Advanced high school

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Former extended secondary school "Bertolt Brecht" (today Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium) Schwarzenberg ; Recording from 2006

The Extended Oberschule (abbreviation EOS [ ˌeːoːˈɛs ], officially "Extended general polytechnic high school" or "12-class general polytechnic high school") was the higher school in the school system of the GDR and led to the university entrance qualification after the twelfth grade . Conceptually, it was a four-year community school with no internal or external differentiation, so that the class group was retained until the final examination. With the “Law on the Socialist Development of Schools in the German Democratic Republic” of December 2, 1959, the EOS replaced the previous “Oberschule”. The term “ grammar school ” did not exist in the GDR.

Structure and transitions

The Extended Oberschule, like the Polytechnische Oberschule (POS), was designed by Alfred Lemmnitz , Minister for Public Education from 1958 to 1963, after his departure from the middle school system. It comprised three branches, the A branch as a modern language specialization for 3 modern foreign languages, the B branch as a mathematical and scientific specialization and the C branch as an ancient language specialization with classical Latin and ancient Greek as foreign languages. The first curriculum was created in 1960 and became binding in the school year 1961/62. The transition from the POS to the EOS initially took place exclusively after the 8th grade. Until 1968, the students of the EOS did not take a ten-year certificate , so in the event of early leaving the EOS, the student only received the certificate of the 8th grade.

In 1963 efforts began to redesign the curriculum in accordance with the guidelines of the scientific nature of general education. In particular, the then deputy minister for popular education, Margot Honecker , did not agree with the division into the three branches and urged a conversion based on the principles of turning away from the middle-class grammar school, building the ten-year school for everyone, uniformity of general education and a ten-year graduation after class 10.

For a number of years since 1962, attending EOS was coupled with vocational training . The pupils of the EOS started an apprenticeship at the same time, depending on the local conditions in a company, a cooperative or an administration, and during the four years of school they simultaneously acquired the Abitur and a specialist certificate . Three quarters of the time expended was divided between school and a quarter between vocational training (vocational school and practical training). The vocational school was able to do without general subjects. From 1965, the EOS students with vocational training received a low monthly apprenticeship allowance in order to reduce the financial gap to normal apprentices. It was 40 marks in the 9th grade , 50 marks in the 10th grade, 60 marks in the 11th grade and 70 marks in the 12th grade. Apprentices who completed vocational training with a high school diploma in companies, however, received full apprenticeship allowance.

With the next reform of the school system in 1967, the parallel vocational training at the EOS was taken out of the program and only continued in special vocational training classes at the training companies that lead to the Abitur. Regular POS curriculum was now taught in grades nine and ten, and an exam was taken after grade 10 and the POS completed. These two grade levels were now called preparatory classes. This adaptation should take away the ultimate character of the decision for an educational path and make the subsequent change in both directions easier. From 1969, the transition to EOS was possible for particularly qualified graduates of the Polytechnic Oberschule even after the 10th grade; from the mid-1970s it was only practiced regularly for graduates from sports schools ( KJS ), schools with extended Russian lessons and other special schools.

In 1981 the last class of students came to EOS after completing the 8th grade. From 1984 the future high school graduates only switched to the EOS after completing the 10th class of the POS and only attended it for two years, with the exception of special schools and classes.

Since 1981 pupils in the 11th and 12th grades of the EOS received a monthly training allowance of 100 marks in the 11th and 150 marks in the 12th grade in order to bring their financial situation into line with that of the apprentices . Previously, this training allowance was granted at a lower level and only on application if the family income was low.

Timetable for the EOS

Classes took place from Monday to Saturday noon. The vacation dates were the same as those of the polytechnic high schools, whereby the vacation periods u. a. had to be used for production assignments or internships and for project work. The GDR suffered from a shortage of skilled workers and teachers right up to the end, so that bottlenecks in capacities and school network planning in some places led to above-planned class frequencies.

Transitional timetable for the expanded twelve-class general polytechnic secondary school in 1959

With the transition period table for the expanded twelve-class general polytechnic high school in 1959, the era of the high school ended, and the extended 12-class general polytechnic high school took its place . Although parallels can be seen between the higher education institutions, for example the identical school structure, the extended secondary school can be rated as a major change due to measures such as polytechnology or a new curriculum.

