Children's and youth sports school
The children's and youth sports schools ( KJS ) in the GDR were special schools for talented children and young people. Most of the participants in the Olympic Games and other international competitions, such as B. World and European Championships . Anyone wishing to be admitted to a KJS had to pass a screening and aptitude test (called uniform screening and selection ).
Shortly after the founding of the GDR, the political leadership recognized the interactions between competitive sport and the sport of children and young people and viewed it as the basis of competitive sport. The experiences that Soviet sport had made with its KJS introduced in the 1930s formed the basis for the introduction of the KJS in the GDR. The first KJS in the GDR were created in the 1952/1953 school year by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation with the DTSB . They were based in Berlin , Brandenburg an der Havel , Halberstadt and Leipzig , but differed in their structures from the Soviet models. The theoretical basis was laid by Günter Thieß , who was skeptical of Ivan Pavlov's theories because he had neglected the role of talent . When entering sports school, there should also be innate talent.
With the school year 1953/1954 eight more schools followed. By the end of 1959 the number had grown to 23. Initially, the KJS were designed as schools with extended physical education , which was carried out both in the subject of physical education (a total of three to four hours per week) and as two-hour weekly training . The focus was on the types of gymnastics and gymnastics , athletics , swimming and diving as well as the sports games. It was only possible to record
- who brought the required athletic performance and
- whose academic achievements led to the expectation of passing the Abitur .
Locations of the KJS 1963
Overview of the KJS at that time (as of 1962)
|Seat of the KJS||district||Sports focus (as of 1963)||cooperating sports club||annotation|
|Anklam||Neubrandenburg||Athletics, canoeing||SC Neubrandenburg||Founded in 1954.
1965 Relocation to Neubrandenburg
|Rostock||Rostock||Athletics, swimming, water polo, diving, ice hockey, gymnastics||SC Empor Rostock||Founded in 1953|
|Guestrow||Schwerin||Athletics, boxing, volleyball, gymnastics||SC Tractor Schwerin||Founded in 1954.
1973 moved to Schwerin
|Brandenburg (Havel)||Potsdam||Athletics, swimming, rowing, gymnastics||
ASK Forward Potsdam
|Founded in 1952
1973 moved to Potsdam
|Magdeburg||Magdeburg||Athletics, swimming, water polo, diving, gymnastics||SC Magdeburg||Founded in 1953|
|Frankfurt (Oder)||Frankfurt / Oder||Athletics, modern pentathlon, gymnastics||SC Frankfurt / Oder||Founded in 1954|
|Berlin||Berlin||Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, water polo, gymnastics, cycling, basketball||TSC and SC Dynamo Berlin||1952 founded
later KJS Heinrich Rau
|Figure skating, speed skating, ice hockey||KJS Werner Seelenbinder|
|Rowing, canoeing||TSC Berlin||Special classes at a secondary school in Köpenick|
|Luckenwalde||Potsdam||Wrestling, swimming||SC Dynamo Berlin||Founded in 1953|
|Halberstadt||Magdeburg||Swimming, athletics||SC Magdeburg||Founded in 1952|
BSG activist Nordhausen
BSG locomotive Nordhausen
SC Turbine Erfurt
|Founded in 1954,
affiliated to the KJS Erfurt in 1967
|Hettstedt||Hall||Founded in 1954,
dissolved in 1963
|Leipzig||Leipzig||Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, water polo, gymnastics, modern pentathlon, volleyball||SC Leipzig and SC DHfK||Founded in 1952|
|Forest||cottbus||Athletics, gymnastics||SC Cottbus||Founded in 1954.
1963 Merger with KJS Cottbus
|Hall||Hall||Athletics, swimming, soccer, basketball, gymnastics||SC Chemistry Hall||Founded in 1955|
|Bad Blankenburg||Gera||Athletics, hockey, gymnastics||
SG Dynamo Bad Blankenburg
SC Motor Jena
|Founded in 1955
1979 move to Jena
|Erfurt||Erfurt||Athletics, swimming, ice hockey||SC Turbine Erfurt|
|Zella Mehlis||Suhl||Skiing, wrestling||SC Motor Zella-Mehlis|
|Meiningen||Suhl||Disbanded in 1963|
|Klingenthal||Karl Marx City||Skiing||SC Dynamo Klingenthal||Founded in 1955|
|Karl Marx City||Karl Marx City||Athletics, swimming, soccer, diving, figure skating, gymnastics||SC Karl-Marx-Stadt||Founded in 1953|
|Dresden||Dresden||Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, figure skating, gymnastics||SC unit Dresden||Founded in 1954|
With a resolution of June 6, 1963 by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the SED on the development of the KJS, the goal and structure of the KJS were redefined, because previous experience has shown that both the pupils do not improve as desired and the teachers sometimes do not Desired skills and abilities developed in order to lead the athletes to peak performance.
