the Standing Conference adopted common standards for teacher training in the educational sciences (current version of May 16, 2019). They define the basic content, competencies and standards for the study regulations of the universities and the preparatory service. The main focus areas (p. 4f.) Are:

  • Education and upbringing: Establishing and reflecting on education and upbringing in institutional processes
  • Profession and role of teachers: professionalism; Occupational field as learning task; Dealing with job-related conflict and decision-making situations
  • Didactics and methodology : design of teaching and learning environments including the consideration of digital media and technologies
  • Learning, development and socialization: learning processes of children and young people inside and outside of school
  • Achievement and learning motivation: Motivational basics of learning, performance and competence development
  • Differentiation, integration and promotion: Diversity and heterogeneity as conditions for school and teaching
  • Diagnostics , assessment and advice: diagnosis and promotion of individual learning processes; Performance measurements and performance reviews
  • Communication: communication, interaction and conflict management as fundamental elements of teaching and educational activities
  • Media education: learning with and about media; Dealing with digital and analog media under conceptual, didactic and practical aspects as well as critical reflection from a technological, social and application-related perspective
  • School development: structure and history of the education system; Structures and development of the education system and development of the individual school
  • Educational research: goals and methods of educational research

Preparation service (legal clerkship)

This is followed by preparatory service (sometimes referred to as trainee teacher training ) in the study seminar and school , which is completed with the second state examination. The preparatory service should give the opportunity in the run-up to the professional exercise to develop a professional status in a field of advice from qualified trainers and at the same time to view it critically and reflexively. It is not just about practicing professional routines, but especially about learning to check them for their appropriateness, reasonableness, appropriateness and professional relevance. For teaching at vocational schools, previous internships or work experience are generally required for the vocational subjects. The professional qualification is only achieved once the preparatory service has been successfully completed, in the grammar school teaching post the Abitur examination authorization. With the second state examination in some federal states, the official title of " assessor of the teaching post" or study assessor is awarded if the employee continues to work.

The duration and thus the design of the second phase is currently being reformed. Due to the new practical semester during the studies, there is the opinion that the preparatory service should be limited to 18 months (exception in Bavaria with two years, for elementary school teaching in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania with one year from 2021).

Qualification of teacher trainers

The system of phase II, which is common in Germany, requires professional training staff for the preparatory service in the training seminars . This consists of full-time seminar leaders and specialist managers , who are often supplemented by part-time specialist managers and lecturers. Their appointment is made by the school authorities; there are no special training courses for this. At the schools, mentors accompany the trainee teachers, some of whom receive a credit hour for this. For the interests of the trainers occurs Bundesarbeitskreis Teacher Education (BAC) that the quarterly journal Seminar publishes. In the centers for teacher training , closer cooperation between the first phase and the second phase is sought.

Special education

For special school teachers, the training includes a specialist study of two special education subjects (Bavaria is one subject, the second is an optional additional qualification) at a university or teacher training college and possibly in two subjects . In addition, there are educational science components with different characteristics and weightings (e.g. general education for the disabled , general educational science and excerpts from psychology such as developmental psychology ).

In the case of special education, a distinction must be made between two training courses: “basic training” and “consecutive training”. In the basic training, the course is oriented towards the special educational activity from the start. Consecutive training, on the other hand, is an additional course that is connected to a successful course for a teaching post. Both forms have advantages and disadvantages, although the recent discussion with regard to efforts to integrate disabled people into mainstream schools seems to favor consecutive training, which, however, causes higher costs.

Practical problems of use

Teachers are initially trained for the corresponding school type and the subjects learned. However, it happens quite often that related subjects (e.g. history, social studies , geography) and, especially in subjects that are lacking, are taught in a different subject. Sometimes this is also done to prevent pedagogically unfavorable one-hour subjects for a teacher. The decisive factor is the teaching qualification acquired, not the subject studied. In the elementary schools, and often also in secondary schools and secondary schools, however, integrated lessons in a number of related subjects (social sciences, natural sciences) and thus also non-subject lessons by the teacher are now the rule.

