Children's and youth sports school

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The children's and youth sports schools ( KJS ) in the GDR were special schools for talented children and young people. Most of the participants in the Olympic Games and other international competitions, such as B. World and European Championships . Anyone wishing to be admitted to a KJS had to pass a screening and aptitude test (called uniform screening and selection ).


Shortly after the founding of the GDR, the political leadership recognized the interactions between competitive sport and the sport of children and young people and viewed it as the basis of competitive sport. The experiences that Soviet sport had made with its KJS introduced in the 1930s formed the basis for the introduction of the KJS in the GDR. The first KJS in the GDR were created in the 1952/1953 school year by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation with the DTSB . They were based in Berlin , Brandenburg an der Havel , Halberstadt and Leipzig , but differed in their structures from the Soviet models. The theoretical basis was laid by Günter Thieß , who was skeptical of Ivan Pavlov's theories because he had neglected the role of talent . When entering sports school, there should also be innate talent.

With the school year 1953/1954 eight more schools followed. By the end of 1959 the number had grown to 23. Initially, the KJS were designed as schools with extended physical education , which was carried out both in the subject of physical education (a total of three to four hours per week) and as two-hour weekly training . The focus was on the types of gymnastics and gymnastics , athletics , swimming and diving as well as the sports games. It was only possible to record

  • who brought the required athletic performance and
  • whose academic achievements led to the expectation of passing the Abitur .
Locations of the KJS 1963

Overview of the KJS at that time (as of 1962)

Seat of the KJS district Sports focus (as of 1963) cooperating sports club annotation
Anklam Neubrandenburg Athletics, canoeing SC Neubrandenburg Founded in 1954.
1965 Relocation to Neubrandenburg
Rostock Rostock Athletics, swimming, water polo, diving, ice hockey, gymnastics SC Empor Rostock Founded in 1953
Guestrow Schwerin Athletics, boxing, volleyball, gymnastics SC Tractor Schwerin Founded in 1954.
1973 moved to Schwerin
Brandenburg (Havel) Potsdam Athletics, swimming, rowing, gymnastics SC Potsdam
ASK Forward Potsdam
Founded in 1952
1973 moved to Potsdam
Magdeburg Magdeburg Athletics, swimming, water polo, diving, gymnastics SC Magdeburg Founded in 1953
Frankfurt (Oder) Frankfurt / Oder Athletics, modern pentathlon, gymnastics SC Frankfurt / Oder Founded in 1954
Berlin Berlin Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, water polo, gymnastics, cycling, basketball TSC and SC Dynamo Berlin 1952 founded
later KJS Heinrich Rau
Figure skating, speed skating, ice hockey KJS Werner Seelenbinder
Rowing, canoeing TSC Berlin Special classes at a secondary school in Köpenick
Luckenwalde Potsdam Wrestling, swimming SC Dynamo Berlin Founded in 1953
Halberstadt Magdeburg Swimming, athletics SC Magdeburg Founded in 1952
Nordhausen Erfurt Swimming, athletics BSG activist Nordhausen
BSG locomotive Nordhausen
SC Turbine Erfurt
Founded in 1954,
affiliated to the KJS Erfurt in 1967
Hettstedt Hall Founded in 1954,
dissolved in 1963
Leipzig Leipzig Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, water polo, gymnastics, modern pentathlon, volleyball SC Leipzig and SC DHfK Founded in 1952
Forest cottbus Athletics, gymnastics SC Cottbus Founded in 1954.
1963 Merger with KJS Cottbus
cottbus cottbus SC Cottbus
Hall Hall Athletics, swimming, soccer, basketball, gymnastics SC Chemistry Hall Founded in 1955
Bad Blankenburg Gera Athletics, hockey, gymnastics SG Dynamo Bad Blankenburg
SC Motor Jena
Founded in 1955
1979 move to Jena
Erfurt Erfurt Athletics, swimming, ice hockey SC Turbine Erfurt
Zella Mehlis Suhl Skiing, wrestling SC Motor Zella-Mehlis
Meiningen Suhl Disbanded in 1963
Klingenthal Karl Marx City Skiing SC Dynamo Klingenthal Founded in 1955
Karl Marx City Karl Marx City Athletics, swimming, soccer, diving, figure skating, gymnastics SC Karl-Marx-Stadt Founded in 1953
Dresden Dresden Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, figure skating, gymnastics SC unit Dresden Founded in 1954


With a resolution of June 6, 1963 by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the SED on the development of the KJS, the goal and structure of the KJS were redefined, because previous experience has shown that both the pupils do not improve as desired and the teachers sometimes do not Desired skills and abilities developed in order to lead the athletes to peak performance.