The newly defined task of optimally coordinating teaching and training and the stipulation that the sports clubs would be responsible for the training content in the future led to the local amalgamation of the KJS and sports clubs. Most of the time, the KJS worked with one or more sports clubs or were even affiliated with them.
The medical care of the students, their sport-appropriate catering and the accommodation in boarding schools were also concerns of the decision. Since the early 1970s, over 50% of the pupils have lived in KJS's own boarding schools . A doctor and a nurse were assigned to each school. A sports medical examination took place once a year for every young athlete.
In particular, the summer sports of boxing , fencing , football , gymnastics , handball , judo , canoe racing , athletics , cycling , rhythmic gymnastics , wrestling , rowing , swimming , sailing , volleyball and diving were promoted. As the importance of winter sports grew, biathlon , bobsleigh , figure skating , speed skating , Nordic combined , tobogganing , cross-country skiing and ski jumping were increasingly supported. As in all GDR sport , the promotion of the sports was mainly based on the Olympic sports . For example, field handball , whitewater canoe and modern pentathlon fell out of the promotion of young talent despite considerable international success.
In 1989 there were 25 children's and youth sports schools (sorted by number of students in 1989: in Berlin (4), Leipzig (2), Dresden , Halle , Rostock , Karl-Marx-Stadt (2), Potsdam , Erfurt , Frankfurt (Oder) , Magdeburg , Jena , Schwerin , Oberhof , Cottbus , Neubrandenburg , Oberwiesenthal , Klingenthal , Luckenwalde , Altenberg and Zella-Mehlis ) with over 10,000 students. Around 1460 teachers taught these at the schools, and over 430 educators organized the leisure and educational activities in the boarding schools. Almost all participants in the GDR Olympic teams from 1988 in winter and summer sports completed their school career in a KJS.
Overview of the KJS (as of 1989)
Everything else about the KJS was subordinate to the top athletic performance:
- The physical education was from the 1970s painted in these schools usually favor of training in the sport.
- From the 1970s onwards, the KJS classes were mostly composed of a specific sport. Thus, the schedule could be coordinated with the athletes' training schedule. Training twice a day was the rule from Monday to Friday, and in some cases a third training unit (as exercise or relaxation) could be implemented. On Saturdays, there was usually another training session, as Saturday remained a day of classes until the end of the GDR.
- In the upper classes there was often a "stretching" of lessons, e.g. B. could take the Abitur in three years instead of the usual two years in the GDR.
- School time extensions were also possible in grades 8 to 10 for students in certain sports (figure skating, apparatus gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, swimming and diving).
- "National squad" (members of the national team ) could receive one-to-one tuition if the scope of the training made it impossible to achieve the teaching goals in other forms of teaching.
Membership in the FDJ was compulsory for the pupils . In the event of political misconduct, educational measures were taken until the funding was discontinued, even despite good performance. Even children who lived in close proximity were pushed to live in boarding school so that they could be fully controlled. When moving in, a confidentiality obligation had to be signed, which also applied to the parents. There was a strong institutionalized cooperation and information between the trainers, teachers and other employees of the KJS. With the delegation to a KJS, systematic monitoring by the MfS began, which also used IM among the young people.
Standard admission age
The class level of admission for the students was staggered for the individual sports and was based on the maximum performance age and the necessary training structure in the respective sport.
|Grade 1:||figure skating|
|Grade 3:||do gymnastics|
|Grade 5:||Swimming female|
|Grade 6:||Swimming male|
|Grades 7 and 8:||Athletics, Nordic skiing (cross-country skiing, ski jumping and Nordic combined)|
|Grade 8:||all other sports|
Previous training was only possible as part of a trial training in a sport carried out by an association. This was used to evaluate whether an earlier school enrollment resulted in a significant increase in performance in the maximum working age. In 1980, for example, four female rowers were enrolled in a 7th grade at the KJS in Potsdam. For athletes whose talent only developed after the standard admission age, admission to the KJS was possible at any time, even in a higher class level. The number of admissions, however, remained well below that of the regular admissions.