A branch B branch C branch
School subject or grade level 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12
German language and literature 5 4th 4th 4th 5 4th 4th 4th 5 4th 4th 3
Russian 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2. Foreign language 5 4th 5 4th 2 3 3 3 6th 4th 4th 4th
3. Foreign language - 4th 4th 4th - - - - - 4th 8th 7th
mathematics 3 3 3 3 5 4th 6th 5 3 3 3 3
physics 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
chemistry 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2
biology 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2
Geography 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 - -
astronomy - - - - - - - - - - - -
Technical drawing 1 1 - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - -
UTP and ESP 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th
history 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3
Citizenship 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
To draw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
music 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
do gymnastics 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Mandatory weekly hours 35 37 36 37 36 36 37 37 36 37 38 38

Timetable for the expanded 12-class general polytechnic secondary school in 1961

according to the instruction on the lesson tables of the general education schools of the GDR from May 4, 1959

A branch B branch C branch
School subject or grade level 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12
German language and literature 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 5 4th 3 4th
Russian 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2. Foreign language 5 4th 4th 4th 3 3 3 3 6th 4th 4th 4th
3. Foreign language - 4th 5 5 - - - - - 6th 6th 7th
mathematics 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 4th 3 3 3 3
physics 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1
chemistry 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 1 2 1
biology 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 -
Geography 2 1 1 - 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 -
astronomy - - - 1 - - - 1 - - - 1
Technical drawing 1 1 - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - -
UTP and ESP 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 3 3 4th 4th
history 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3
Citizenship 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
To draw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
music 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
do gymnastics 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Mandatory weekly hours 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36
optional lessons - - - - - - - - - - - -

Timetable for the extended 12-class general polytechnic secondary school in 1971

School subject or grade level 11 12
German language and literature 3 3
Russian 3 3
2. Foreign language 2 3
mathematics 5 5
physics 3 3
chemistry 2 3
biology 2 3
geography 2 -
astronomy - 1
wpA 4th 4th
history 3 -
Citizenship 1 2
Art education or music 1 1
Sports 2 2
Mandatory weekly hours 33 33
optional lessons 3 3
Hours per week at most 36 36

Timetable for the expanded 12-class general polytechnic secondary school in 1982

When the Wall came down in autumn 1989, there were also changes to the curriculum. The regular school subject geography, which was originally supposed to be completed in the 11th grade, was continued in the 12th grade in order to be able to cover the knowledge requirements that had now arisen. The subject of civics has been replaced by philosophy. There was no grading.

School subject or grade level 11 12
1st half 2nd half 1st half 2nd half
German language and literature 3 3 4th 4th
Russian 5 3 3 5
2. Foreign language 3 2 3 4th
mathematics 5 5 5 5
physics 3 3 3 3
chemistry 2 2 3 3
biology 2 2 3 3
geography 2 2 - -
astronomy - - - -
wpA - 4th 4th -
history 3 3 - -
Citizenship 1 1 2 2
Art education or music 1 1 1 1
Sports 2 2 2 2
Mandatory weekly hours 32 33 33 32
optional lessons 3 3 3 3
Hours per week at most 35 36 36 35

Optional lessons at the extended high school

As in the Polytechnische Oberschule, there have been approaches for voluntary working groups in the form of courses at the Extended Oberschule since the late 1960s. With the conversion from the four-year EOS to the two-year EOS in 1981, the Ministry of Popular Education decided to immediately introduce the additional courses as optional lessons.

The curriculum was in the cybernetic regulation loop, so that essential changes to the curriculum had to be justified and planned through methodological research (e.g. TH Karl-Marx-Stadt) before they came into effect (sometimes school trials were carried out first to try them out) along with the Curriculum Commission conferences and the involvement of the Pedagogical Councils, typically took 3-5 years. Short-term redesigns of the curriculum were not possible in this way (and not provided for in the system-theoretical approach of the GDR school system). The optional lessons, however, were able to react more quickly because the framework programs issued by the Ministry of National Education could be provided or adapted more quickly. Therefore, in the 1980s, facultative teaching moved into the focus of the further development of the education system in order to emphasize various goals of educational policy, such as: B. Vocational guidance, study preparation, deepening the curriculum through special knowledge, systematic talent assessment, talent promotion and differentiation of inclinations.