Career training without a university degree

Teacher for professional practice

The teachers for specialist practice / technical teachers at vocational schools represent a separate group of teachers . This type of teacher is mainly used for specialist practical and, to a lesser extent, specialist theoretical lessons and therefore does not require an academic degree to acquire teaching qualification, but usually a master - or a technical degree in the respective subject. So teach z. B. Workshop teachers in industrial and technical schools, shorthand and word processing teachers in business and administration, home economics and handicraft teachers at home economics schools. The training, examination and career regulations for these teacher groups are very different in the individual countries. As a rule, the intermediate level of education and several years of professional experience, as well as the master craftsman or technician examination, are required as entry requirements. You also do a preparatory service in many countries. In some countries, civil servants are not hired.

Specialized teacher training in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria

In Baden-Württemberg there is the possibility of completing an apprenticeship as a specialist teacher for music-technical subjects without studying. The training takes place at so-called pedagogical seminars in Karlsruhe, Kirchheim / Teck and Schwäbisch Gmünd. Subjects are fine arts or music or sport and housekeeping / textile works with economics or technology with economics as well as pedagogy, pedagogical psychology, school law, information and communication technologies. The prerequisite is a secondary school diploma or technical college entrance qualification, vocational training or the completion of a vocational college of at least two years, one year of professional or company experience that is beneficial to the teaching profession and a passed entrance examination. The aptitude test consists of a part on general education and text work and a technical part in the form of a written and a practical test. As a rule, the appointment takes place in the civil service relationship on revocation as a subject teacher candidate. The preparatory service lasts two years. The training courses at the training schools take place in blocks, with the candidates increasingly teaching independently. Two weeks of the training course take place at a special school. The subject teachers can theoretically be employed at all types of schools, but mainly they are employed at elementary, secondary, secondary and community schools, and less often at special schools. There is a special specialist teacher training program for special schools. The graduates are hired as civil servants (official title subject teacher) with the option of promotion to subject senior teacher.

In Bavaria the training takes place at the state institutes for the training of specialist teachers in Augsburg or Bayreuth. The training must be completed in the subjects of communication technology, technical drawing, crafts and either art education or sports. The prerequisite is a middle school leaving certificate and a passed aptitude test. The training lasts three years at the seminar and another year at a school and is not remunerated.

Lateral and lateral entrants

The terms lateral entrant and lateral entrant are used differently depending on the country. In the event of a particular shortage of teachers, access to the teaching profession can be opened to other professional groups without a state examination or a master’s examination in educational science, limited in terms of time and subject.

History of teacher training

From the 18th century onwards, the new task of systematically teaching in schools was increasingly understood as a training mandate and was taken over by its own representatives and institutions. According to the distinction between lower and higher education, there were two groups of teachers with different characteristics. Until 1918, teacher training for grammar school teachers at universities and elementary school teachers at teachers' seminars was completely separate. Public discussions about reforms of teacher training always occurred in social crises, in Germany after 1918 and after 1945, and also in times of great social change with new opportunities for advancement, such as in the 1960s.

It was not until the Weimar Republic that the claim of the Weimar Constitution (Art. 143) brought about the academic training of elementary school teachers in Prussia and some other countries through the introduction of the Pedagogical Academies (from 1925). Bavaria and Württemberg did not follow this until after the Second World War. During the Nazi dictatorship , the pedagogical academies were abolished and replaced by the college for teacher training and in 1941 teacher training institutes .

After the Second World War, teacher training in West Germany remained separate between universities and newly established and standardized teacher training colleges . In connection with the educational expansion in the 1960s, training at universities of teacher education was upgraded. From the 1970s onwards, with the establishment of new universities, most teacher training colleges were integrated into the universities as part of higher education reforms. In Baden-Wuerttemberg, the six remaining universities of teacher education for primary school, secondary school, secondary school and special school teachers have been converted into equal, self-governing educational science centers with unrestricted doctorate and habilitation rights . Her scientific focus is teaching and learning research.