Development after the fall of the Wall
After the political change, the former KJS were restructured and continued into comprehensive schools or grammar schools with a sports focus. Many schools experienced a slump both in terms of content and personnel. Sometimes there was only one sport class in a grade, which under certain circumstances had to be filled with "normal" students, as the necessary minimum class sizes were no longer achieved.
Many of the special schools are now again in a position to run several classes per grade as sports performance classes. In some cases, a separation according to sport was reintroduced. 21 former KJS have established themselves as one of the “ elite schools of sport ” in the sports and school landscape in the Federal Republic of Germany and with their school teams occupy top places in the national finals in the “ Youth trains for the Olympics ” competitions .
- René Wiese: management forging of the "sports wonderland". The children's and youth sports schools in the GDR 1950–1990. Hildesheim 2012, ISBN 978-3-942468-04-6 . Review on Deutschlandfunk, Erik Eggers, September 1, 2012
- Kai Reinhart: "We just wanted to do our thing": GDR athletes between external control and self-determination. , Campus, Frankfurt / New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39186-1 (esp. P. 51–86 Physical culture and sport in the GDR google-online )
- Brigitte Berendonk : Doping documents. From research to fraud , Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 978-3-642-93484-1 (esp. Pp. 28ff. Chap. 4 A quarter of a century of unrestrained doping in the GDR and p. 36ff. Chap. 5 Attempts at Truth in times of change google books )
Links to sports high schools / sports schools that emerged from the KJS
- "Glückauf" -Gymnasium Altenberg : Website (formerly KJS Richard Sorge )
- School and competitive sports center Berlin : Website (from KJS Werner Seelenbinder , KJS Heinrich Rau and KJS Ernst Grube )
- Flatow-Oberschule Berlin-Köpenick: Website (formerly KJS Paul Gesche )
- Sportgymnasium Chemnitz : Website (from KJS Emil Wallner and KJS Ernst Thälmann )
- Lausitzer Sportschule Cottbus : Website
- Sportgymnasium Dresden : Website (formerly KJS Artur Becker )
- Pierre-de-Coubertin-Gymnasium Erfurt: website
- Sportschule Frankfurt (Oder) : Website
- Sports high school Halle (Saale) and sports secondary school Halle: websites
- Sports high school "Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths" Jena: Website
- Sportgymnasium Klingenthal: Website
- Saxon State High School for Sport Leipzig : Website (from KJS Ernst Thälmann and KJS Rudolf Friedrichs )
- Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Oberschule “Oberschule with emphasis on sports” Luckenwalde: Website
- Sportgymnasium Magdeburg : Website
- Sportgymnasium Neubrandenburg : Website (formerly KJS Wilhelm Pieck , first in Anklam )
- Sportgymnasium Oberhof: website
- Landkreisgymnasium St. Annen, Oberwiesenthal branch: Website
- Sports school Potsdam "Friedrich Ludwig Jahn" : Website
- CJD Jugenddorf-Christophorusschule Rostock : Website (formerly KJS Rostock-Hansaviertel)
- Sportgymnasium Schwerin : Website (formerly KJS Schwerin)
- Nils Hoffmann: The expansion of the children's and youth sports schools (KJS) in the GDR with a special focus on the conflict over a “more humane high-performance sports for children” between the Ministry of National Education and the DTSB (PDF, 1.3 MB; University of Mainz)
- Overview of the development of the children's and youth sports schools by Horst Röder, until 1989 Vice President of the DTSB of the GDR
- Arnd Krüger , Paul Kunath: The Development of Sports Science in the Soviet Zone and the GDR. In: Wolfgang Buss , Christian Becker u. a. (Ed.): Sport in the Soviet Zone and the early GDR. Genesis - structures - conditions. Hofmann, Schorndorf 2001, pp. 351-366.
- Spiegel 1991: Big Bang. January 21, 1991. Retrieved January 4, 2018 .
- Kai Reinhart, DDR-Sportler (2010), p. 71f. with reference to Renate Spassov-Neufeld and the KJS Ernst Grube.
- Kai Reinhart, DDR-Sportler (2010), p. 77
- Wolfgang Helfritsch: The children's and youth sports schools - schools without school sports. In: Jochen Hinsching, Albrecht Hummel (ed.): School sport and school sport research in East Germany 1945–1990. Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 1997, ISBN 3-89124-419-3 .
- Berliner Tagesspiegel March 20, 2000
- Silke Hasselmann: Many victims still suffer today. Deutschlandfunk, September 23, 2016, accessed on January 5, 2018 .