As an example, the following courses were available in the Abitur level:

  • Complex numbers, probability calculations, practical mathematics, matrix calculations and their application in economics and electrical engineering, fundamentals of computer engineering and data processing, introduction to network technology, solid state physics, basic circuits and components of electronics, electron beam oscilloscope and its application, electrical measurement of non-electrical quantities, qualitative analysis, macromolecular Chemistry, chemical-physical investigations, ecology, structure and function of plant and animal cells and tissues
  • English, French, Polish (September 1, 1971), Czech (September 1, 1971), Spanish, Latin
  • Selected works of world literature of the 19th and 20th centuries, The Image of Lenin in Soviet and German Socialist Literature, Music, Art Education
  • Current problems of the struggle of the communist and workers' parties in the present, basic questions of military policy and the armed protection of the German Democratic Republic, basic questions of the political economy of socialism and its application in the German Democratic Republic

Computer science class

At the end of the 1970s, the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Higher and Technical Schools increasingly held consultations on how the emerging computer technology could be integrated into the education system. When the interim regulation for setting up the two-year EOS expired in 1980 and the revised curriculum came into force in 1982, the Ministry of Public Education tried to draw up concrete plans for the integration of new teaching areas. In 1985/86 the new subject "Computer Science" was decided with the classification as a polytechnic lesson, which should be closely connected with mathematics and computers. The problem that explains the defensive approach was the insufficient number of computers. Consultations with the State Planning Commission and the ministries of the national economic sectors showed that the attempt to introduce it across the board would have delayed computer science classes until 1992. The decision was made to assign priority to the extended high schools, while computer science in the polytechnical high schools was to be carried out as a sub-course in “Computing and Information Technology” in the subject “Introduction to socialist production”.

The concentration on the special schools and the regular extended secondary schools created the prerequisites for establishing computer science teaching throughout the GDR in 1990. The official timetable was therefore changed in 1988 with effect from September 1, 1989 (school year 1989/90):

School subject or class 11 12
1st half 2nd half 1st half 2nd half
compulsory lessons
German language and literature 3 3 4th 3
Russian 5 3 3 5
2. Foreign language 3 3 3 3
mathematics 5 5 5 5
physics 3 3 3 3
Computer science 2 2 - -
chemistry 2 2 3 3
biology 2 2 3 3
geography 1 1 1 1
astronomy - - - -
history 2 2 1 2
Citizenship 2 2 1 1
Sports 2 2 2 2
optional compulsory lessons
wpA - 3 3 -
Art education or music 1 1 1 1
Mandatory weekly hours 33 34 33 32
optional lessons 2 2 4th 4th
Hours per week at most 35 36 37 36

The reorganization of the lesson table in 1989, like the redesign in 1982, represented a further change in the EOS. The binding focus on mathematics and science lessons was continued, and the polytechnical focus was clearly reinforced with computer science lessons. The demands of many teachers to teach subjects such as B. Running geography continuously throughout the entire Abitur level instead of only in the 11th grade, as well as distributing the hourly workload more evenly over the six months, have been partially taken up by the Ministry of Popular Education and broke with a number of traditions. The optional lessons were concentrated on the 12th grade so that the fundamentals of the 11th grade could be used more effectively. The degree of difficulty of the scientific and practical work increased slightly because the amount of time was slightly reduced without lowering the requirements for the specialist work to be prepared. The ministry denied the frequently requested resumption of astronomy at EOS, referring to the polytechnic high school.

Abitur with vocational training

Under Alfred Lemmnitz, the GDR school was shaped by the technological guideline of combining general education and vocational training , so that a rapid improvement in vocational training was sought. The extended secondary school received a particularly high level of attention, because its predecessor institution, the secondary school, was a more classic higher education institution until its end in 1958 and contained the largest remainder of bourgeois educational traditions, so that the direct route to the Abitur represents the greatest deviation from the technological worldview of the GDR showed. At the same time as the polytechnic secondary school and the expanded secondary school were created in 1959, a new course of education was invented that has remained unique to this day: vocational training with the Abitur (BmA). Plans envisaged that in the mid-1960s, 20% and more of the young people of a given year should take up a BmA. Initially, there was talk of Abitur classes in vocational training .