For a number of years, the University of Oldenburg and the University of Bremen ran the model test for single-phase teacher training (ELAB), which combined both parts. This was also the case in the education system of the GDR and led to graduation as a certified teacher . The KMK put these qualifications on an equal footing with the second state examination, i.e. That is, there is a corresponding classification in the public service.

In the GDR , teacher training for lower-level teachers (up to grade 4) took place at technical schools (entry requirement: secondary school leaving certificate). Until 1960 a distinction was made between middle school teachers (up to grade 8) and upper school teachers (grades 9 to 12) who had completed a corresponding university or college degree. From 1960 a distinction was made between upper level teachers with teaching qualifications up to grade 10 or 12. From June 1, 1971, there was a uniform qualification for upper level teachers ( diploma teachers ) up to grade 12 at universities of teacher education and universities (entrance requirement: Abitur), but no longer A distinction was made between school types ( POS or EOS ). In addition, diploma teachers at universities acquired the teaching qualification up to the pre-diploma (basic studies up to the fourth semester at a college or university). After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the West German structures of teacher training were transferred to those of the new federal states.

Attempts to orient teacher training in Germany - as is often the case internationally - not on school types but on the grades (“level teachers”) have only partially (e.g. in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bremen) and in broken form . Although there was a unanimous declaration of intent by the federal states with the "Frankenthal resolutions" of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (1970), this reform did not succeed. Structurally, it meant turning away from the grammar school teacher with work from grades 5 to 12/13, because the level teacher only works in secondary level I or II. In practice this is almost impossible to keep up. However, some voices attribute the failure to political reservations about the abolition of the structured school system that exists in Germany . Switching to other teaching posts usually requires appropriate academic performance, especially when changing levels. However, it is possible to switch to primary school, where there are currently many teachers lacking. Through integrative school forms (comprehensive schools), teaching posts are also used more flexibly, especially when there is a lack of teachers.

Efficiency and reform discussion

Effects of teacher training

From 1987 onwards, the US psychologist David C. Berliner differentiated between three stages in the personal development of a teacher: At the beginning there is the 'novice', who becomes a 'practitioner' or a 'veteran' after about five years in practice. Some particularly committed people develop into 'experts' through further reflection. The German educational scientist Jürgen Oelkers , however, points to the low empirical basis of effect claims from the training, which are also often very general over the overall effect, as well as to the (moreover questionable) self-assessment of the teachers, who only found minor effects on themselves.

In the USA, a study in which 1,450 schools took part was able to demonstrate a connection between the qualifications of teachers and the intelligence quotient of the children they teach. Even after the effects of other factors (such as poverty) were controlled, being taught by a less qualified teacher remained correlated with lower IQ scores in students. A study (2019) by Sabine Achour and Susanne Wagner (FU Berlin) has shown that there is a connection between the quality of education and the quality of teaching, especially for German political education.

Reform discussion

A lively public discussion about teacher training began around 2000, to which almost all social groups - employers and trade unions, associations, parties, journalists, etc. - made their interest-driven and often completely contradicting contributions.

In 2000, the KMK supported a model for the teaching profession and adopted uniform educational standards in 2004 for educational sciences and in 2008 for the subjects of teacher training that are binding for the universities providing training. Because the aggressive poaching of teachers from other countries was rampant, the "Stralsund Declaration" in 2009 stated that every federal state must create a training capacity that meets the needs. Nevertheless, the shortage of teachers increased considerably afterwards, because the countries mostly failed to comply with it out of thrift. High dropout rates also create a gap.