The newly defined task of optimally coordinating teaching and training and the stipulation that the sports clubs would be responsible for the training content in the future led to the local amalgamation of the KJS and sports clubs. Most of the time, the KJS worked with one or more sports clubs or were even affiliated with them.

The medical care of the students, their sport-appropriate catering and the accommodation in boarding schools were also concerns of the decision. Since the early 1970s, over 50% of the pupils have lived in KJS's own boarding schools . A doctor and a nurse were assigned to each school. A sports medical examination took place once a year for every young athlete.

In particular, the summer sports of boxing , fencing , football , gymnastics , handball , judo , canoe racing , athletics , cycling , rhythmic gymnastics , wrestling , rowing , swimming , sailing , volleyball and diving were promoted. As the importance of winter sports grew, biathlon , bobsleigh , figure skating , speed skating , Nordic combined , tobogganing , cross-country skiing and ski jumping were increasingly supported. As in all GDR sport , the promotion of the sports was mainly based on the Olympic sports . For example, field handball , whitewater canoe and modern pentathlon fell out of the promotion of young talent despite considerable international success.

In 1989 there were 25 children's and youth sports schools (sorted by number of students in 1989: in Berlin (4), Leipzig (2), Dresden , Halle , Rostock , Karl-Marx-Stadt (2), Potsdam , Erfurt , Frankfurt (Oder) , Magdeburg , Jena , Schwerin , Oberhof , Cottbus , Neubrandenburg , Oberwiesenthal , Klingenthal , Luckenwalde , Altenberg and Zella-Mehlis ) with over 10,000 students. Around 1460 teachers taught these at the schools, and over 430 educators organized the leisure and educational activities in the boarding schools. Almost all participants in the GDR Olympic teams from 1988 in winter and summer sports completed their school career in a KJS.

Overview of the KJS (as of 1989)

Seat of the KJS Honorary name district Sports focus cooperating sports club annotation
Neubrandenburg Wilhelm Pieck Neubrandenburg Canoe racing, athletics SC Neubrandenburg Relocated from Anklam in 1965
Rostock Rostock SC Empor Rostock
Schwerin Hermann Matern Schwerin SC Tractor Schwerin Relocated from Güstrow in 1973
Potsdam Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Potsdam ASK forward Potsdam Relocated from Brandenburg in 1973
Magdeburg Gerhard Steinig Magdeburg SC Magdeburg
Frankfurt (Oder) Fritz Lesch Frankfurt (Oder) ASK forward Frankfurt / Oder
Berlin Ernst pit Berlin TSC Berlin
Paul Gesche water sports
Heinrich Rau SC Dynamo Berlin
Werner Seelenbinder Winter sports
Luckenwalde Max Christiansen-Clausen Potsdam SG Dynamo Luckenwalde
Leipzig Ernst Thalmann Leipzig
Rudolf Friedrichs Opened in 1985
cottbus Vladimir Komarov cottbus Gymnastics, cycling, athletics SC Cottbus Merged with KJS Forst in 1963
Halle (Saale) Friedrich Engels Hall SC Chemistry Hall
Jena Werner John Gera SC Motor Jena
SG Wismut Gera
FC Carl Zeiss Jena
Relocated from Bad Blankenburg in 1979
Erfurt Fritz Noack Erfurt Athletics, swimming, speed skating, soccer SC Turbine Erfurt
Zella Mehlis Paul Harras Suhl Cross-country skiing, ski jumping SC Motor Zella-Mehlis
Oberhof Karl Marx Suhl Cross-country skiing, ski jumping, biathlon, bobsleigh ASK forward Oberhof Opened in 1979
Klingenthal Feliks Dzierzynski Karl Marx City Cross-country skiing, ski jumping SC Dynamo Klingenthal
Oberwiesenthal Sigmund Jähn Karl Marx City Cross-country skiing, ski jumping, luge SC tractor Oberwiesenthal Opened in 1965
Karl Marx City Emil Wallner Karl Marx City Athletics, weightlifting, soccer, swimming, gymnastics, cycling SC Karl-Marx-Stadt
Ernst Thalmann Figure skating, speed skating
Dresden Artur Becker Dresden SC unit Dresden
SG Dynamo Dresden
see children's and youth sports school "Artur Becker"
Altenberg Richard Sorge Dresden Biathlon, Bob SG Dynamo Zinnwald Opened in 1977