In order to keep the EOS competitive with this course and also to implement the technological guidelines for the school system in the EOS, a similar concept was introduced at the EOS: the Abitur with vocational training . In parallel to the previous four-year Abitur after the 12th grade, the EOS students learned a profession with a full skilled worker qualification. Essential elements for the Abitur with vocational training were already introduced with the adjustment of the system of apprenticeships in December 1959, so, like the first BmA classes, came into effect on September 1, 1960. After experience was gained in the following years, the Abitur with vocational training was permanently confirmed in addition to vocational training with Abitur as the way to university entrance. Therefore, in 1963, the Ministry of National Education, in agreement with the State Planning Commission and after consulting the Economics Council , decided on a list of professions for EOS students. From September 1, 1963, the apprenticeship period was generally 4 years. For the list, the main criteria were:

  • Professions from the leading branches of the GDR economy (which was quite in the tradition of the old high school, because its graduates were given separate access to special job profiles for which the completion of elementary school and the secondary school leaving certificate of ten-grade school were not sufficient);
  • Occupations that were significant at the time and in the perspective of the national economy;
  • Professions that place high demands on learners;
  • Professions that offered favorable opportunities for long-term development;
  • Professions that were particularly relevant in relation to a mathematical-scientific-technical degree;
  • Professions in which a large number of students could even be trained in structural policy;
  • the authority for the offices for employment and career counseling to adapt the list of the Ministry of National Education to regional circumstances and to be able to expand or limit the economic focus accordingly.

The EOS students were able to take up the following jobs:

Chemical industry
Chemical skilled worker for inorganic chemistry, chemical skilled worker for organic chemistry, chemical fiber skilled worker, skilled worker for thermochemistry, chemical laboratory technician, rubber skilled worker, skilled worker for technical coal, plastic skilled worker, rubber and plastic material tester, photochemical skilled worker, skilled worker for film production
Steelworks skilled workers, ferro-alloy skilled workers, pipe winder, machine former, continuous caster, metallurgy laboratory assistant
Mechanical engineering and metal industry
Industrial blacksmith, lathe operator, boring mill skilled worker, milling cutter, gear cutting skilled worker, toolmaker, mold maker, metal model maker, locksmith, steel fitter, mechanical engineer, locomotive builder for diesel locomotives, locomotive builder for electric locomotives, steel shipbuilder, plant fitter, engine builder, watchmaker, industrialist, precision mechanic, office mechanic Metal, machine setters, skilled workers for automatic production systems, skilled workers for quality control, mechanical draftsmen, steel construction draftsmen
Electrical engineering
Ship electrician, electrician, electric fitter, motor vehicle electrician, telecommunications fitter, electrical machine builder, electrical signal fitter, transformer builder, electrical mechanic, telecommunications mechanic, radio mechanic, electrical laboratory assistant, electrical draftsman, measurement and control mechanic, technical computer
Farmer for field management, farmer for seeds, farmer for cattle farming, farmer for pig farming, farmer for poultry farming, gardener, tractor and agricultural machine fitter
Hauer in lignite mining, Hauer in potash and rock salt mining, mountain surveyor, surveyor, mining machinist for driving operations, mining machinist for briquetting, laboratory assistant for geology and mineralogy
Construction industry
Bricklayer, skilled concrete worker, construction machinist, plumber for gas-water, heating installer, binder specialist, structural draftsman, construction draftsman, civil engineering draftsman, material tester for building materials
Glass and ceramics industry
Refractory skilled workers, ceramic formers, ceramic laboratory technicians, skilled workers for automatic glass production, glass apparatus blowers, specialist glass workers, precision opticians
Other professions
Industrial and commercial merchant, fiberboard skilled worker, chipboard skilled worker, paper maker, skilled worker for the operations and transport service of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, postal operator, traffic construction draftsman, typesetter for hand typesetting, typesetter for machine typesetting, screen printer, cotton spinner, worsted spinner, weaver, cloth maker, cook, diet cook, fruit - and vegetable preservers, booksellers, waiters, nurses, nurses for babies and children, nannies, skilled workers for electronic data processing, skilled workers for statistics

The order of the Ministry of National Education also contains notes indicating which of the professions mentioned were not suitable for girls or, conversely, should preferably be filled with girls. Obviously, the requirement to link the high school diploma to vocational training was meant very seriously, because no compromises were made for the high school students with regard to the job descriptions or professional requirements and many heavy industry professions with correspondingly heavy physical activity were listed. There was also no special treatment of the A-branch or C-branch, so that a high school student with aspirations for the ancient languages ​​(classical Latin or ancient Greek) could end up in the steelworks if his wishes did not meet the needs of the management of posts at all.