The still confusing discussion unites several strands:

  1. A more educational line endeavors to take into account diverse social changes (media, migration, violence, inclusion, women at work, understanding of health, etc.) in the training requirements through more practical relevance. This goes hand in hand with an upgrading of those working in schools who are not teachers. The aim is to have multi-professional teams who also work on the success of educational processes in addition to teaching.
  2. By contrast, the comparative studies by John Hattie have strengthened the importance of the teacher for teaching as the “core business of the school”. In contrast, many supposedly beneficial innovations such as group work have been shown to have little effect on learning success.
  3. An economic line, especially in the OECD , compares investment and success with one another (see e.g. the debate in connection with the PISA studies ). School success and high-quality qualifications are considered the key to economic competitiveness.
  4. In the European context, the “ Bologna Process ” pushed all courses and universities to switch to Bachelor and Master courses, with the Master’s degree being on an equal footing with the previous First State Examination. There are no satisfactory answers to the question of what a “Bachelor of Education” in Germany who is not admitted to a Master’s degree should do with its degree. Some federal states have therefore stayed with the state examination (Bavaria, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony).

There are also efforts at the European level. In 2007 the European Commission sent recommendations to the Council and the European Parliament to improve the quality of teacher training .

Increasingly, in addition to providing basic knowledge, teachers are also required to help young people become fully autonomous learners by acquiring key skills rather than memorizing information; Teachers are expected to develop more cooperative and constructive learning concepts and to be more mediators and class managers than "ex-cathedra trainers". These new roles require education and training in different teaching concepts and styles. In addition, a more heterogeneous mixture of young people of different origins and with different abilities and deficits is gathered in a classroom today. Teachers are required to take advantage of the opportunities offered by new technologies and meet the need for individualized learning. Due to the greater autonomy of schools, it may also be that they are more involved in decision-making processes and have to take on management tasks. ( Improving the quality of teacher training , I.3)

A report by experts from 26 countries, Supporting Teacher Educators for better learning outcomes, followed in 2012 . It contains recommendations for reform. Leading role was u. a. the Austrian educational researcher Michael Schratz .


Post-university training for grammar school teachers takes place in Austria in a one-year teaching internship accompanied by mentors . Since the Higher Education Act 2005 came into force at the beginning of the 2007/2008 academic year, primary and secondary school teachers have been trained at universities of teacher education and are employed after six to seven semesters with a Bachelor of Education degree. According to a further reform in 2013, they will be required to complete an extra-occupational master's degree. Not only teacher training students at the PH, but also at universities have to go through an aptitude and admissions process over a semester. With structured interviews, simulation tasks, written tests and early practical experience in school, the aim is to find out whether an interested party has important characteristics for the teaching profession (motivation, contact and communication skills, psychological resilience, etc.). When the first graduates came to the schools in 2019, there were too few instructors.


In Switzerland, the majority of teachers for all school levels are trained at universities of teacher education. The courses of study are professional and lead to a teaching diploma. It is recognized throughout Switzerland as long as it meets the requirements of the EDK's diploma recognition law . This is responsible for the nationwide recognition of teaching diplomas for the compulsory school and the general education schools of the upper secondary level (high school maturity schools and specialized middle schools ). With an apprenticeship qualification there is access to the apprenticeship in all cantons.


For a long time, teacher training was regulated by the Education Act of 1944, but in 1988 an Education Reform Act was passed by the Conservative government with Education Minister Kenneth Baker . This initiated a bundle of measures: the introduction of a national curriculum , which has since been revised several times , the constant testing of school performance at the age of 7, 11, 14 and 16 years, the loss of supervisory rights of local authorities, instead the introduction of the national school inspection and finally the control on the recruitment and standardization of teacher training. One motive of the conservative government was also the accusation that educational freedom in schools was being exploited too far left ideologically or misused for wrong focuses. In summary, one can speak of economization, centralization and standardization.

Teachers study at universities or colleges of education . Two forms are offered, the two-phase with a three-year specialist course and one year for the Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE), as well as the single-phase for Bachelor and Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), in which the technical and educational studies as well the practical parts are next to each other. The accreditation was first with the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE), since 1994 with the Teacher Training Agency (TTA), since 2018 with the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency . In the process, educational components have been cut for elementary school. The practical share has been increased with the result that the responsibility for examinations has also passed to the implementing schools. The teaching skills have been more clearly defined and are being trained, which has resulted in a strong focus on billable results. One accusation, however, is that the lessons are being shortened to pure " teaching for the test" . New ways of recruiting teachers without a pedagogical degree are intended to remedy the teacher shortage.

