College of teacher training

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The College for Teacher Education (HfL) was the state institution for the training of elementary school teachers in National Socialist Germany from 1933 to 1942 .


After eight of 15 Prussian educational academies , which had only been established in the Weimar Republic since 1925, had been closed for cost reasons ( Altona , Breslau , Cottbus , Erfurt , Frankfurt (Oder) , Hanover , Kassel , Stettin ), the new one began Prussian Minister of Education Bernhard Rust with the renaming on May 6, 1933 (with effect from May 1, 1933) to convert the remaining ones into "Universities for Teacher Training". Some of the closed ones were reopened in 1934, with cleaned staff, for example in Cottbus, Frankfurt (Oder) and Hanover. In addition, on June 24, 1933, in the border area with Poland, in Lauenburg (East Pomerania), Rust inaugurated the first “land-based college for teacher training in Lauenburg ”, where future teachers as “SA leaders of German national education” with the greatest affinity for the people and the soil and with racial studies should be trained. In some cases, he had the HfL relocated from large cities to rural regions, for example from Frankfurt am Main to Weilburg and from Halle an der Saale to Hirschberg in the Silesian border area. The designation as a university initially met with unsuccessful resistance from the Ministry of Finance, as higher salary claims threatened to be derived from it. As Reich Education Minister , from 1934 onwards, Rust ensured that teacher training outside Prussia had to take place across the whole of the HfL for the first time. In September 1935 z. For example, the state of Mecklenburg converted its “Pedagogical Institute” Rostock to the HfL, Hamburg followed in 1936, and the HfL Darmstadt was established in the state of Hesse . In Bavaria , in addition to Bayreuth and Würzburg, the " Hans Schemm University for Teacher Education" was founded in Munich-Pasing , and the Karlsruhe HfL in Baden in 1936. In Saxony , the ties between the educational institutes and universities were broken and HfL was founded in Dresden and Leipzig, most recently in Thuringia in 1937 , where the “Jena Pedagogical Institute” only kept its name. In Braunschweig in 1937 was the Bernhard-Rust College of Teacher Education in a demanding new building. Seven new HfL were opened in 1936: in Schneidemühl , in Oldenburg (Oldb.) , In Trier , Saarbrücken , Würzburg , Bayreuth and Karlsruhe.

In 1938 there were 28 institutions with this name across the Reich, most of them co-educational , but also separately for men and women ( Hanover , Koblenz , Schneidemühl ). The lecturers were usually post- doctoral teachers who were appointed with the title of professor . These had already been "cleaned up" since 1933. Faculty and students were largely organized in National Socialist associations. Future high school teachers should also study their first year at the HfL.

On March 8, 1936, Rust published “Guidelines for Activities and Studies at the HfL”, which were intended to place education under National Socialism on a new basis through teacher training . They regulated the "political and physical education", the focus on the "way of life and thinking of all classes of the people", the scientific and practical training. These included educational science , character and youth studies , heredity and race theory , folklore , general and special teaching theory . The German customer played a prominent role. There were country school internships during the holidays.


The attractiveness of this still academic training remained low on the declining high school graduates who saw greater career opportunities in other courses. The number of enrollments fell until 1939. Nazi politicians such as Martin Bormann , Joseph Goebbels and others. a. considered a degree for elementary school teachers superfluous and brought about the transition to teacher training institutes (LBA) from 1938 . As a first step, “state advanced training courses” for elementary and middle school students were set up in rural regions to lead to teacher training. With the outbreak of war in 1939, new gaps were opened, against which radical shortening of the training period should help. For example, from 1941 onwards, only three months of training were sufficient for “school assistants” to work, e.g. B. in the conquered areas. By March 31, 1942 at the latest, the HfL were dissolved and replaced without exception by LBA.


  • Ulrike Gutzmann: From the college for teacher training to the teacher training institute. The new regulation of primary school teacher training in the time of National Socialism and its implementation in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg , Düsseldorf 2000
  • Joachim Kuropka : National Socialism and Teacher Training Online
  • Hermann Langer: On the training of Mecklenburg's elementary school teachers under the swastika (1932–1945), in: Zeitgeschichte regional 1/2012, pp. 74–85
  • Karl Dienst: Between science and church politics: on the importance of university theology for the identity of a regional church in the past and present , Lang, Frankfurt am M. 2009 (on Hesse)