With the replacement of Alfred Lemmnitz by Margot Honecker , the decided, comprehensive orientation of the EOS experienced a turning point, because instead of high vocational quotas and high school graduates with skilled worker certificates, EOS turned back to the course of emphasizing the university entrance qualification and the introduction to studies. The polytechnic core of the school was to be retained, but would be poured into university-oriented teaching forms. The subject of scientific and practical work (wpA) and a specification of the complete EOS curriculum with regard to the study were the results of this reorientation in the mid-1960s and can later be found in the new EOS of 1970/71. Immediately after the first EOS instruction of June 10, 1966, an ordinance of the StAfV and the StAfBA followed which, with reference to the law on the uniform socialist education system of 1965, de facto abolished the Abitur with vocational training. Pupils who started class 9 at EOS on September 1, 1966, took the course for the last time. For the following years, detailed transitional regulations were issued, which included a significant reduction in and streamlining of vocational training and ultimately resulted in the expiry of the Abitur with vocational training, because the second EOS instruction of September 13, 1968 split the four-year advanced secondary school into a two-year advanced secondary school with preparatory classes. The polytechnic high school thus gained the character of a ten-year, all-round high school education for all children , which was emphatically planned from the beginning of the educational reform , on which the classes 11 and 12 of the EOS would be based in the new form of 1970/71.

Abitur with a technical college degree

After the polytechnic secondary school and the expanded secondary school were strongly geared towards the technology-oriented guidelines of the democratic unified school such as polytechnics , the combination of general education and vocational training , the combination of school and life and the combination of teaching and productive work , the MfV also opened vocational training with the Abitur and the Abitur Vocational training - in cooperation with the MfHF - again a new educational path for high school graduates. From September 1, 1961, high school graduates could both become skilled workers and also begin studying to become technical college engineers. Special regulations have been made for the aspect of vocational training: If possible, separate classes should be formed for these ambitious high school students during the theoretical and practical instruction. As usual up to now, due to the desired university entrance qualification, the apprenticeship period in vocational training was shortened to include general education, so that professions with 2 or 2 ½ years of apprenticeship could be reduced to 1 ½ years and professions with 3 years of apprenticeship to 2 years.

The high school students began their correspondence or evening study in the first year of study with only a few subjects. In any case, however, the subject of social science and the subjects of the basic studies that are absolutely necessary for the subject had to be given. It was instructed that the higher education of the Abitur graduates was to be used for the study. Subject areas already dealt with at the extended secondary school had to be fully recognized, so that the subject German language and the general educational material of the mathematical and natural science subjects could be regarded as completed. In this way, the high school graduates were exempted from the respective lectures, with these decisions being left solely to the directors of the technical schools. The typical weekly study time of high school graduates for vocational training and technical school studies should not exceed 16 hours. 6 hours of which were reserved for doing homework, 10 hours were devoted to studying. In addition, the young people were given special consultation days, which had to be during the holiday period for the theoretical teaching of vocational training. The 11 days should expediently be as follows: 2 days during the Christmas holidays, 2 days during the Easter holidays, 1 day during the Pentecost holidays, 6 days during the summer holidays. The technical schools were obliged, in cooperation with the companies, to draw up special curricula for the period of vocational training. After completing their apprenticeship, the young people worked as skilled workers in the companies and were then able to continue and finish their studies at the technical school according to the regular schedule.

The following fields of study to become a technical college engineer (grad. Ing. (FS)) were particularly recommended:

  • Mining: mining technology, coal refining
  • Electrical engineering: electrical power systems, electrical systems and devices
  • Precision engineering: Precision mechanical-optical devices
  • Mechanical engineering: general mechanical engineering, technology of mechanical engineering, machine tool engineering, power and working machine engineering
  • Construction: building construction, industrial construction
  • Light industry: clothing technology, spinning, weaving, jerseys and stockings, textile cleaning, textile finishing, shoe manufacturing
  • Chemistry: plastics technology, rubber technology, engineering economics
  • Agriculture: Fields, livestock, horticulture, finance

The Abitur with vocational training and technical college distance or technical school evening studies disappeared again at the end of the 1960s.

The matriculation examination

The 2nd page of the certificate, 1976

Towards the end of the 12th grade, the high school students took the central school leaving examination in May and June.
Four papers were written for the written examination, namely:

  • German (5 hours),
  • Mathematics (5 hours),
  • Russian (1 ½ hours),
  • Natural science (physics or chemistry or biology, 5 hours).

The oral examination consisted of a minimum of two and a maximum of five exams, all of which were determined by the collective of subject teachers in terms of number and subject. It was preferred to quote students for the oral exam who were not sure about the preliminary censorship and therefore had to prove their previous achievements.