The details of the regulations and authorities in Wales and Northern Ireland are slightly different. The greatest variation is in Scotland .


Before admission to the teacher training course, there is an entrance examination, which requires an excess of applicants. Only one of six applicants for the teaching profession is admitted. A differentiated admission procedure, which also includes a form of assessment center, is decisive. The training of teachers in kindergarten takes place at eight universities in the form of a master’s degree. Depending on the degree, the educational science courses have a different duration and different content focuses: Studies for educators, for so-called comprehensive school class teachers in grades 1 - 6, for so-called comprehensive school teachers in grades 7 - 9 or for high school teachers . In addition, there are special and postgraduate courses for teachers who take part in special educational measures or for school principals. Pedagogical and social science content play a predominant role in every teaching degree from the outset.


In France, teachers only teach one subject that must be taken for 5 years of study (with a Master’s 2) before taking the entrance examination for teaching:

  • Prospective primary school teachers take the CRPE ( concours de recrutement de professeurs des écoles ) and can then teach at the Ècole maternelle and the École élémentaire.
  • For secondary schools ( collège , lycée ) the CAPES ( certificat d'aptitude au professorat de l'enseignement du second degré) must be passed. It does not entitle you to a teaching post in Germany because it does not have two subjects.
  • The highest form is the agrégation , which is even more demanding and selective than CAPES, but leads to better opportunities for advancement and a higher salary. The graduates can take on the preparatory courses for the elite universities (the so-called Classes préparatoires ) and the lessons to prepare for a BTS ( brevet de technicien supérieur ).

Since 2013, the MEEF ( métiers de l'enseignement, de l'éducation et de la formation ) master's courses have enabled future teachers to train for the ESPE ( Écoles supérieures du professorat et de l'éducation ). Here, pedagogical approaches and not just technical skills are to be taught. In the first year of the master’s degree M1, an internship is completed in which the student is primarily supposed to observe the lessons, but is also allowed to teach under supervision.

United States

In the mid-1980s, an intense debate about better teacher education began in the USA on the basis of several critical reports: On the one hand, the report of the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy (1985) warned of economic decline due to insufficient school performance. One key to improvement is teacher training according to the standards of economization, professionalization and, above all, standardization. Second, there were three reports from the Holmes Group , a broad group of leading educationalists and deans: The first ( Tomorrow's Teacher , 1986) similarly stated that better teachers and more standardization were necessary. The second Tomorrow's Schools (1990) suggested special Professional Development Schools (PDS) for better teacher training. The third ( Tomorrow's Schools of Education , 1995) called for comprehensive reforms of teacher training with new curricula, better students and more targeted training in universities to address the problems to come. As a result, a National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was created as early as 1987 . Nevertheless, it was not possible to create a broadly recognized core curriculum with the confirmed results of the educational sciences. The regional or local peculiarities were also pointed out against the standardization. Some advocates of greater standardization have turned to critics of an overly technological approach to education, says Diane Ravitch .

See also

Portal: Education  - Overview of Wikipedia content on education


  • András Nemeth, Ehrenhard Skiera (ed.): Teacher training in Europe. History, structure and reform , Lang, Frankfurt / M. 2012 ISBN 978-3631624548
  • Monika Fiegert, Ingrid Kunze (Hrsg.): Between teacher training and teacher training: Texts on the history, present and future of teacher training in Osnabrück . LIT, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-8456-2 .
  • Ulrich Bongertmann, Ralph Erbar , Niko Lamprecht, Frank Schweppenstette, Sylvia Semmet: Guide to legal clerkship in history . Wochenschau-Verlag, Schwalbach / Ts. 2017, ISBN 978-3-7344-0445-0 .