Everything else about the KJS was subordinate to the top athletic performance:

  • The physical education was from the 1970s painted in these schools usually favor of training in the sport.
  • From the 1970s onwards, the KJS classes were mostly composed of a specific sport. Thus, the schedule could be coordinated with the athletes' training schedule. Training twice a day was the rule from Monday to Friday, and in some cases a third training unit (as exercise or relaxation) could be implemented. On Saturdays, there was usually another training session, as Saturday remained a day of classes until the end of the GDR.
  • In the upper classes there was often a "stretching" of lessons, e.g. B. could take the Abitur in three years instead of the usual two years in the GDR.
  • School time extensions were also possible in grades 8 to 10 for students in certain sports (figure skating, apparatus gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, swimming and diving).
  • "National squad" (members of the national team ) could receive one-to-one tuition if the scope of the training made it impossible to achieve the teaching goals in other forms of teaching.

Membership in the FDJ was compulsory for the pupils . In the event of political misconduct, educational measures were taken until the funding was discontinued, even despite good performance. Even children who lived in close proximity were pushed to live in boarding school so that they could be fully controlled. When moving in, a confidentiality obligation had to be signed, which also applied to the parents. There was a strong institutionalized cooperation and information between the trainers, teachers and other employees of the KJS. With the delegation to a KJS, systematic monitoring by the MfS began, which also used IM among the young people.

Standard admission age

The class level of admission for the students was staggered for the individual sports and was based on the maximum performance age and the necessary training structure in the respective sport.

Grade 1: figure skating
Grade 3: do gymnastics
Grade 4: Diving
Grade 5: Swimming female
Grade 6: Swimming male
Grades 7 and 8:  Athletics, Nordic skiing (cross-country skiing, ski jumping and Nordic combined)
Grade 8: all other sports

Previous training was only possible as part of a trial training in a sport carried out by an association. This was used to evaluate whether an earlier school enrollment resulted in a significant increase in performance in the maximum working age. In 1980, for example, four female rowers were enrolled in a 7th grade at the KJS in Potsdam. For athletes whose talent only developed after the standard admission age, admission to the KJS was possible at any time, even in a higher class level. The number of admissions, however, remained well below that of the regular admissions.

Development after the fall of the Wall

After the political change, the former KJS were restructured and continued into comprehensive schools or grammar schools with a sports focus. Many schools experienced a slump both in terms of content and personnel. Sometimes there was only one sport class in a grade, which under certain circumstances had to be filled with "normal" students, as the necessary minimum class sizes were no longer achieved.

Many of the special schools are now again in a position to run several classes per grade as sports performance classes. In some cases, a separation according to sport was reintroduced. 21 former KJS have established themselves as one of the “ elite schools of sport ” in the sports and school landscape in the Federal Republic of Germany and with their school teams occupy top places in the national finals in the “ Youth trains for the Olympics ” competitions .

See also


Web links

Links to sports high schools / sports schools that emerged from the KJS

Sports high school Chemnitz

additional information

Individual evidence

  1. Arnd Krüger , Paul Kunath: The Development of Sports Science in the Soviet Zone and the GDR. In: Wolfgang Buss , Christian Becker u. a. (Ed.): Sport in the Soviet Zone and the early GDR. Genesis - structures - conditions. Hofmann, Schorndorf 2001, pp. 351-366.
  2. Spiegel 1991: Big Bang. January 21, 1991. Retrieved January 4, 2018 .
  3. ^ Kai Reinhart, DDR-Sportler (2010), p. 71f. with reference to Renate Spassov-Neufeld and the KJS Ernst Grube.
  4. Kai Reinhart, DDR-Sportler (2010), p. 77
  5. Wolfgang Helfritsch: The children's and youth sports schools - schools without school sports. In: Jochen Hinsching, Albrecht Hummel (ed.): School sport and school sport research in East Germany 1945–1990. Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 1997, ISBN 3-89124-419-3 .
  6. Berliner Tagesspiegel March 20, 2000
  7. Silke Hasselmann: Many victims still suffer today. Deutschlandfunk, September 23, 2016, accessed on January 5, 2018 .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on August 27, 2005 .