The sports test was also compulsory for everyone.

Pre-censorship and exam censorship each had a weight of 50% for the final censorship, so that due to the number of subjects to be examined and the demands on the candidates, the maturity examination was more important than today's Abitur. The subject of the specialist thesis to be defended in the scientific-practical work usually also appeared on the secondary school leaving certificate.

Students who passed their Abitur with distinction could be proposed for the Lessing Medal . For the Lessing medal in gold, the grade "very good" had to be achieved in all subjects of the diploma, for the Lessing medal in silver a “good” was allowed in two subjects.

Admission to the EOS

Admission criteria

The number of admission to the EOS was very limited, with an average of two to four pupils per elementary school or POS class making the transition to the EOS. A strict selection of performance took place from the beginning, although there was no numerus clausus as such. An average censorship rating of 1.7 served as a guide, which should not be exceeded if possible. Furthermore, there were quota regulations for girls and, especially in the 1960s, separate funding for working-class children. They should preferably be led to the Abitur and were therefore given an advantage over children of the “ intelligence ” , even with somewhat lower performance . However, the stipulation was that, due to these quota approvals, the performance principle could not be lost under any circumstances.

There were two ways to visit the extended secondary school: delegation via the POS and direct application to the desired EOS. Decisive for the delegation to an EOS were, in addition to the above-mentioned criteria, the political attitude and commitment in the pioneer organization and the FDJ , as well as participation in the youth consecration . In addition , preference was given to students with career aspirations such as officers or teachers , for whom applicants were urgently needed in the GDR. Similarly, a commitment to three years of military service instead of the regular eighteen months improved the chance of an EOS place, which in the phase of the increasing communist orientation of the education system under Margot Honecker since the beginning of the 1970s eased the performance selection for the EOS at least to some extent . The educational historian Heinz-Elmar Tenorth compares the EOS attended by only 14% of a year with today's grammar school in Germany, which is currently attended by thirty to forty percent of a year, and calls it a separate educational path “for the privileged”.

Educational discrimination as an instrument of repression

The non-admission to the EOS (or relegation from the EOS) was an important part of the regime’s instrument of repression against opposition members, members of the church or “unreliable” citizens.

The legal basis for this educational discrimination was the EOS admission regulations.

"For the advanced secondary school and for vocational training with a high school diploma, students are to be selected who are characterized by good performance in teaching, high performance and willingness, as well as political, moral and character maturity and their ties to the German Democratic Republic through their attitude and social activity have proven "

- Section 2 (2) of the order on admission to the extended general polytechnic secondary school ... of December 5, 1981 (admission regulations)

Reasons that were not explicitly mentioned in the rejection of the application for admission were, in the opinion of some members of the Bundestag:

  • Those affected were not members of the FDJ or other mass organizations
  • those affected took part in church events such as religious instruction or the young community or in confirmation
  • those affected came from families with a strong bourgeois tradition, such as doctors, pastors, craftsmen
  • the families of those affected had close relatives in western countries, especially in the Federal Republic of Germany
  • those affected refused the youth consecration
  • the victims were at the school in disputes and discussions with directors, civics teachers involved, pioneering leaders and other educational staff

In view of the performance principle, the admissions committee, which had to decide according to the principle of the unity of good professional performance and good social attitude, had a certain leeway to weigh professional performance against alleged deficits with regard to social attitudes. In this case, particularly outstanding school performance could result in an EOS place.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall , those affected could claim damages in accordance with Section 3 (“Persecuted Students”) of the Occupational Rehabilitation Act (BerRehaG). However, no compensation was given to students whose parents had not submitted an application for admission to the EOS based on their own assessment of the prospects of success (“anticipated application rejection”). The “damage caused by promotion” was also not compensable.

Special forms

In addition to the general education EOS, which had a fixed catchment area, there were EOS with special training (in a general direction or with special classes), so-called special schools for

some of whom had other entry grades. There was special support in sport at the children's and youth sport schools .

In Halle (Saale) there was also the special ABF II as a facility of the Martin Luther University . The Institute for Preparation for Study Abroad (IVA) existed from 1954 to 1991 for delegated students from all over the GDR. You were linguistically, technically, ideologically and regionally prepared for university studies in socialist countries (especially in the Soviet Union) in one or two-year courses.