Web links

Individual evidence

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  2. KMK information document, 2002 (PDF file; 1.07 MB)
  3. ^ KMK: Recognition of qualifications. Retrieved November 5, 2018 .
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  6. Tamara Massar: Training as a specialist teacher for specialist practice. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
  7. Susanne Jung: Specialist teacher of music and technical subjects. February 25, 2015, accessed July 16, 2020 .
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  10. ^ Martin Fitzel: PH BW: PH BW. Retrieved November 5, 2018 (German).
  11. ^ University of Oldenburg (ed.): Data on history 1970-1980 . ( uol.de [accessed June 29, 2020]).
  12. ^ Klaus-Dieter Stamm, key words from A to Z on education, youth and society in the GDR E-Book 2010 Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt ISBN 978-3-7322-0604-9 .
  13. Jörn Schützenmeister: Professionalization and polyvalence in teacher training . Tectum Verlag DE, 2002, ISBN 978-3-8288-8406-9 ( google.de [accessed on June 29, 2020]).
  14. Single-phase or two-phase? Retrieved June 29, 2020 .
  15. N. Gage, DC Berliner: Pedagogical Psychology . 5th edition. 1996, ISBN 978-3-621-27311-4 .
  16. Fritz Oser , Jürgen Oelkers (Ed.): The effectiveness of teacher training systems. From all-round training to professional standards . Rüegger, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-7253-0692-3
  17. Jürgen Oelkers (1997): Efficiency and Evaluation in Teacher Training
  18. ^ David G. Myers : Psychology . Worth Publishers, 2010, pp. 403 .
  19. ^ Political education in schools. Retrieved June 29, 2020 .
  20. Tasks of the teacher (PDF file; 59 kB)
  21. Standards for educational sciences (PDF file; 69 kB)
  22. Overview of the specialist profiles of teacher training. (PDF) Standing Conference (KMK), accessed on November 5, 2018 .
  23. Ewald Terhart: The teacher training and its reform: status, problems, perspectives . In: BAK (ed.): Seminar . No. 2 , 2018, p. 103-114 .
  24. http://www.studienwahl.de/index.aspx?e1=4&e2=2&e3=1&e4=0&e5=0&e6=0&tn=0 Official information from the Conference of Ministers of Education
  25. Study Guide Teacher Training: Profession of teacher. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
  26. EUR-Lex - 52007DC0392 - EN - EUR-Lex. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
  27. [https://www.id-e-berlin.de/files/2017/09/TWG-Text-on-Teacher-Educators.pdf PDF, European Commission 2012]
  28. Kilian Kirchgessner: This is how the neighbor does it. Teacher training in Austria. In: The time. 2008, accessed July 17, 2020 .
  29. The new teacher training explained. April 5, 2013, accessed July 17, 2020 .
  30. Fear of chaos surrounding new teacher training. Retrieved July 17, 2020 .
  31. www.edk.ch - Become a teacher. Retrieved July 15, 2020 .
  32. Lucien Criblez: The reform of teacher training in England and America . In: Journal for Pedagogy . tape 44 , no. 1 , 1998, p. 41–60 , urn : nbn: de: 0111-opus-68047 .
  33. Susmita Arp, DER SPIEGEL: What Finnish teachers do better than German teachers - DER SPIEGEL - Panorama. Retrieved July 17, 2020 .
  34. Strict selection process for teacher training. In: The German School Portal. October 25, 2018, accessed on July 17, 2020 (German).
  35. ^ Jan Böhm: Teacher training in Finland . In: Böhm, Jan, Stütz, Roswitha (Hrsg.): Diversity in education. International comparison of teacher training and pedagogical practice. transcript, Bielefeld 2016, p. 77-110 (org / 10.14361 / 9783839432914 [accessed July 17, 2020]).
  36. Former Institut universitaire de formation des maîtres
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  38. ^ Origins of the Holmes Partnership. Retrieved July 17, 2020 .
  39. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED399220.pdf
  40. ^ Judith Lanier: The Holmes Partnership Trilogy . Lang, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8204-8833-2 .
  41. Lucien Criblez : The reform of teacher training in England and America, in: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 44 (1998) 1, pp. 41-60 PDF

Web links