A special feature presented the special classes that the universities and colleges in Berlin , Halle , Rostock , Magdeburg , Merseburg and Marx Stadt Karl were attached,. Here gifted students were similar in the USA already during high school education in higher education and Research involved. These special classes were not subordinate to the Ministry of Public Education, but to the Ministry of Higher and Technical Education.

As an alternative to the two-year Abitur training at EOS, there was the three-year vocational training path with Abitur . This training was characterized by the fact that it not only led to the Abitur, but at the same time completed a full skilled worker training. This educational path was particularly advantageous for practical preparation for technical courses.

In addition, there was the possibility of attaining the final examination at the adult education centers in evening courses, which, however, under certain circumstances only represented a restricted university entrance qualification. At some schools, for example, biology was an optional subject that had to be taken for a subsequent medical degree.


  1. Ministry for Popular Education of the German Democratic Republic: Orders and notifications of the Ministry for Popular Education of the German Democratic Republic 1946–1990
  2. Ministry for People's Education and State Secretariat for Vocational Education and Training: Orders and notifications from the Ministry for People's Education and the State Secretariat for Vocational Education and Training of the German Democratic Republic 1959–1990
  3. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic / Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: Curriculum of the 10-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1959
  4. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic / Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: curriculum of the extended 12-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1961
  5. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic / Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: Curriculum of the 10-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1964/1971
  6. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic / Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: curriculum of the expanded 12-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1971
  7. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic / Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: Curriculum of the 10-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1982/1990
  8. Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic & Ministry for National Education of the German Democratic Republic: curriculum of the expanded 12-class general polytechnic secondary school of the German Democratic Republic 1980/1982/1990

Web links

Commons : Education in German Democratic Republic  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ "Regional school development in Berlin and Brandenburg 1920-1995" (dissertation), p. 223
  2. Order on admission to the extended general polytechnic high school and in special classes at institutions of popular education as well as on the confirmation of students for the application for an apprenticeship in vocational training with Abitur - admission regulations -
  3. a b VuMMfV Lfd. No. 28/59 instruction on the lesson tables of the general education schools of the German Democratic Republic of May 4, 1959
  4. VuMMfV Lfd. No. 17/63 List of apprenticeships for the students of the extended secondary school from March 1, 1963
  5. VuMMfV Lfd. No. 47/66 Guideline for the vocational training of the pupils of the extended high school of the admission years 1963 to 1966 from June 30, 1966, expired on August 31, 1970
  6. VuMMfV Lfd. No. 41/61 Guideline for the educational path of high school graduates who, in addition to vocational training, take up long-distance or evening studies from 4 August 1961
  7. Martin Spiewak: Comics instead of Goethe , interview with Elmar Tenorth. In: Die Zeit vom June 18, 2010, online access on March 24, 2014
  8. ^ Babett Bauer: Control and Repression: Individual Experiences in the GDR, 1971-1989 ..., 2006, ISBN 3525369077 , page 112
  9. An example: Sonja Ackermann: Christian women in the GDR: Everyday documents of a dictatorship in interviews, 2005, ISBN 3374023258 , page 175
  10. Small question from the MPs Dr. Willfried Penner, Stephan Hilsberg, Doris Odendahl, Angelika Barbe, Hans Gottfried Bernrath, Dr. Peter Eckardt, Dr. Konrad Eimer, Evelin Fischer (Graefenhainichen), Hans-Joachim Hacker, Christel Hanewinckel, Volkmar Kretkowski, Eckart Kuhlwein, Dr. Uwe Küster, Christian Müller (Zittau), Günter Rixe, Siegfried Vergin, Gert Weisskirchen (Wiesloch), Hildegard Wester, Inge Wettig-Danielmeier, Rolf Schwanitz, Erika Simm, Wolfgang Thierse, Dr. Peter Struck, Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel and the SPD parliamentary group - printed matter 121970
  11. GDR myth and reality, in the GDR everyone was allowed to study online
  12. Answer of the Federal Government of September 3, 1991 ( BT-Drs. 12/1101 , PDF; 547 kB) to the small inquiry of the SPD of July 18, 1991 ( BT-Drs. 12/970 , PDF; 230 kB)
  13. § 3 Law on Compensating Professional Disadvantages for Victims of Political Persecution in the Accession Area (Professional Rehabilitation Act - BerRehaG) Online
  14. ^ Heinrich Best and Michael Hofmann: On the social situation of the victims of the SED regime in Thuringia, pages 32–33 online (PDF; 888 kB)